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Bible Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

1 Samuel 23

Overview

1 Samuel 23:1, David, enquiring of the Lord by Abiathar, rescues Keilah; 1 Samuel 23:7, God shewing him the coming of Saul, and the treachery of the Keilites, he escapes from Keilah; 1 Samuel 23:14, In Ziph Jonathan comes and comforts him; 1 Samuel 23:19, The Ziphites discover him to Saul; 1 Samuel 23:25, At Maon he is rescued from Saul by the invasion of the Philistines; 1 Samuel 23:29, He dwells at En-gedi.

Verse 1

Keilah: Keilah was a city of Judah, situated, according to Eusebius, eight miles from Eleutheropolis, towards Hebron. Sozomen says that the prophet Habakkuk's tomb was shewn there. Joshua 15:44, Nehemiah 3:17, Nehemiah 3:18

rob the: Leviticus 26:16, Deuteronomy 28:33, Deuteronomy 28:51, Judges 6:4, Judges 6:11, Micah 6:15

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 22:4 - in the hold 1 Samuel 23:2 - inquired 1 Chronicles 4:19 - Keilah

Verse 2

inquired: In what way David made this enquiry we are not told; but it was probably by means of Abiathar; and therefore it would seem, that with Houbigant, we should read the 1 Samuel 23:6, immediately after the 1 Samuel 23:1. - This adventure was truly noble and patriotic. Had not David loved his country, and been above all motives of private and personal revenge, he would have rejoiced in this invasion of Judea, as producing a strong diversion in his favour, and embroiling his inveterate enemy. In most cases, a man with David's wrongs would have joined with the enemies of his country, and avenged himself on the author of his calamities; but he thinks of nothing but succouring Keilah, and using his power and influence in behalf of his brethren. 1 Samuel 23:4, 1 Samuel 23:6, 1 Samuel 23:9-12, 1 Samuel 30:8, Numbers 27:21, Joshua 9:14, Judges 1:1, 2 Samuel 5:19, 2 Samuel 5:23, 1 Chronicles 14:10, Psalms 32:8, Proverbs 3:5, Proverbs 3:6, Jeremiah 10:23

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 10:22 - inquired 1 Samuel 22:10 - he inquired 1 Samuel 28:15 - answereth 1 Samuel 30:7 - Abiathar 2 Samuel 2:1 - inquired 2 Samuel 21:1 - of the Lord 1 Kings 22:5 - Inquire 2 Kings 3:19 - And ye 1 Chronicles 13:3 - we inquired 2 Chronicles 18:4 - Inquire Nehemiah 3:17 - Keilah Psalms 18:29 - by thee

Verse 3

Behold: 1 Samuel 23:15, 1 Samuel 23:23, 1 Samuel 23:26, Psalms 11:1, Jeremiah 12:5

Reciprocal: Proverbs 20:8 - General

Verse 4

yet again: 1 Samuel 28:6, Judges 6:39

for I will: Joshua 8:7, Judges 7:7, 2 Samuel 5:19, 2 Kings 3:18

Reciprocal: Exodus 23:31 - deliver the Numbers 21:34 - for I have Judges 20:28 - Shall I yet 1 Samuel 14:37 - Shall I go 1 Samuel 22:10 - he inquired 1 Samuel 23:2 - inquired 1 Samuel 28:15 - answereth 1 Samuel 30:8 - inquired 2 Samuel 2:1 - inquired 2 Samuel 21:1 - of the Lord 1 Kings 22:5 - Inquire 2 Chronicles 18:4 - Inquire Proverbs 20:8 - General Isaiah 55:10 - as the rain

Verse 5

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 22:40 - girded Psalms 18:38 - General Psalms 38:20 - render

Verse 6

when Abiathar: 1 Samuel 22:20

an ephod: 1 Samuel 14:3, 1 Samuel 14:18, 1 Samuel 14:36, 1 Samuel 14:37, Exodus 28:30, Exodus 28:31

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:4 - ephod Judges 17:5 - ephod 1 Samuel 23:2 - inquired 1 Samuel 23:9 - Bring 1 Kings 2:26 - barest Hosea 3:4 - ephod Mark 2:26 - Abiathar

Verse 7

am 2943, bc 1061, An, Ex, Is 430

God hath: 1 Samuel 23:14, 1 Samuel 24:4-6, 1 Samuel 26:8, 1 Samuel 26:9, Psalms 71:10, Psalms 71:11

he is shut: Exodus 14:3, Exodus 15:9, Judges 16:2, Judges 16:3, Job 20:5, Luke 19:43, Luke 19:44

