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Bible Commentaries

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Job

- Job

by E.W. Bullinger

Job
JOB.
> THE STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK AS A WHOLE.

. INTRODUCTION. HISTORICAL.
Job 1:6 - Job 2:10. SATAN""S ASSAULT. JOB STRIPPED OF ALL.
. THE THREE FRIENDS. THEIR ARRIVAL.
Job 3:1 - Job 31:40. JOB AND HIS FRIENDS.
Job 32:1 - Job 37:24. THE MINISTRY OF ELIHU:THE MEDIATOR*.
Job 38:1 - Job 42:6. JOB AND JEHOVAH.
. THE THREE FRIENDS. THEIR DEPARTURE.
. SATAN""S DEFEAT. JOB BLESSED WITH DOUBLE.
. CONCLUSION. HISTORICAL.

* Note that by this grand
Introversion the ministry of Elihu, the Mediator, is placed in the middle, summing up the ministry of Job""s three friends, and introducing the ministry of Jehovah.
>
NOTE ON THE DATE AND AUTHORSHIP OF THE BOOK OF JOB.

A lengthened account of the discussion of these questions would he without profit. But, if JOB was the son of ISSACHAR (
Genesis 46:13), then we have a clue that may help us to a decision of both. It is better to keep within the Bible itself for the settlement of its problems; and to treat the whole Book as the context of all its parts.

There is no reason why JOB should not be the son of ISSACHAR, and no better evidence is forthcoming for a different view. The three friends of Job were descendants of ESAU they would therefore be contemporaries.

ELIPHAZ. of TEMAN, in Idumea, was a son of ESAU, and had a son called TEMAN, from whom his country took its name (
Genesis 36:10, Genesis 36:11). It was noted for its "wise men" (Jeremiah 49:7); and is mentioned with EDOM (Amos 1:11-12). Compare Jeremiah 25:23, where both are connected with Buz, the brother of Uz (Genesis 22:21).

BILDAD the Shuhite. SHUAH was the sixth son of ABRAHAM by KETURAH (
Genesis 25:2); and is mentioned in connection with ESAU, EDOM, and TEMAN (Jeremiah 49:8). ZOPHAR the Naamathite. NAAMAH (now Nd""aneh, six miles south of Lod, in the lowlands of Judah). If JOB was the son of ISSACHAR (Genesis 46:13), he would have gone down to Egypt with his father.

ISSACHAR was forty at "the going down to Egypt". (See Appdx-50. III, p. 52.) If JOB was the third son (
Genesis 46:13), he would have been about twenty at that time (1706 B. c).

We are told that he lived 140 years after his "double" blessing (
Job 42:10). If that "double" blessing included length of years, then his age would have been 70 + 140 = 210 (i.e. three seventies of years). His lifetime would be from 1726-1516 B. C.

According to this, he was born the year after JOSEPH was sold, and died 119 years after the death of JOSEPH (in 1635 B.C). When JOSEPH died, JOB was ninety-one. If his "double" blessing did include length of years, then his affliction took place twenty-one years previously, when he was seventy. His removal from EGYPT to Uz must therefore have taken place earlier still.

When JOB died (1516 B.C.)MOSES was fifty-five, and had been in MIDIAN fifteen years (twenty-five years before the Exodus). This would account for JOB being a worshipper of the God of ABRAHAM, and explains how Moses could have been the author of the book, and perhaps an eye-and ear-witness of the events it records in Midian. If so, the time has come (as Dr. Stier foretold and hoped 1) when this book would be regarded as "the Porch of the Sanctuary"; and when this "fundamental wisdom of original revelation will cease to be ascribed, as it now is by some of the best, to a later poet in Israel".


TITLE, The Book of Job has always formed an integral part of the Hebrew Canon; and some fifty-seven passages in it are quoted or referred to in the other books of the Bible. See Appdx-61. The object of the book is to show "the end of the LORD" (James 5:11):the end to which Job was brought in Job 40:4, Job 40:5; Job 42:5, Job 42:6; viz. the confession of human impotence in attaining righteousness, and thankfully casting himself on Divine omnipotence for salvation. All tends to this "end". The three friends show the impotence of human experience (Eliphaz), human tradition (Bildad), and human merit (Zophar). Elihu points to God as the giver of a Divine righteousness for helpless guilty sinners. See note on p. 666.


