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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Hebrews 12

 

 

Other Authors
Verse 1

Wherefore. Greek. toigaroun, a very emph. word of inference; Occurs only here and 1 Thessalonians 4:8. Resume from Hebrews 10:39.

seeing. &c. = we also having so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us.

compassed about = surrounding. Greek. perikeimai. See Acts 28:20.

cloud = throng. Greek. nephos. Only here. The usual word for "cloud" is nephele.

witnesses. Greek. martus. See John 1:7. Whose lives witness to the power of faith. Not "spectators", for then the word would be autoptes (Luke 1:2) or epoptes (2 Peter 1:16).

let us lay aside = laying aside. See Romans 18:12.

weight. Greek. onkos. Only here.

sin. App-128.

doth so easily beset. Greek. enperistatos. Only here.

with = through. Greek. dia. App-104. Hebrews 12:1.

patience = patient continuance. See Romans 2:7.

race. Greek. agon. See Philippians 1:1, Philippians 1:30. Always translated fight, conflict, &c, except here. The word means the place of assembly, and then the games witnessed, and then any contest, a lawsuit, &c.

set before. Greek. prokeimai. Compare Hebrews 6:18.


Verse 2

Looking = Looking away from (these witnesses). Greek. aphorao. App-133. Compare Philippians 1:2, Philippians 1:23.

Jesus. App-98.

Author. See Hebrews 2:10 and Acts 3:15.

Finisher = Perfecter. Greek. teleiotes. Only here. Compare App-125Hebrews 1:2.

faith. Greek. pistis. App-150. He stands at the head of the train of faith"s heroes, and alone brought faith to perfection. Omit our.

endured = patiently endured. See Hebrews 10:32.

the = a.

the shame = shame.

is set. All the texts read, "hath sat".

at = on. Greek. en. App-104.

God. App-98. The charge is to look away from the witnesses of the past to Him Who is the faithful and true Witness (Revelation 3:14).


Verse 3

consider. Greek. analogizomai. Only here.

That = That hath.

contradiction. Greek. antilogia. See Hebrews 6:16. Compare Luke 2:34, where the verb antilego occurs.

of = by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

lest = in order that (Greek. hina) not (Greek. me).

be wearied. Greek. kamno. Only here, James 5:15. Revelation 2:3.

and faint = fainting. Greek. ekluo. See Galatians 1:6, Galatians 1:9.

minds = souls. App-110.


Verse 4

not yet. Greek. oupo.

resisted. Greek. antikathistemi. Only here.

unto. Greek. mechris. Compare Philippians 1:2, Philippians 1:8.

striving. Greek. antagonizomai. Only here.

sin. App-128. The Lord"s example is set before them. Hitherto they had to endure spoliation and shameful treatment, but not martyrdom. This is in favour of the early date of the Epistle (App-180). The words "not yet" suggest a time before the persecution under Nero, which began A.D. 65 and lasted till his death A.D. 68.


Verse 5

forgotten. Greek. eklanthanomai. Only here.

exhortation. Greek. paraklesis. See Romans 12:8 and App-134.

speaketh. Greek. dialegomai. See Acts 17:2.

unto = to.

children, son. Greek. huios. App-108.

despise. Greek. oligoreo. Only here. See Proverbs 3:11, Proverbs 3:12.

chastening. Greek. paideia. See Ephesians 6:4.

LORD. App-98.

nor. Greek. mede.

rebuked. Greek. elencho.


Verse 6

loveth. Greek. agapao. App-135. See Revelation 3:19.

chasteneth Greek. paideuo. See 1 Corinthians 11:32.

scourgeth. Greek. mastigoo. See John 19:1.


Verse 7

If. Greek. ei, but the texts read eis, i.e. Ye are suffering patiently for (eis) discipline.

dealeth. Greek. prosphero. Occurs in Hebrew twenty times; translated "offer", except here. In this verse it is passive and means to do business with, deal with.

the = a.

not. App-105.


Verse 8

if. Greek. ei. App-118.

without. Greek. choris. See Hebrews 4:15.

chastisement = chastening, as verses: Hebrews 12:5, Hebrews 12:7, Hebrews 12:11. are = have become.

partakers. Greek. metochos. See Hebrews 1:9.

bastards. i.e. fictitious. Greek. nothos. Only here.


Verse 9

Furthermore = Moreover.

have. Omit.

which, &c. = as correctors. Greek. paideutes. Only here and Romans 2:20.

gave . . . reverence. Greek. entrepomai. See 1 Corinthians 4:14.

them. Omit.

be in subjection. Greek. hupotasso. See Hebrews 2:5.

Father. App-98.

spirits. App-101. Compare Numbers 16:22. Job 33:4. Ecclesiastes 1:12, Ecclesiastes 1:7. Isaiah 42:5. Zechariah 12:1. Here not "angels" as some interpret, but the new-created spirits of His "sons".

live. App-170.


Verse 10

for. Greek. pros. App-104.

after their own pleasure = according as (Greek. kata) it seemed good to them.

that = to the end (Greek. eis) that.

be partakers. Greek. metalambano. See Hebrews 6:7.

holiness. Greek. hagiotes. Only here. Not the word in Hebrews 12:14.


Verse 11

no chastening. Literally all chastening seemeth not (Greek. ou).

joyous = of joy. App-17.

grievous = of grief.

peaceable. Greek. eirenikos. Only here and James 3:17.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. App-191.

exercised. See Hebrews 5:14.

thereby = by (Greek. dia. App-104. Hebrews 12:1) it.


Verse 12

lift up. Greek. anorthoo. See Luke 13:13. Elsewhere Acts 15:16.

hang down. Greek. pariemai. Only here.

feeble = palsied. Greek. paraluomai. See Luke 5:18.


Verse 13

straight. Greek. orthos. Only here and Acts 14:10.

paths. Greek. trochia. Only here.

be turned out of the way. Greek. ektrepomai. See 1 Timothy 1:6.

healed. Greek. iaomai. See Luke 6:17.


Verse 14

Follow = Pursue. The force of the Greek dioko is seen in Philippians 1:3, Philippians 1:14 (press toward).

with. Greek. meta. App-104.

holiness. Greek. hagiasmos. See Romans 6:19.

no man = no one. Greek. oudeis.

shall see. Greek. opsomai. App-133. (a.)

the Lord. App-98.


Verse 15

Looking diligently. Greek. episkopeo. Only here and 1 Peter 5:2.

lest. Greek. me. App-105.

any. Greek. tis. App-123.

man = one.

fail. Greek. hustereo. Compare Hebrews 4:1; Hebrews 11:37.

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

grace. App-184.

bitterness. Greek. pikria. See Acts 8:23.

springing = germinating. Greek. phuo. Only here and Luke 8:6, Luke 8:8.

trouble. Greek. enochleo. Only here. See Acts 15:19.

thereby. Greek. dia tautes. Some texts read di autes, the same as Hebrews 12:11.

be defiled. Greek. miaino. See John 18:28.


Verse 16

profane. Greek. bebelos. See 1 Timothy 1:9.

morsel of meat. Greek. brosis. See Romans 14:17.

sold. Greek. apodidomi. Same as "yield", Hebrews 12:11.

his. The texts read "his own".

birthright. Greek. prototokia. Only here.


Verse 17

know. Greek. oida. App-132.

afterward. Greek. metepeita. Only here. Add "also".

when he would have = wishing to. Greek. thelo. App-102.

inherited. Greek. kleronomeo. See Hebrews 1:4.

rejected. Greek. apodokimazo. Only here and 1 Peter 2:4, 1 Peter 2:7, after the Gospels. Compare dokimazo, Hebrews 3:9.

repentance. Greek. metanoia. App-111. Repentance means a change of mind, and Esau sought to change his (father"s) mind.

though he sought . . . carefully = having sought carefully. Greek. ekzeteo. See Hebrews 11:6.


Verse 18

mount. The texts omit.

that might, &c. = that was touched. Greek. pselaphao. The reference is to Exodus 19:16-19.

and. This and other five "ands" in verses: Hebrews 12:18, Hebrews 12:19 exemplify the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6).

nor = and.

blackness = a thick cloud. Greek. gnophos. Only here.

darkness. Greek. skotos, but the texts read zophos. See 2 Peter 2:4, 2 Peter 2:17. Jude 1:6, Jude 1:13.

tempest. Greek. thuella. Only here.