Reciprocal: Numbers 35:20 - by laying 1 Samuel 23:12 - They will 1 Samuel 24:18 - Lord 2 Samuel 12:7 - I delivered 2 Chronicles 13:16 - God delivered Psalms 31:21 - strong city Psalms 37:12 - General Isaiah 19:4 - give over

Verse 8

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 23:10 - destroy the city

Verse 9

David: Jeremiah 11:18, Jeremiah 11:19, Acts 9:24, Acts 14:6, Acts 23:16-18

Bring: 1 Samuel 23:6, 1 Samuel 14:18, 1 Samuel 30:7, Numbers 27:21, Jeremiah 33:3

Reciprocal: Exodus 28:30 - General Numbers 31:6 - the holy instruments Joshua 9:14 - asked not Judges 1:1 - asked Judges 8:27 - an ephod Judges 11:11 - uttered 1 Samuel 14:37 - Shall I go 1 Samuel 23:2 - inquired 1 Samuel 28:15 - answereth 2 Samuel 2:1 - inquired 1 Kings 22:5 - Inquire 1 Chronicles 13:3 - we inquired 1 Chronicles 14:10 - inquired 2 Chronicles 18:4 - Inquire Psalms 7:16 - General Psalms 11:2 - that Proverbs 24:2 - General Daniel 8:12 - and it practiced Hosea 3:4 - ephod Mark 2:26 - Abiathar John 10:35 - unto John 11:51 - being

Verse 10

destroy the city: 1 Samuel 23:8, 1 Samuel 22:19, Genesis 18:24, Esther 3:6, Proverbs 28:15, Romans 3:15, Romans 3:16

Reciprocal: Judges 1:1 - asked Judges 8:27 - an ephod 1 Samuel 28:15 - answereth 1 Samuel 30:8 - inquired

Verse 11

And the Lord: Psalms 50:15, Jeremiah 33:3, Matthew 7:7, Matthew 7:8

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 10:22 - inquired 2 Samuel 21:1 - of the Lord Psalms 142:4 - refuge Jeremiah 11:18 - the Lord

Verse 12

deliver: Heb. shut up, Psalms 31:8

They will: 1 Samuel 23:7, Psalms 62:1, Psalms 118:8, Ecclesiastes 9:14, Ecclesiastes 9:15, Isaiah 29:15, Hebrews 4:13

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 10:22 - inquired 1 Samuel 22:10 - he inquired 1 Samuel 24:18 - delivered me Psalms 38:20 - render Psalms 62:9 - Surely Jeremiah 11:18 - the Lord

Verse 13

six hundred: 1 Samuel 22:2, 1 Samuel 25:13, 1 Samuel 30:9, 1 Samuel 30:10

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 15:20 - seeing

Verse 14

a mountain: Psalms 11:1-3

the wilderness: Ziph is mentioned in Joshua with Carmel and Maon, near which it seems to have been situated; and as we have mention of Carmel and Maon in the history of David, as adjoining to Ziph, it cannot be doubted that by the Ziph, in the wilderness of which David now lay, and where was the hill of Hachilah, is to be understood Ziph near Carmel and Maon. Joshua 15:24, Joshua 15:55

Saul: 1 Samuel 27:1, Psalms 54:3, Psalms 54:4, Proverbs 1:16, Proverbs 4:16

but God: 1 Samuel 23:7, Psalms 32:7, Psalms 37:32, Psalms 37:33, Psalms 54:3, Psalms 54:4, Proverbs 21:30, Jeremiah 36:26, Romans 8:31, 2 Timothy 3:11, 2 Timothy 4:17, 2 Timothy 4:18

Reciprocal: Joshua 2:16 - Get you 1 Samuel 24:11 - thou huntest 1 Samuel 26:8 - God 2 Samuel 12:7 - I delivered 2 Samuel 22:1 - and out 1 Chronicles 12:8 - into the hold 2 Chronicles 11:8 - Ziph Ezekiel 33:27 - in the caves Acts 12:19 - sought for him

Verse 15

life: Heb. nephesh, soul, Genesis 44:30

Reciprocal: Joshua 15:55 - Ziph 1 Samuel 23:3 - Behold 2 Samuel 4:8 - sought Daniel 10:18 - he Hebrews 11:38 - wandered

Verse 16

strengthened: Deuteronomy 3:28, Nehemiah 2:18, Job 4:3, Job 4:4, Job 16:5, Proverbs 27:9, Proverbs 27:17, Ecclesiastes 4:9-12, Isaiah 35:3, Isaiah 35:4, Ezekiel 13:22, Luke 22:32, Luke 22:43, Ephesians 6:10, 2 Timothy 2:1, Hebrews 12:12, Hebrews 12:13

Reciprocal: Genesis 48:2 - strengthened Judges 7:11 - thine hands 1 Samuel 22:8 - that my son 2 Samuel 1:26 - thy love 2 Samuel 9:1 - show him 2 Chronicles 17:1 - and strengthened Psalms 119:150 - draw nigh Proverbs 17:17 - General Ecclesiastes 4:10 - if Malachi 3:16 - spake

Verse 17

Fear not: Isaiah 41:10, Isaiah 41:14, Hebrews 13:6

shall not: Job 5:11-15, Psalms 27:1-3, Psalms 46:1, Psalms 46:2, Psalms 91:1, Psalms 91:2, Proverbs 14:26, Isaiah 54:17

thou shalt be: Luke 12:32

I shall be: Proverbs 19:21, Acts 28:16, Romans 15:24

that also Saul: 1 Samuel 20:31, 1 Samuel 24:20, Acts 5:39

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 25:30 - according 1 Samuel 27:1 - And David 1 Samuel 31:2 - Jonathan Esther 10:3 - next unto king Psalms 63:11 - the king Proverbs 27:9 - so

Verse 18

1 Samuel 18:3, 1 Samuel 20:12-17, 1 Samuel 20:42, 2 Samuel 9:1, 2 Samuel 21:7

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 20:8 - thou hast 2 Samuel 5:3 - before 2 Kings 11:4 - made a covenant 1 Chronicles 11:3 - before Psalms 88:8 - put

Verse 19

the Ziphites: 1 Samuel 22:7, 1 Samuel 22:8, 1 Samuel 26:1, Psalms 54:1, *title Psalms 54:3, Psalms 54:4, Proverbs 29:12

Hachilah: Calmet states, that Hachilah was a mountain about ten miles south of Jericho, where Jonathan Maccabeus built the castle of Massada, west of the Dead Sea, and not far from En-gedi. 1 Samuel 26:1, 1 Samuel 26:3

on the south: Heb. on the right hand

Jeshimon: or, the wilderness, Eusebius places Jeshimon ten miles south of Jericho, near the Dead Sea; which agrees extremely well with the position of Hachilah, as stated by Calmet.

Reciprocal: Joshua 15:24 - Ziph 1 Samuel 13:6 - in caves 1 Samuel 19:19 - General 1 Samuel 23:24 - the south 1 Samuel 24:1 - it was told 1 Samuel 30:29 - Rachal 2 Kings 24:14 - craftsmen 1 Chronicles 2:42 - Ziph 2 Chronicles 11:8 - Ziph Psalms 31:13 - while Psalms 62:9 - Surely Psalms 64:5 - commune Psalms 140:2 - continually Psalms 142:4 - refuge Proverbs 16:29 - General Proverbs 28:4 - that Acts 25:3 - desired 1 Corinthians 13:6 - Rejoiceth not Hebrews 11:38 - wandered

Verse 20

all the desire: Deuteronomy 18:6, 2 Samuel 3:21, Psalms 112:10, Proverbs 11:23

our part: 1 Kings 21:11-14, 2 Kings 10:5-7, Psalms 54:3, Proverbs 29:26

Reciprocal: Psalms 31:13 - while Psalms 62:9 - Surely Psalms 119:95 - wicked Psalms 142:4 - refuge Proverbs 24:15 - Lay

Verse 21

1 Samuel 22:8, Judges 17:2, Psalms 10:3, Isaiah 66:5, Micah 3:11

Reciprocal: Genesis 20:13 - This 1 Samuel 17:50 - So David prevailed 1 Samuel 24:19 - the Lord 2 Samuel 2:5 - Blessed 2 Samuel 17:4 - the saying Psalms 10:10 - humbleth

Verse 22

haunt is: Heb. foot shall be, Job 5:13

Reciprocal: 2 Kings 6:13 - spy where Psalms 10:10 - humbleth Psalms 57:6 - a net Psalms 64:2 - secret Matthew 2:8 - go Mark 14:44 - and lead Acts 16:23 - to keep