. THE INTRODUCTION. HISTORICAL.
Job 1:1. Job""s character.
Job 1:2. His sons and daughters. Their number.
Job 1:3 -. His possessions. Great.
-
, Job 1:3. His position. Great.
Job 1:4. His sons and daughters. Their unanimity.
Job 1:5. Job""s conduct.

Job 1:6 - Job 2:10. SATAN""S ASSAULT.
Job 1:6.. Presentation of the Adversary.
Job 1:7. Jehovah""s question.
Job 1:8. His approbation of Job.
. Calumniation of the Adversary.
Job 1:12 -. Limited permission given.
Job 1:12. Departure of the Adversary.
. Inflictions (Job""s possessions).
. Job""s patience.
Job 1:22. Job not sinning.
. Presentation of the Adversary.
Job 2:1. Jehovah""s question.
Job 2:3. His approbation of Job.
. Calumniation of the Adversary.
Job 2:6. Limited permission given.
Job 2:7 -. Departure of the Adversary.
. Job""s patience.
Job 2:10. Job not sinning.

. THE THREE FRIENDS. THEIR ARRIVAL.
Job 2:11 -. Their visit. Hearing of Job""s calamities.
-
, Job 2:11. The reason.
Job 2:12 -. Their sorrow. (Real.)
-
, Job 2:12. Their sorrow. (Symbolical.)
Job 2:13 -. Their visit. Seeing Job""s calamities.
-
, Job 2:13. The reason.

Job 3:1 - Job 31:4. JOB AND HIS FRIENDS.
. Job""s lamentation. Introduction.
Job 4:1 - Job 5:27. Eliphaz""s first address.
Job 6:1 - Job 7:21. Job""s reply to Eliphaz.
. Bildad""s first address.
Job 9:1 - Job 10:22. Job""s reply to Bildad.
. Zophar""s first address.
Job 12:1 - Job 14:22. Job""s reply to Zophar.
. Eliphaz""s second address.
Job 16:1 - Job 17:16. Job""s reply to Eliphaz.
. Bildad""s second address.
. Job""s reply to Bildad.
. Zophar""s second address.
. Job""s reply to Zophar.
. Eliphaz""s third address.
Job 23:1 - Job 24:25. Job""s reply to Eliphaz.
. Bildad""s third address.
Job 26:1 - Job 27:10. Job""s reply to Bildad.
Job 27:11 - Job 28:28. Zophar""s third address.
Job 29:1 - Job 31:40. Job""s self-justification. Conclusion.

. JOB""S LAMENTATION.
. Birth lamented.
Job 3:10. Reasons.
. Infancy lamented.
. Reasons.
. Manhood lamented.
. Reasons.

Job 4:1 - Job 5:27. ELIPHAZ. FIRST ADDRESS.
-. Apprehension.
Job 4:2. Apology.
. Trouble. (Particular.)
Job 4:6. Righteousness. (Particular.)
Job 4:7. General Proposition. Appeal to exp-
. Proof. erience.
"I have seen."
Job 4:12 - Job 5:1. Righteousness. (General.)
Job 5:2. General Proposition. Appeal to exp-
. Proof. "I erience. have seen."
. Trouble. (General.)
Job 5:27 -. Research..
Job 5:27. Recommendation.

Job 4:12 - Job 5:1. RIGHTEOUSNESS. (GENERAL.)
. Vision.
; Job 5:1. Voice. (Angelic, v . Job 4:18. Human, vv . Job 4:19-21.

. TROUBLE. (GENERAL.).
. Trouble. Inevitable.
Job 5:8. Trust in God. Third
. Reason. (God""s person. greatness.)
Job 5:17. Trust in God.
Job 5:18. Reason. (God""s goodness. Second
. Trouble. Deliverance person. from it.

Job 6:1 - Job 7:21. JOB""S REPLY TO ELIPHAZ""S FIRST ADDRESS.
. Job""s excessive grief.
. Death to be desired.
. Remonstrance. (Their feelings.)
. Remonstrance. (Their words.)
. Death to be desired.
. Job""s excessive grief.

. BILDAD""S FIRST ADDRESS.
. Reproof of Job.
Job 8:3. Appeal to Reason.
. Application to Job.
. Appeal to tradition.
Job 8:20. Application to Job.
. Comfort for Job.

