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Bible Commentaries

Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

2 Samuel 12

Verse 1

the LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah . App-4 .

sent . See 2 Samuel 11:27 .

Nathan . Septuagint and Syriac read "Nathan the prophet". he came. Compare title of Psalms 51:0 .

men . Hebrew. 'ish. App-14 .

Verse 3

meat = morsel.

Verse 5

shall surely die . Hebrew is a son of death = liable to die.

Verse 6

fourfold . Compare Exodus 22:1 . Septuagint reads "sevenfold".

Verse 7

Thou art the man . Many means used to produce conviction: God's greatness (Job 42:1-6 ); God's glory (Isaiah 6:5 ); God's power (Luke 5:8 ); a famine (Luke 15:14 , Luke 15:18 ); a parable (2 Samuel 12:1-13 ), &c.

God . Hebrew. Elohim . App-4 .

anointed thee . 1 Samuel 16:13 .

Verse 9

evil . Hebrew. ra ' a `. App-44 . with Art.

thou hast killed . Not Joab, or the Ammonites.

children = sons.

Verse 10

the sword. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), App-6 , for manifested hostility.

never . Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Whole), App-6 , put for a part of time: i.e. lifetime.

Verse 11

Behold . Figure of speech Asterismos. App-6 .

evil. Hebrew. ra'a. App-44 . See the Structure of 2 Samuel 13:1-20 (Q, p. 424).

thine own house . Disgraced by one son (2 Samuel 13:14 ), banished by another (2 Samuel 15:19 ), revolted against by a third (1 Kings 2:0 ), bearded by his servant, betrayed by his friends, deserted by his People, bereaved of his children.

Verse 12

thou. See note on 2 Samuel 12:9 .

Verse 13

I have sinned . Psalms 51:0 is the expansion of this.

sinned . . . sin . Hebrew. chata'. App-44 .

hath put away . Divine forgiveness instantly follows the sinner's confession (1 John 1:9 ). Compare Job 42:6 , Job 42:8 , Job 42:10 . Isaiah 6:5 , Isaiah 6:6 , "then flew". Luke 15:18 , Luke 15:20 , "his father ran", &c.

thou , &c. Some codices, with two early printed editions, read "and (or therefore) thou wilt not die".

Verse 14

thou hast given great occasion , &c. This is noted in the Massorah ( App-30 ) as one of the emendations of the Sopherim ( App-33 ), who altered the primitive text out of a mistaken reverence for David and Jehovah. The original reading was" thou hast greatly blasphemed Jehovah".

Verse 16

and . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in this verse. App-6 .

fasted . Hebrew. fasted a fast = made a strict fast. Figure of speech Polyptoton. App-6 .

lay all night upon the earth : as a penitent, with Psalms 51:0 for his utterance. Note his sitting before Jehovah as a worshipper, and his utterance (2 Samuel 7:18-29 ); and his standing as a servant (1 Chronicles 28:2 ), and his utterance and service (1 Chronicles 28:3 - 2Sa 29:21 ).

Verse 22

Who can tell . . . ? Figure of speech Erotesis. App-6 .

GOD = Jehovah . App-4 .

Verse 23

I shall go to him = I shall die and be buried (Compare 2 Samuel 12:19 ): i, e. I shall go to the (not "a ") grave (Sheol). On the use of this Figure of speech Euphemy ( App-6 ) as denoting death and burial, see Genesis 15:15 (compare Joshua 24:2 , Joshua 24:14 , Joshua 24:15 , Abraham's "fathers "being idolaters); 2Sa 25:8 , 2Sa 25:17 ; 2Sa 35:29 ; 2Sa 49:29 , 2Sa 49:33 .Numbers 20:26 ; Numbers 27:13 ; Numbers 31:2 .Deuteronomy 31:16 ; Deuteronomy 32:50 . Jdg 2:10 . 1 Samuel 28:19 (note "thou and thy sons "). 2 Kings 22:20 . 1 Chronicles 17:11 . 2 Chronicles 34:28 . Acts 13:36 .

Verse 24

And . Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton in verses: 2 Samuel 12:24-27 . App-6 . he. Some codices, with Syriac and Vulgate, read "she", in contrast with "he" in next verse.