Verse 19

sound. Greek. echos. See Acts 2:2.

words. Greek. rhema. See Mark 9:32.

intreated. Greek. paraiteomai. Same as "refuse" in Hebrews 12:25. See Luke 14:18 (make excuse).

word. Greek. logos. App-121.

spoken = added.


Verse 20

if. Greek. ean. App-118.

beast. Greek. therion, not zoon.

touch. See Hebrews 11:28.

or thrust through, &c. All the texts omit. No doubt this is because of the complex Ellipsis. In Exodus 19:13 we read, "There shall not a hand touch it, but he shall surely be stoned or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live". The work on "Figures of Speech" makes it clear thus: "And if so much as [a man, or] a beast touch the mountain [if a man] he shall be stoned or [if a beast] thrust through with a dart".


Verse 21

terrible. Greek. phoberos. See Hebrews 10:27, Hebrews 10:31.

sight = spectacle. Greek. phantazo. Only here. See Acts 25:23.

Moses. See Hebrews 3:2.

exceedingly fear and quake = am fearful (Greek. ekphobos. Compare Mark 9:6) and quaking (Greek. entromos. See Acts 7:32).


Verse 22

the living God. See Hebrews 3:12.

heavenly. Greek. epouranios. Compare Hebrews 3:1.

Jerusalem. Compare Galatians 1:4, Galatians 1:26. Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10.

innumerable company = myriads.


Verse 23

general assembly. Greek. paneguris. Only here.

church. App-186.

firstborn = firstborn ones. Greek. prototokos. See Hebrews 11:28.

written. Greek. apographo. Only here and Luke 2:1, Luke 2:3, Luke 2:5.

heaven. Plural See Matthew 6:9, Matthew 6:10.

Judge. Greek. krites. Compare App-122.

spirits. App-101.

just men. Greek. dikaios. App-191.

made perfect = perfected. See Hebrews 11:40. App-125. The standpoint is from "the glory" as in Romans 8:30.


Verse 24

Mediator. Greek. mesites. See Hebrews 9:15.

the = a.

covenant. See Matthew 26:28.

blood of sprinkling (Greek. rhantismos). The phrase only here and 1 Peter 1:2 (sprinkling of blood).

speaketh. Greek. laleo. App-121.

than. Greek. para. App-104. Compare Hebrews 1:4. In Hebrews 12:18-24 seven statements are set forth as to the Old Covenant dispensation, followed by ten of the New. Together seventeen (see App-10).


Verse 25

See. Greek. blepo. App-133.

refuse. Same word as "intreat", Hebrews 12:19.

spake. Greek. chrematizo. See Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 11:7.

earth. Greek. ge. App-129.

if we = who.

turn away. Greek. apostrepho, as Acts 3:26.


Verse 26

shook. Greek. saleuo. As Matthew 24:29.

once. See Hebrews 6:4.

shake. Greek. seio. See Haggai 2:6, Haggai 2:7. Occurs: Matthew 27:51; Matthew 28:2; &c. Compare seismos, earthquake.

also heaven = the heaven (singular Matthew 6:9, Matthew 6:10) also.


Verse 27

signifieth Greek. deloo. See 1 Corinthians 1:11.

removing. Greek. metathesis. Compare Hebrews 7:12; Hebrews 11:5.

that = in order that. Greek. hina.

cannot be = are not (Greek. me) to be.

remain. Greek. meno. See p. 1511.


Verse 28

which cannot be moved = immovable. Greek. asaleutos. Only here and Acts 27:41.

whereby = by (Greek. dia. App-104. Hebrews 12:1) which.

serve. Greek. latreuo. App-190.

acceptably. Greek. euarestos. Only here. The adjective in Hebrews 13:21.

reverence. Greek. aidos. Only here and 1 Timothy 2:9. The texts read deos, awe.

godly fear. Greek. eulabeia. See Hebrews 5:7, the only other occurance.


Verse 29

consuming fire. From Deuteronomy 4:24. Compare Exodus 21:17. Psalms 50:3; Psalms 97:3. 2 Thessalonians 1:8; &c.

consuming. Greek. katanalisko. Only here. Intensive of analisko (Luke 9:54. Galatians 1:5, Galatians 1:15. 2 Thessalonians 2:8).

 


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 12:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/hebrews-12.html. 1909-1922.

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Monday, December 9th, 2019
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