Job 9:1 - Job 10:22. JOB""S ANSWER TO BILDAD""S FIRST ADDRESS.
. Job""s answer to Bildad.
. Job""s expostulation with God.

. JOB""S ANSWER TO BILDAD""S.
. Job""s unable to answer.
. God""s power. Works unsearchable. General.
. God""s dealings. Ways unsearchable.
. Job unable to answer.
. God""s exercise of power. Unequal. Personal.
. God""s dealings. Unequal.
. Job unable to answer.

. JOB""S EXPOSTULATION.
. Petition.
. Expostulation. God""s power.
. His creature.
. Expostulation. God""s ways.
. His creature.
. Petition.

. ZOPHAR""S FIRST ADDRESS.
. Rebuke. God""s judgment (particular) on Job.
. Human ignorance.
. Divine knowledge.
. Human merit.
. Divine reward.
Job 11:20. God""s judgment (general) on the wicked.

Job 12:1 - Job 14:22. JOB""S REPLY TO ZOPHAR""S FIRST ADDRESS.
. Non-inferiority of Job to his friends.
. Job""s appeal to his friends.
. God. Job declares Him.
. Non-inferiority of Job to his friends.
. Job""s appeal to hid friends.
Job 13:19 - Job 14:22. God. Job""s appeal to Him.

. ELIPHAZ. SECOND ADDRESS..
. On Job""s reasonings.
. On God""s dealings

. ON JOB""S REASONINGS.
. Questions concerning Job""s words.
. Proofs in answer.
. Questions concerning Job""s character.
. Proofs in answer.

. ON GOD""S DEALINGS.
. God""s Judgment.
. Reasons. The procuring cause.
. God""s judgment.
Job 15:35. Reasons. The procuring cause.

. BILDAD""S SECOND ADDRESS.
. Reproof of Job.
. Doom of the wicked.

. DOOM OF THE WICKED.

. Particular.
Job 18:21. General.

. DOOM. (PARTICULAR.)
. Extinction.
. vv . Job 18:7-8. Evils from himself.
vv . . Evils from others.
. Extinction.

OB""S REPLY TO BILDAD""S SECOND ADDRESS.
. Censure of his friends for their reproaches.
. Complaints of God""s dealings as his enemy.
. Appeal to his hope in God as his Redeemer.
. Warning to his friends to cease their reproaches.

. ZOPHAR""S SECOND ADDRESS.
. His theme stated.
. Expansion of the theme.
Job 20:29. The theme restated.

OB""S REPLY TO ZOPHAR""S SECOND ADDRESS.
, . Appeal to his friends.
. Contrasted cases. The wicked ( vv . Job 21:7-21). The good ( vv . Job 21:22-26).
. Appeal to his friends.
. Contrasted cases. The wicked:in life ( vv . Job 21:3-31); in death ( vv . Job 21:32-33).
Job 21:34. Appeal to his friends.

- , Job 21:30-33. CONTRASTED CASES.
. Prosperity.
. Adversity. The wicked.
. Prosperity.
. Adversity. The good.
. Prosperity in life.
. Prosperity in death. The wicked.

. ELIPHAZ. THIRD ADDRESS.
. Argument. (General.) Concerning God.
JJob
22:5-9. Accusation. (Particular.)
. Punishment. (Particular.)
Job 22:12. Argument. (General.) Concerning God.
. Accusation. (Particular.)
. Punishment. (Particular.) Concerning God, and Job.

Job 23:1 - Job 24:25. JOB""S REPLY TO ELIPHAZ""S THIRD ADDRESS.
. God""s inscrutability.
. Job""s integrity.
-
Job 24:1. God""s inscrutability.
. Man""s iniquity.

. GOD""S INSCRUTABILITY.
. Job""s wish for trial.
. His confidence of the issue.
. Job""s search for trial.
Job 23:10. His confidence of the issue.

. MAN""S INIQUITY.
. Crimes of lawless men.
. What the issue ought to be.
. Crimes of lawless men.
. What the issue commonly is.

. BILDAD""S THIRD ADDRESS.
. God. His omnipotence.
. Man. His impotence.