Verse 23

take knowledge: Mark 14:1, Mark 14:10, Mark 14:11, John 18:2, John 18:3

I will search: 2 Samuel 17:11-13, 1 Kings 18:10, Proverbs 1:16, Romans 3:15, Romans 3:16

the thousands: Numbers 10:36, Micah 5:2

Reciprocal: Exodus 14:3 - They are entangled Numbers 1:16 - heads 1 Samuel 23:3 - Behold 1 Samuel 24:11 - thou huntest 1 Samuel 26:2 - Saul arose 2 Samuel 17:8 - thy father is 2 Samuel 17:12 - in some place 2 Kings 6:13 - spy where Psalms 10:8 - sitteth Psalms 35:4 - that Psalms 64:2 - secret Matthew 2:8 - go Mark 14:44 - and lead Acts 16:23 - to keep Hebrews 11:38 - wandered

Verse 24

the wilderness: Maon, from which the adjoining mountainous district derived its name, was city in the most southern parts of the tribe of Judah, and a neighbouring town to Carmel. Hence Nabal - 1 Samuel 25:2 is described as a man of Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and though he might dwell generally in Maon, yet he is styled Nabal the Carmelite, from the place where his estate lay. Calmet supposes it to be the city Minois, which Eusebius places in the vicinity of Gaza; and the Moenoemi Castrum, which the Theodosian code places near Beersheba.

Maon: 1 Samuel 25:2, Joshua 15:55

the south: 1 Samuel 23:19

Reciprocal: Joshua 15:24 - Ziph Judges 10:12 - the Maonites

Verse 25

into a rock: or, from the rock, 1 Samuel 23:28, Judges 15:8

Reciprocal: Joshua 15:55 - Maon Judges 10:12 - the Maonites 1 Chronicles 11:16 - in the hold

Verse 26

David made haste: 1 Samuel 19:12, 1 Samuel 20:38, 2 Samuel 15:14, 2 Samuel 17:21, 2 Samuel 17:22, Psalms 31:22

away: 2 Chronicles 20:12, Psalms 17:9, Psalms 17:11, Psalms 22:12, Psalms 22:16, Psalms 118:11-13, Psalms 140:1-9, 2 Corinthians 1:8, Revelation 20:9

Reciprocal: Judges 16:2 - compassed 1 Samuel 20:1 - fled 1 Samuel 23:3 - Behold 2 Samuel 12:7 - I delivered 2 Samuel 22:19 - prevented 2 Kings 6:14 - sent he thither horses Esther 6:1 - that night Psalms 4:1 - thou Psalms 35:3 - stop Psalms 37:33 - will not Psalms 119:87 - almost Psalms 124:7 - Our soul Acts 12:6 - the same

Verse 27

there came: Genesis 22:14, Deuteronomy 32:36, 2 Kings 19:9, Psalms 116:3

the Philistines: 2 Kings 19:9, Revelation 12:16

invaded: Heb. spread themselves upon, 1 Chronicles 14:13

Reciprocal: 2 Samuel 22:19 - prevented Esther 6:1 - that night Psalms 35:3 - stop Psalms 119:87 - almost Psalms 124:7 - Our soul Isaiah 37:9 - he heard Acts 12:6 - the same

Verse 28

Selahammahlekoth: that is, the rock of divisions, Because, says the Targum, "the heart of the king was divided to go hither and thither." Here Saul was obliged to separate himself from David, in order to go and oppose the invading Philistines; which deliverance of David was of such a nature as made the Divine interposition fully visible. 1 Samuel 23:28

Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 23:25 - into a rock 1 Samuel 24:1 - when Saul Isaiah 37:9 - he heard

Verse 29

The district around En-gedi, near the western coast of the Dead Sea, is reported by travellers to be a mountainous territory, filled with caverns; and consequently, proper for David in his present circumstances. Dr. Lightfoot thinks this was the wilderness of Judah, in which David was when he penned the Psalms 63:1, which breathes as much pious and devout affection as almost any of his Psalms; for in all places and in all conditions he still kept up his communion with God. - If Christians knew their privileges better, and acted up thereto, there would be less murmuring at the dark dispensations of Divine Providence. 1 Samuel 24:1, Genesis 14:7, Joshua 15:62, 2 Chronicles 20:2, Song of Solomon 1:14, Ezekiel 47:10

Reciprocal: Joshua 2:16 - Get you 1 Samuel 24:22 - the hold 1 Chronicles 12:8 - into the hold

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 23". "Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tsk/1-samuel-23.html.