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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes
Luke 23



Verse 1

multitude. Greek. plethos = number (not ochlos = crowd). In the usage of the Papyri it denotes an assembly.

unto. Greek. epi. App-104.

Verse 2

We found. As the result of our examination.

perverting = agitating. Not the same word as in Luke 23:14. Compare Luke 9:41.

Christ = Messiah. App-98.

Verse 3

asked = questioned.

the King. Pilate using the Art., as

though implying hisbelief.

thou sayest. A Hebraism for a strong affirmation. Compare Luke 22:70, &c.

Verse 4

to. Greek. pros. App-104.

people = crowds. I find no fault, &c. Compare Matthew 27:4.

in. Greek. en. App-104.

Man. Greek. anthropos. App-123.

Verse 5

were the more fierce = kept insisting. Greek. epischuo. Occurs only here in N.T.

stirreth up = instigates. Greek.

anaeeio. Stronger than "pervert "in Luke 23:2. Occurs only here, and Mark 15:11.

throughout. Greek. kata. App-104.

from. Greek. apo. App-104.

Galilee. See App-169.

Verse 6

of Galilee = Galilee [mentioned].

whether = if. App-118.

Verse 7

knew = got to know. Greek.

ginosko. App-132.

belonged unto = was of. Greek. ek. App-104.

jurisdiction = authority. App-172.

sent. Greek. anapempo. App-174, only here; verses: Luke 23:11, Luke 23:15; Philemon 1:12; and (ace, to texts) Acts 25:21.

at = in Greek en. App-104.

that time = those days: i.e. of the Feast.

Verse 8

saw. Greek. eidon. App-133.

Jesus. App-98.

desirous = wishing. Greek thelo. App-102.

of. Greek ek. App-104.

because he had heard = on account of (Greek. dia. App-104.) his hearing.

of = concerning. Greek. peri. App-104.

hoped = was hoping (all that long time).

miracle = sign. See App-176.

done = accomplished.

by. Greek. hupo. App-104.

Verse 9

questioned. Greek. erotao. App-134.

words. Plural of logos. See note on Mark 9:32.

Verse 10

stood = had stood.

vehemently. Greek. eutonos. Occurs only here, and Acts 18:28.

Verse 11

with. Greek. sun. App-104.

set Him at nought = treated Him with contempt. mocked. See Luke 22:63.

gorgeous = resplendent. Compare Acts 10:30. Revelation 15:6.

Verse 12

were made = became.

Verse 13

together = with (Greek. meta. App-104.) one another.

between = with reference to. Greek. pros. App-104.

Verses 13-25. Compare Matthew 27:15-26. Mark 15:6-13.

Verse 14

unto. Greek. pros. App-104.

perverteth = turneth away. Greek apostrepho. Not the same word as in Luke 23:2.

behold. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

examined. Greek. anakrino. App-122.

Verse 15

No, nor yet = nor even.

lo. Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6.

is done = has been done. Compare Luke 23:41.

unto Him: i.e. by Him.

Verse 16

I will, &c. Probably with his own hands (Compare Luke 23:22. Matthew 27:26. Mark 15:15) instead of crucifying Him; with the view of releasing Him.

chastise. Compare Isaiah 53:5.

Verse 17

at. Greek. kata. App-104.

the = a. Most texts omit this verse.

Verse 18

all at once = all together, or in a mass. Greek. pamplethei. Occurs only here.

Barabbas. Aramaic (App-94.) = son of a (distinguished) father. ORIGEN (A.D. 186-253) read "Jesus, Barabbas" in Matthew 27:17, the choice lying between two of the same name.

Verse 19

for = on account of. Greek. dia. App-104. Luke 23:3.

sedition = insurrection.

made = which had taken place.

murder. Compare Acts 3:14.

was = had been. into. Greek. eis. App-104.

Verse 20

willing = wishing. Greek thelo. App-102.

spake . . . to = addressed. Greek. prosphoneo. Compare Acts 21:40; Acts 22:2.