Job 26:1 - Job 27:10. JOB""S REPLY TO BILDAD""S THIRD ADDRESS.
. Appeal to his friends.
. God""s ways:His power incomparable.
. Appeal to his friends.
. Job""s ways:his righteousness un-blameable.

Job 27:11 - Job 28:28. ZOPHAR""S THIRD ADDRESS.
. Unwisdom.
. What man knows.
. What man does not know.
. What man can do.
. What man can not do.
. Wisdom.

Job 29:1 - Job 31:40. JOB""S SELF-JUSTIFICATION.
Job 28:29. Saddened retrospect of past prosperity.
Job 28:30. Sorrowful description of present misery.
Job 28:31. Solemn asseveration of innocence.

. SADDEN RETROSPECT OF PAST PROSPERITY.
. Job""s prosperity. (What he was.)
. His honour. (What he had.)
Job 29:12. Redress of wrong.
Job 29:13. Beneficence.
Job 29:14 -. Righteousness. (What Job did.)
-
, Job 29:14. Justice.
. Beneficence.
Job 29:17. Redress of wrong.
. Job""s prosperity. (What he thought.)
. His honour. (What he had.)

. SORROWFUL DESCRIPTION OF PRESENT MISERY.
. From others. ( vv . Job 30:1-8, their character.
vv . , their conduct.)
. In himself. ( vv . Job 30:15-16, mental.
vv . , bodily.)
. From God. ( vv . Job 30:19-20, silence.
vv . 21-24, action.)
. In himself.

. SOLEMN ASSEVERATION OF HIS INNOCENCE.
Job 31:1. Sin. (Unchastity.)
. Consequences.
Job 31:5. Sin. (Deceit.)
Job 31:6. Consequence. (Trial desired.)
Job 31:7. Sin. (Dishonesty.)
Job 31:8. Consequence. (Imprecation.)
Job 31:9. Sin. (Adultery.)
. Consequence. (Imprecation.)
Job 31:13. Sin. (Injustice.)
. Consequence. (Penalty.)
. Sin. Inhumanity.)
. Consequence. (Imprecation.)
. Sins of heart. (Covetousness, Job 31:24-25. Idolatry, Job 31:26-27.
Job 31:28. Consequence. (Penalty.)
. Sins of heart. (Malignity, Job 31:29-31. Inhospitality, Job 31:32. Hypocrisy, Job 31:33-34.
. Consequence. (Trail desired.)
. Sin. (Fraud.)
Job 31:40. Consequence.

Job 32:1 - Job 37:24. THE MINISTRY OF ELIHU:THE MEDIATOR.
. The connecting narrative.
Job 32:6 - Job 37:24. The ministry proper.

. THE CONNECTING NARRATIVE.
Job 32:1. The three men. Job""s friends.
. Anger of Elihu.
Job 32:4. The one man. Job.
Job 32:5. Anger of Elihu.

Job 32:6 - Job 37:24. ELIHU""S MINISTRY.
. Elihu. Introduction.
. His first address to Job.
Job 34:1. Elihu. Continuation.
. His words to Job""s friends.
Job 35:1. Elihu. Continuation.
. His second address to Job.
Job 36:1. Elihu. Conclusion.
Job 36:2 - Job 37:24. His words on God""s behalf.

. ELIHU. INTRODUCTION.
Job 32:6 -. Personal. Seniority.
-
, . Reason for not speaking before.
. Personal. Qualification.
. Reason. for speaking now.

. ELIHU""S WORDS TO JOB.
. Call for attention.
. His fitness. Job 33:3. Internal, Job 33:4. External.
Job 33:5. Call for answer.
. His fitness.. Job 33:6. External. Job 33:7. Internal.
. Job""s error. Justification of himself.
Job 33:12. Answer. God""s greatness (in Creation).
Job 33:13. Job""s error. Charge against God.
. Answer. God""s goodness (in Revelation).
Job 33:31 -. Call for silence.
-
, Job 33:31. His fitness. "I will speak."
Job 33:32. Call for answer.
Job 33:33. His fitness. "I will teach."

. GOD""S GOODNESS:IN REVELATION.
. Means. (Dreams and visions.)
. Ends. (Negative.) In
. Means. (Afflictions.) Detail.
. Ends. (Positive.)
Job 33:29. Means. (All these means.) In
Job 33:30. Ends. (Neg. Job 33:30 -. Pos. - Job 33:30.) sum.

. ELIHU""S WORDS TO JOB""S FRIENDS.
. Appeal to his hearers.
. Job""s error. (Job 34:5, Himself. Job 34:5-6, God.)
. His reproof.
Job 34:10 -. Call for attention.
-
, . Vindication of God.
Job 34:16. Call for attention.
-. Vindication of God.
-
, . Appeal to his hearers.
Job 34:35. Job""s error.
. His reproof.

. ELIHU""S WORDS TO JOB.
. Error. Job""s.
. Answer. Personal.
Job 35:9. Error. Man""s.
. Answer. General.
Job 35:14 -. Error. Job""s.
-
, . Answer. Personal.

Job 36:2 - Job 37:24. ELIHU""S WORDS ON GOD""D BEHALF.
. Introduction. "On God""s behalf."
Job 36:5. His attribute. "God is great."
. Manifested in Providence.
. Application and exhortation to fear His wondrous wrath.
Job 36:26. His attribute. "God is great."
Job 36:27 - Job 37:13. Manifested in Creation.
-. Application and exhortation to consider His "wondrous works."
. Conclusion. "On God""s behalf."

Job 38:1 - Job 42:6. JOB AND JEHOVAH.
Job 38:1 - Job 40:2. Jehovah""s first address.
. Job""s first answer.
Job 40:6 - Job 41:34. Jehovah""s second address.
. Job""s second answer.

Job 38:1 - Job 40:2. JEHOVAH""S FIRST ADDRESS.
. Jehovah""s first appeal to Job.
. The inanimate creation. Wisdom exhibited in outward activities.
. Jehovah""s second appeal to Job.
Job 38:29 - Job 39:30. The animate creation. Wisdom manifested "in the inward parts."
. Jehovah""s third appeal to Job.

;">. THE INANIMITE CREATION. WISDOM EXHIBITED IN OUTWARD ACTIVITIES.
. The earth.
. The sea.
. The morn, and dawn. Things pertaining
. The springs of the sea. to the earth.
Job 38:19 -. Light. Things pertaining to
-
, .. Darkness. both the earth and the heavens.
. Snow and hail. Things
. Lightning. pertaining to
. Rain, dew, and frost. the heavens.
. The heavens.

Job 38:39 - Job 39:30. THE ANIMATE CREATION. WISDOM MANIFESTED "IN THE INWARD PARTS".
. Sustenance. (The lion, vv . Job 38:39-40. The ravens, v . Job 38:41.)
. Young. (The wild goats, v . Job 39:1 -. The hinds, vv . - Job 39:1-4..)
. Attribute. Freedom. (The wild ass, vv .
. The wild bull, vv . Job 39:9-12.)
. Young. (The ostrich.)
. Attribute. Courage. (The war-horse.)
. Sustenance. (The hawk, v . Job 39:26. The eagle, vv . Job 39:27-30.)

Job 40:6 - Job 41:34. JEHOVAH""S SECOND ADDRESS.
. Jehovah""s first appeal to Divine power. (General.)
Job 40:14. Consequent admission.
Job 40:15 - Job 41:10 -. Jehovah""s second appeal to Divine power. (Special.) Behemoth (Job 40:15-24). Leviathan (Job 41:1-10 -.).
Job 41:10, Job 41:11. Consequent inference.
. Jehovah""s third appeal to Divine power. (Special.) Leviathan, continued.

. THE THREE FRIENDS.
Job 38:7 -. Jehovah ceases to speak to Job.
-
, Job 38:7 -. Job""s friends spoken to by Jehovah.
-
, Job 38:7 -. What He said.
-
, Job 38:7. The reason. "Because."
Job 38:8 -. What He said.
-
, Job 38:8. The reason. "Because."
Job 38:9 -. Job""s friends obey Jehovah.
-
, Job 38:9. Jehovah accepts Job.

. SATAN""S DEFEAT. (JOB BLESSED WITH DOUBLE.)
Job 38:10. Job""s blessing.
Job 38:11. His family.
Job 38:12. Job""s blessing.
Job 38:13. His family

. CONCLUSION.
. Job""s children.
Job 42
:16-.11. His life.
-
, Job 42:16 -. Job""s descendants.
-
, Job 42:16. His death.