Solomon = Pacific or Peaceable. Compare 2 Samuel 7:13 .

Verse 25

He : i.e. Jehovah, by the hand of Nathan, in contrast with Bath-sheba. See note on 2 Samuel 12:24 .

Jedidiah = beloved of Jah. See note on Psalms 127:2 .

because of the LORD = for Jehovah's sake.

Verse 27

city of waters . Figure of speech Hypallage. App-6 = waters of the city: i.e. the lower waters or town, cutting off the citadel, which David came and took.

Verse 30

their king's crown = the crown of Milcom, with Septuagint. Compare 1 Chronicles 20:2 .Jeremiah 49:1 , Jeremiah 49:3 .Amos 1:15 .Zephaniah 1:5 (Comp. Bible). talent. See App-51 .

Verse 31

put = appointed, appointed over, set, &c. Hebrew. sum (Genesis 2:8 ; Genesis 45:8 , Genesis 45:9 ; Genesis 47:6 . Exodus 2:14 ; Exodus 5:14 . 1Sa 8:11 ; 1 Samuel 7:10 . 2 Kings 10:24 .Psalms 78:5 ; Psalms 81:5 .Hosea 1:11 , &c.)

under = with, especially to work with. Hebrew letter (Beth), prefixed as preposition = in, within, with. When the preposition "under " = beneath, then it is either part of a verb or one of four distinct words: 'el (2 Samaritan Pentateuch 2 Samuel 2:23 ); mattah (1 Chronicles 27:23 ); tehoth' (Jer. 2 Samuel 10:11 .Daniel 4:12 , Daniel 4:21 ; Daniel 7:27 , "under the heavens "); tahath (Daniel 4:14 , "under a tree "). Beth, when translated "under", is only in the sense of within (as "under (or within the shelter of) the wing", or "under (or within) the earth "). Otherwise, used with a tool or weapon or instrument, it always means "with". See "with an axe "(Deuteronomy 19:5 .Jeremiah 10:3; Jeremiah 10:3 ); "with axes" (Jeremiah 46:22 .Ezekiel 26:9 . Psalms 74:6 ); "with nails and with hammers" (Jeremiah 10:4 ); "with an ox-goad "(Judges 3:31 ); "with mattock "(Isaiah 7:25 ; "with sword and with bow "(Genesis 48:22 .Joshua 24:12 . 2 Kings 6:22 ); "with a graving tool "(Exodus 32:4 ), &c.

pass through = pass by or before. Hebrew. 'abar, as in Ezekiel 37:2 ; Ezekiel 46:21 .Deuteronomy 2:30 . Exodus 33:19 . 1Sa 16:8 , 1 Samuel 16:9 , 1 Samuel 16:10 , &c.

brickkiln = brick-work; hence, brick pavement or paved area (Revised Version margin) Not brickkiln; no brickkilns in Palestine. All bricks there are sun-dried. Only once spoken of as burnt--as being a strange thing (Genesis 11:3 , and margin) Hebrew. malben, occurs only here, Jeremiah 43:9 , and Nahum 3:14 , the former at "entry" of royal palace, the latter said to be "fortified". Both out of the question, and quite incongruous for a brickkiln. The very paved area of Jeremiah 43:9 was discovered at Tahpanhes by Flinders Petrie in 1886, where. Nebuchadnezzar did exactly what David did here and in Ch. 2 Samuel 8:2 and 1 Chronicles 20:3 .

thus did he : i.e. as in 2 Samuel 8:2 , with Moab, s(here; he caused the captives to pass by before him, he seated on a pavement of brick-work, or paved area where he appointed them to the various departments of labour for which they were suited. Compare Jeremiah 43:9-11 These were the "strangers" (i.e. foreigners) and the "abundance of' workmen" referred to in 1 Chronicles 22:2 , 1 Chronicles 22:15 . Compare Deuteronomy 29:11 .Joshua 9:27 . See notes on 1 Kings 5:13 ; 1Ki 9:15 , 1 Kings 9:21 , 1 Kings 9:22 .

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 12". "Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/bul/2-samuel-12.html. 1909-1922.