Verse 21

cried = kept shouting. Greek. epiphoneo.

Verse 22

said = spake. evil. Greek kakos. App-128.

Verse 23

were instant = were urgent. Greek. epikeimai, to press upon. Compare Luke 7:4. Judges 16:16. Acts 26:7. Romans 12:12. 2 Timothy 4:2.

requiring. App-134. = had power to bear down (Pilate"s remonstrance).

Verse 24

gave sentence = pronounced sentence. Greek. epikrino. App-122. Occurs only here.

it, &c. = their request should be carried out.

Verse 25

had desired. Same word as "require" in Luke 23:23.

will = desire. Greek. thelema. Compare App-102.

Verse 26

And as, &c. Compare Matthew 27:31-34. Mark 15:20-23.

laid hold upon. Compare Acts 16:19; Acts 17:19; Acts 18:17; Acts 21:30-33.

out of. Greek. apo. App-104.

the country = a field. the cross. See App-162,

Verse 27

And there, &c.: verses: Luke 23:27-32, peculiar to Luke. company multitude.

bewailed and lamented = were beating their breasts and lamenting.

Verse 28

Daughters, &c. Not therefore the women from Galilee of verses: Luke 23:49, Luke 23:55. Greek. me. App-105.

for = on, or over. Greek. epi. App-104.

children. Greek. Plural of teknon. App-108.

Verse 29

Blessed = Happy. See note on Matthew 5:3, and Compare Luke 11:27. Hosea 9:12-16.

never bare = did not (Greek. ou. App-105) bear.

Verse 30

on. Greek. epi. App-104.

hills. Greek. Plural of bounds. Occurs only here and in Luke 3:5.

Verse 31

if they do. Assuming the case. App-118.

do = are doing.

a green tree = the

living wood: i.e. the Lord.

shall be done = must happen.

the dry = the dry [wood]: i, e. the nation.

Verse 32

also two other = others also, two.

other = different ones. Greek. Plural of heteros. App-124.

malefactors = evildoers. Greek. kakourgoi. Not lestai = brigands, as in Matthew 27:38. See App-164.

led with Him. The brigands were brought later.

Verse 33

to. Greek. epi. App-104.

Calvary is the Greek for the Hebrew Golgotha = a skull. Now called "a hill". But see Conder"s Jerusalem, p. 80.

crucified. See App-162.

on = at. Greek. ek. App-104.

and the other = and one.

left. Greek. aristeros. Only here, Matthew 6:3. 2 Corinthians 6:7. Not the same word as in Matthew 27:38.

Verse 34

Father. See App-98.

forgive them. The last of eight recorded occasions of prayer in Luke. See note on Luke 3:21, and compare Matthew 27:46 for the last "seven words" on the cross. Compare Isaiah 53:12.

know. Greek. oida. App-1. Luke 3:2, Luke 3:11.

not. Greek. ou. App-105.

do = are doing. Compare Acts 3:17. 1 Corinthians 2:8.

Verse 35

beholding = looking on, or gazing at. Greek theoreo. App-133. Not the same word as in Luke 23:29.

derided = were mocking: i.e. turning up their noses at Him. Same word as in 16. is. Compare Psalms 2:4; Psalms 22:7; Psalms 35:16.

others. Greek. allos. App-124. Not the same word as in Luke 23:32; Luke 23:40.

he = This fellow.

Christ = the Messiah. App-98.

God. App-98.

Verse 36

coming = coming up close.

offering, &c. See note on Matthew 27:33; Matthew 27:48.

Verse 38

superscription. Not the same word as in Matthew and John. See App-163.

over. Greek. epi. App-104.

THIS IS, &c. See App-48for this type; and App-163for the words themselves.

Verse 39

railed = kept up a railing.

Christ. The Lewis Codex of the Syriac Gospels recently found at Mount Sinai reads "Saviour", not Messiah. save Thyself and us. This reads (in the same Codex), "save Thyself alive this day, and us also".

