Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Isaiah 53

Verse 1

Who. ? Figure of speech Erotesis. The questions are asked by the prophet, and the answer is "no one" or few. Quoted in John 12:38 and Romans 10:16.

hath believed = put faith in. Hebrew "aman. App-69. The tenses are Past (the prophetic Perfect).

report = hearing. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Adjunct), for the subject-matter, which was heard.

arm. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for what was wrought by it. Compare Isaiah 51:9; Isaiah 52:10.

the Lord. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4.

revealed = made bare: i.e. revealed.

Verse 2

Him: i.e. Jehovah.

tender plant = a sapling.

a root = a root-sprout.

dry ground. The "root" (David) of which He was the offspring was well nigh extinct.

we: i.e. the people who saw Him. The interpretation is for the Jews of our Lord"s day. The application is for us. The nation will yet say it in their confession and weeping.

Verse 3

despised and rejected. Fulfilled in John 1:10, John 1:11; John 8:48; John 10:20.

men. Hebrew, plural of "ish. App-14. = the chief men. Compare John 7:48, John 7:49.

man. Hebrew. "ish. App-14.

we hid. Compare Isaiah 50:6. Psalms 22:6, Psalms 22:7; and John 8:48; Mark 3:21, Mark 3:30. John 18:40.

Verse 4

He [and no one else]. Emphatic. Quoted in Matthew 8:17.

borne . . . carried = borne the punishment for. See note on Ezekiel 4:4. Matthew 8:17. Compare verses: Isaiah 53:11, Isaiah 53:12

griefs . . . sorrows. Put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause), for the judgment which was brought about by their sins.

of = by. Genitive of Agent. App-17.

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

afflicted = humbled.

Verse 5

wounded = pierced.

transgressions. Hebrew. pasha".

of = which procured. Genitive of Cause. App-17.

with, &c. Quoted in 1 Peter 2:24.

Verse 6

All . . . all. Note the Figure of speech Epanadiplosis (App-6), by which the statement is emphasized as containing the essence of the whole chapter. More noticeable in Hebrew. killdnu . . . killanu. Quoted in 1 Peter 2:22.

Verse 7

oppressed: or, hard pressed.

opened not His mouth. Idiom for silence and submission. Compare 1 Peter 2:22, 1 Peter 2:23.

He is brought. Quoted in Acts 8:32, Acts 8:33.

a lamb. Compare John 1:36.

Verse 8

from prison and from judgment, &c. = by constraint and by sentence He was taken away.

who shall declare His generation? = as to the men of His age [i.e. His contemporaries!, who ponders, or considers as to this seed, seeing He is to be "cut off"? Compare Isaiah 53:10.

cutoff. Compare Daniel 9:26. Thus the climax of this prophecy is reached: (1) a hint (Isaiah 42:4); (2) open lament (Isaiah 49:4); (3) personal suffering (Isaiah 50:6); now (4) a violent death (Isaiah 53:8).

Verse 9

He made, &c. = one [or they] appointed, or assigned [His grave]; or, it [His grave] was appointed.

made. Hebrew Nathan (to give) is rendered "appoint" in Exodus 30:16. Numbers 35:6. Joshua 20:7. 2 Kings 8:6, &c. Even where it is rendered "to make", it has the force of "appoint" (Genesis 9:12. Numbers 14:4, &c.)

grave. Hebrew. keber.

the wicked = the criminals (plural) These have a separate part assigned in all Jewish cemeteries.

the rich = a rich [man] (singular) Compare Matthew 27:59, Matthew 27:60. Mark 15:43, Mark 15:46. Luke 23:53, John 19:40-42.

in His death = when He was dead. Compare Mark 15:42-47. John 19:38, John 19:39.

He had done, &c. Quoted in 1 Peter 2:22.

Verse 10

it pleased the LORD = Jehovah purposed. when thou shalt make, &c. This introduces the break in the Dispensations, which is the subject of the rest of the chapter: the "glory which shall follow" the sufferings. See App-71and App-72.

His soul = Himself. Hebrew. nephesh. App-13= life. Compare John 10:11, John 10:15, John 10:17, John 10:18.

an offering for sin. Hebrew. "aham = the trespass offering. See App-43and App-44. Ref to Pentateuch, for this is a peculiarly Levitical word (Leviticus 14:12, Leviticus 14:21), and cannot be understood apart from it. In Psa 40 it is the aspect of the whole burnt offering.

He shall see His seed: "see" "see" in Isaiah 52:15, i.e. the result, issue, and reward of His sufferings. Compare Psalms 22:30; Psalms 24:6; Psalms 25:13. The Chaldee Targum reads, "they (His seed) shall see the kingdom of their Messiah".

pleasure = purpose.

Verse 11

satisfied. Not disappointed. We have not an impotent Father, or a disappointed Christ, or a defeated Holy Spirit, as is so commonly preached; but an omnipotent Father, an all-victorious Christ, and an almighty Holy Spirit, able to break the hardest heart and subdue the stoutest will.

by His knowledge, &c. Punctuate: "Satisfied by His knowledge, My righteous Servant shall justify many, for He shall bear", &c.

Verse 12

divide = apportion, or assign.

with = among.

poured out. Only here (in the "latter" portion); and Isaiah 32:15 (the "former" portion). App-79.

an He was numbered. Quoted in Mark 15:28. Luke 22:37. App-79.

bare the sin. Reference to Pentateuch (Leviticus 10:17. Numbers 9:13; Numbers 18:32). Compare verses: Isaiah 53:4, Isaiah 53:11. See App-92.

sin. Not the same word as in Isaiah 53:10. Hebrew. chata.

made intercession = interposed.

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Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Isaiah 53". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". 1909-1922.