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David delivers Keilah and afterwards retires to the Wilderness of Ziph and maon
6. With an ephod in his hand] This is inserted to explain how it was that David was able to enquire of the Lord: see on 1 Samuel 14:18.
9. Secretly practised] RV ’devised.’ There was no secrecy about Saul’s methods.
14. Ziph] identified with Tell Zif, a rounded hill, 4 m. SE. of Hebron.
15. In a wood] RM ’in Horesh.’ But the true rendering is doubtful. If a proper name, it was more probably a mountain than a wood (cp. 1 Samuel 23:14, 1 Samuel 23:19), and the word may mean either.
17. That also] Saul knew that Jonathan was willing to rank second.
19. Jeshimon] RV ’the desert.’ It is the dreary desert of southern Judah: see Numbers 21:20.
25. Maon] mentioned in Joshua 15:55 in connexion with Carmel and Ziph. It is a lofty conical hill 7 m. S. of Hebron.
28. Selahammahlekoth] i.e. ’the rock of divisions.’
29. This v. should be joined to the next c.
Engedi] A well-watered spot on the E. edge of the desert of Judah. It still bears the name Ain Jidi. ’En’ means ’well.’
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Dummelow, John. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 23". "Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Third Week after Epiphany