Verse 40

condemnation. App-177.6.

Verse 41

receive = are receiving.

our deeds = what we did.

hath done = did.

Verse 42

Lord. Most Texts omit this, but not the Syriac which reads "my Lord". App-98. A.

comest = shalt have come.

into = in (Greek. en), but some texts with Syriac read "into ": i.e. into possession of.

Verse 43

I say unto, thee, To day = "I say unto thee to day".

To day. Connect this with "I say", to emphasize the solemnity of the occasion; not with "shalt thou be". See the Hebraism in note on Deuteronomy 4:26. As to the punctuation, see App-94.; and as to the whole clause, see App-173. with. Greek. meta. App-104. Not the same word as in verses: Luke 23:11, Luke 23:32, Luke 23:35.

paradise = the paradise: i.e. the one well known to Scripture. See note on Ecclesiastes 2:5. Ecclesiastes 2:44 Verses 44-46. Compare Matthew 27:45-50; Mark 15:33-37.

Verse 44

sixth hour: i.e. noon. See App-165.

was = came to be.

over. Greek. epi. App-104.

the earth = the land. Greek. ge. App-129.

ninth hour: i.e. 3pm. See App-165.

Verse 45

the veil. See Leviticus 4:6. Matthew 27:51.

the Temple- the Naos. See note on Matthew 23:16.

Verse 46

commend = commit, or entrust. Compare Psalms 31:5. Acts 7:59. 1 Peter 2:23.

spirit. Greek. pneuma. App-101. Compare Luke 8:55.

gave up the ghost = expired, or breathed (His last).

Verse 47

Now, &c. Compare Matthew 27:51-56. Mark 15:39-54.

was done = took place.

Verse 48

people = crowds.

were done = took place.

smote, &c. = beating. returned. The women "stood". returned. Greek. hupostrepho = turned back. Occurs thirty-two times in Luke and Acts, and only three times elsewhere in N.T.

Verse 49

And = But. Marking the contrast between the people and the women.

His acquaintance = thosewho knew (App-132. ) Him,

followed = followed with.

Galilee. See App-169.

stood = continued standing. The crowds turned back.

beholding = looking on. Greek. horao. App-133.

Verse 50

man. Greek. aner. App-123.

Joseph. One of two secret disciples who buried the Lord: Nicodemus being the other (see John 3:1, John 3:4, John 3:9; John 7:50; John 19:39). The Eleven had no part in it.

counsellor. A member of the Sanhedrin.

Verse 51

consented = voted with. Greek. sunkatatithemi. Occurs only here. counsel. Greek. Louie. App-102.

of = from. Greek. apo. App-104.

also himself = himself also.

the kingdom of God. See App-114.

Verse 52

begged = asked. Greek. aiteo. Same word as "re-quire", Luke 23:23, and "desire", Luke 23:25. App-134.

Verse 53

linen. Showing he was a rich man. Compare Matthew 27:5, Mark 14:51; Mark 15:46.

sepulchre = tomb.

hewn in stone = hewn in a rock. Greek. laxeutos. Occurs only here. -

never . . . before. Greek. ouk oudepo oudeis.

Verse 54

the preparation. See App-156.

the sabbath. The high sabbath. See App-156.

Verse 55

came = were come with. Only here and Acts 16:17.

from = out of. Greek ek. App-104. followed after. Greek. sunakoloutheo. Only here and Mark 5:37.

beheld. Greek. theaomai. App-133.

Verse 56

prepared, &c. These had to be bought (Mark 16:1) between the two sabbaths. See App-156.

rested. Greek. hesuchazo = to rest from labour. Occurs only here, and in Luke 14:4. Acts 11:18; Acts 21:14; and 1 Thessalonians 4:11.

the commandment. Leviticus 23:4-7. See App-156.


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Bibliography Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 23:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.

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