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The series of happenings recorded in this chapter reveals most vividly the appalling condition of affairs in the kingdom.
Saul, still nominally king, filled with hatred for David, was devoting all his strength to persecuting David; while the affairs of the nation were becoming more and more involved in hopeless confusion.
While David in exile was almost certainly the popular idol of the people, their fickleness was manifested in the mean treachery of both the Keilites and the Ziphites, who were prepared to maintain favor with Saul by delivering up David to him.
David, with the spirit of true patriotism burning in his heart, waged war successfully against the Philistines, the enemies of the nation. It is evident, however, that his exile and persecution were telling on him, and nervous fear was growing in his heart. Nevertheless, his trust in God remained unshaken, and he appealed to God in his hour of trouble.
The most beautiful incident of this period is the meeting of David and Jonathan in the wood. It was their last meeting, and it manifested that Jonathan's love for David was as strong as ever. Jonathan was firmly convinced that David must eventually become king; and, looking forward to when this should be, he attested his willingness to take second place in the kingdom.
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Morgan, G. Campbell. "Commentary on 1 Samuel 23". "Morgan's Exposition on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany