Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, July 23rd, 2024
the Week of Proper 11 / Ordinary 16
Partner with StudyLight.org as God uses us to make a difference for those displaced by Russia's war on Ukraine.
Click to donate today!

Bible Commentaries
1 Corinthians 16

The Expositor's Greek TestamentExpositor's Greek Testament

Search for…
Enter query below:
Additional Authors


DIVISION VI. BUSINESS, NEWS, AND GREETINGS, 16. The Ap. has delivered his mind to the Cor [2592] upon the questions which prompted this great Ep. He had reserved to the last the profound and solemn problem of the Future Life, in its treatment of which the conceit of intellect and the moral levity that spoiled this powerful Greek Church found their most characteristic expression. To the defence and exposition of the Christian hope of the Resurrection of the Body P. has devoted in chap. 15. all his powers of dialectic and of theological construction, bringing his argument to the glorious conclusion with which, in § 56, the thought of the Ep. culminates. He has thus carried his readers far away from the Cor [2593] atmosphere of jealousy and debate, of sensuality and social corruption, infecting their Church, to seat them in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus. There remain a few matters of personal interest, to be disposed of in two or three paragraphs concerning the collection for Jerusalem (1 Corinthians 16:1-4 ), his own and Timothy’s intended visits , and the invitation declined by Apollos (1 Corinthians 16:5-12 ). These are followed by an energetic final exhortation , into which is woven a commendation of Stephanas and other Cor [2594] now with P. (1 Corinthians 16:13-18 ), and by the epistolary salutations which are full and animated, a word of severe warning being attached to his own affectionate greeting and autograph signature (1 Corinthians 16:19-24 ).

[2592] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2593] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2594] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

Verse 1

1 Corinthians 16:1 . “But about the collection that (is made) for the saints” ( τῆς εἰς τ . ἁγίους ). This clause might be construed as subordinate to the following ὡς διέταξα ; it reads more naturally as a detached title to the par. indicating this, seemingly, as another topic of the Church Letter ( cf. 1 Corinthians 7:1 , 1 Corinthians 8:1 , 1 Corinthians 12:1 ). The subject is alluded to as one in which the Cor [2595] were already interested (see 2 Corinthians 9:2 ). λογία (more correctly spelt λογεία ) = cl [2596] Gr [2597] συλλογή , or ἔρανος ( club-contribution ); elsewhere in Paul χάρις (1 Corinthians 16:3 ), εὐλογία (2 Corinthians 9:5 ), λειτουργία (2 Corinthians 9:12 ), κοινωνία (Romans 15:26 ). Till the other day this word counted as a h.l . in Gr [2598] literature; but the Egyptian Gr [2599] papyri furnish instances of it as a business term, denoting, along with λογεύω (from which it should be derived), the collecting of money either in the way of imposts or voluntary assessments: see Deissmann’s Bibelstudien , pp. 40 ff., Hn [2600] in Meyer’s Kommentar ad loc [2601] The Cor [2602] understand from previous communications who are meant by “the saints” ( cf. Romans 15:31 ): Hf [2603] thinks that the Christians of Jerus. are so called by eminence , but such a distinction is un-Pauline (Galatians 3:28 ); rather, the fact that the collection is made for the saints commends it to saints (1 Corinthians 1:2 : cf. 2 Corinthians 9:12 ff.). Such ministry is part of “the work of the Lord” in which the Cor [2604] , a moment ago, were bidden to “abound” (1 Corinthians 15:58 ). ὥσπερ διέταξα κ . τ . λ .: “Just as I gave order to the Churches of Galatia, so also do you act”. This direction was either given by P. personally on his last visit to Gal. at the outset of the Third Missionary Journey (Acts 18:23 ), more than two years before, or through letter or messengers from Ephesus at a later time. This ref [2605] fairly implies that the arrangement made had been successful in Gal.; the business being completed there some while ago, the Ap. makes no observation upon it in the extant Ep. to the Gal., which was probably contemporary with 1 and 2 Cor. (See Lt [2606] , Introd . to Gal.). On the question as to the part of “Galatia” intended, see Introd . to Gal. in this Comm [2607] , and notes on the relevant passages in Acts.

[2595] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2596] classical.

[2597] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2598] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2599] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2600] C. F. G. Heinrici’s Erklärung der Korintherbriefe (1880), or 1 Korinther in Meyer’s krit.-exegetisches Kommentar (1896).

[2601] ad locum , on this passage.

[2602] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2603] J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht , ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[2604] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2605] reference.

[2606] J. B. Lightfoot’s (posthumous) Notes on Epp. of St. Paul (1895).

[2607] commentary, commentator.

Verses 1-4

1 Corinthians 16:1-4 . § 57. CONCERNING THE COLLECTION. During his Third Missionary Journey P. was collecting money for the relief of the Christian poor in Jerusalem. Two chaps. in the middle of 2 Cor. are devoted to this business, which, as it seems, had moved slowly in the interval between the two Epp. The collection had been set on foot some time ago in Galatia (1 Corinthians 16:1 ); in Macedonia it had been warmly taken up (2 Corinthians 8 f.); from Acts 20:4 we learn that “Asians” also (from Ephesus and the neighbourhood) accompanied P. in the deputation which conveyed the Gentile offering to the mother Church. A little later, in writing to Rome (1 Corinthians 15:25-32 ), the Ap. refers to the collection, with great satisfaction, as completed. Every province of the Pauline mission appears to have aided in this charity, which, while it relieved a distressing need, was prompted also by Paul’s warm love for his people (Romans 9:3 ), and by his desire to knit together the Gentile and Jewish sections of the Church, and to prove to the latter the true faith and brotherhood of the converts from heathenism (2 Corinthians 9:11-14 ). P. had taken part in a similar relief sent from Antioch many years before (Acts 11 f.); and in the Conference of Jerus., when the direction of the Gentile mission was committed to him, the heads of the Judæan Church laid on him the injunction to “remember the poor” (Galatians 2:10 ). Foreign Jews were accustomed, as an act of piety, to replenish the poorfunds of the mother city. The Christian community of Jerus. suffered from chronic poverty. With little natural or commercial wealth, the city lived mainly upon its religious character on the attractions of the Temple and the Feasts thronged by Jews from the whole world; and the Nazarenes, while suffering from the intense bigotry of their compatriots in other ways, would find it esp. difficult to participate in employments connected with religion. 1 Thessalonians 2:14 intimates that the Judæan Churches had recently undergone severe persecution.

Verse 2

1 Corinthians 16:2 rehearses the rule previously laid down for Galatia: “On every first (day) of the week let each of you by himself (= at home) lay up, making a store (of it), whatever he may be prospered in”. μίαν σαββάτου ’ echäd shabbath or bashshabbâth according to Hebrew idiom (see parls.) for the days of the week, the term κυριακὴ ἡμέρα (Revelation 1:10 ) not being yet current, while the heathen name ( dies solis ) is avoided. The earliest mention of this Christian day, going to show that the First Day, not the Sabbath, was already the Sacred Day of the Church ( cf. Acts 20:7 ), appropriate therefore for deeds of charity ( cf. Matthew 12:12 ). παρʼ ἑαυτῷ , apud se, chez lui (see parls). θησαυρίζων , “making a treasure,” describes each householder “paulatim cumulum aliquem faciens” (Gr [2608] ), till at the end the accumulated store should be paid over. εὐοδῶται (from εὖ and ὁδός , to send well on one’s way ) is pr [2609] sbj [2610] , with ἂν of contingency and ὅ , τι in acc [2611] of specification: any little superfluity that Providence might throw in a Cor [2612] Christian’s way, he could put into this sacred hoard (cf. 2 Corinthians 8:12 ). Many in this Church were slaves, without wages or stated income. The Vg [2613] renders, “quod si bene placuerit,” as though reading ὅ , τι ἐὰν εὐδοκῃ ; and Bg [2614] wrongly, “quod commodum sit”. ἵνα μή , ὅταν ἔλθω , τότε κ . τ . λ .: “that there may not be, when I come, collections going on then”. P. would avoid the unseemliness and the difficulty of raising the money suddenly, at the last moment; and he wishes when he comes to be free to devote himself to higher matters ( cf. Acts 6:2 ) “tunc alia agens” (Bg [2615] ).

[2608] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2609] present tense.

[2610] subjunctive mood.

[2611] accusative case.

[2612] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2613] Latin Vulgate Translation.

[2614] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

[2615] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

Verses 3-4

1 Corinthians 16:3-4 . The Cor [2616] are to choose delegates to bear their bounty, who will travel to Jerus. with P., if this be deemed fit. Acts 20:1-4 shows that in the event a large number of representatives of Gentile Churches voyaged with P., doubtless on this common errand. διʼ ἐπιστολῶν may qualify either δοκιμάσητε (Bz [2617] , Cv [2618] , Est., A.V. and R.V. txt., Ed [2619] ) or πέμψω (R.V. marg., with Gr [2620] Ff [2621] , and most moderns). Being chosen by the Cor [2622] , the delegates surely must have credentials from them ( cf. 2 Corinthians 3:1 , and Acts 15:0 , for such letters passing from Church to Church; also 1 Clem. ad Corinth .). At the same time, as P. is directing the whole business, he will “send” the deputies and introduce them at Jerus. On δοκιμάζω , see note to 1 Corinthians 3:13 . ἐὰν δὲ ἄξιον ᾖ κ . τ . λ ., “But if it be worth while that I should journey too, they shall journey with me” a hint that P. would only take part in presenting the collection if the character of the aid sent made it creditable; otherwise the delegates must go alone; he will not associate himself with a mean charity. The inf [2623] (in gen [2624] case), τοῦ κἀμὲ πορεύεσθαι , depends on ἄξιον “worthy of my going,” “si dignum fuerit ut et ego earn” (Vg [2625] ); it can hardly be softened into “if it be right (seemly on any ground: as in 2 Thessalonians 1:3 , where ἄξιον is unqualified) that I should go” (Ed [2626] ) as though the Ap. deprecated being obtrusive; he is guarding his self-respect, being scarcely sure of the liberality of the Cor [2627] “Justa estimatio sui non est superbia” (Bg [2628] ).

[2616] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2617] Beza’s Nov. Testamentum: Interpretatio et Annotationes (Cantab., 1642).

[2618] Calvin’s In Nov. Testamentum Commentarii .

[2619] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians . 2

[2620] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2621] Fathers.

[2622] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2623] infinitive mood.

[2624] genitive case.

[2625] Latin Vulgate Translation.

[2626] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians . 2

[2627] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2628] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

Verses 5-6

1 Corinthians 16:5-6 . “But I will come to you, when I have gone through Macedonia.” The Ap. writes from Ephesus some time before Pentecost (1 Corinthians 16:8 ), probably before Easter (1 Corinthians 16:8 ; see note); he intends to traverse Macedonia on his way ( διέρχομαι , repeated with emphasis, regularly denotes in the Acts an evangelistic tour : see Acts 13:6 , Acts 16:6 , Acts 20:25 , etc.), completing the work of his mission, there so abruptly terminated (Acts 16 f.). This task will require considerable time (it occupied the months of summer and autumn, during which the Ap. penetrated beyond Mac. into Illyria; Romans 15:19 ), so that P. expects to see Cor [2631] not much before winter (1 Corinthians 16:6 ). He adds therefore in explanation, “For I am going through Macedonia ( travelling over the region: pr [2632] , of imminent purpose); but with you haply I will abide ( καταμενῶ , as in Acts 1:13 , signifies, by contrast to διέρχομαι , keeping to Cor . instead of touring through the province), or [even] spend the winter”. Paul will time his visit, if possible, so as to make his winter-quarters in Cor [2633] ; in any case, when he arrives, he will give the Cor [2634] the full benefit of his presence. He did so stay for three months (Acts 20:3 ). For πρὸς , in converse with , see 1 Corinthians 16:7 ; 1 Corinthians 16:10 , 1 Corinthians 2:3 , and parls. τυχὸν (acc [2635] abs. of neut. ptp [2636] ) = εἰ τύχοι (see parl [2637] ) another of the cl [2638] idioms confined to this Ep.; it indicates the uncertainty of human plans, and is piously replaced by ἐὰν ὁ Κύρ . ἐπιτρέψῃ in 1 Corinthians 16:7 . In this plan P. has a further aim, which he mentions to show his dependence on the Cor [2639] : “in order that you may send me forward, wheresoever I may go” i.e. probably, though not certainly, to Jerus. (1 Corinthians 16:4 ); cf. 1 Corinthians 16:11 , 2 Corinthians 1:16 , Romans 15:24 . It would help P., whose infirmities required friendly attentions, to have a good “send-off” on his leaving Europe. A generous “collection for the saints” would be a welcome lift (1 Corinthians 16:1 ; 1 Corinthians 16:4 ).

[2631] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2632] present tense.

[2633] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2634] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2635] accusative case.

[2636] participle

[2637] parallel.

[2638] classical.

[2639] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

Verses 5-12

1 Corinthians 16:5-12 . § 58. VISITS TO CORINTH. The arrangements for the Collection have led P. to speak of his approaching visit to Cor [2629] , and he explains more definitely his plans in this respect (1 Corinthians 16:5-9 ). Timothy’s coming, though not certain, may be looked for speedily; and the Ap., with some solicitude, asks for him considerate treatment (1 Corinthians 16:10 f.). Apollos is not coming at present, as the Cor [2630] seem to have desired and as Paul had urged upon him; he prefers to wait until circumstances are more favourable (1 Corinthians 16:12 ).

[2629] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2630] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

Verse 7

1 Corinthians 16:7 . “For I would not see you now , in passing; for ( γὰρ ) I hope to stay some length of time ( χρόνον τινὰ ) with you, if the Lord permit.” P. could have crossed by sea and taken Cor [2640] on his way to Mac. ( cf. 2 Corinthians 1:15 f.); the Cor [2641] had requested his speedy coming, which might have been so arranged. But such a visit could only have been ἐν παρόδῳ (explaining the ἄρτι ), “in the way-by,” as the summer must be devoted to Mac.; this flying visit would not be of service; there is much to be done at Cor [2642] (1 Corinthians 11:34 , etc), and when the Ap. does come he means to stay “some time“. His recent short visit had been very unsatisfactory (see Introd ., chap. 2). For ἄρτι , see note on 1 Corinthians 4:2 ; it is in tacit contrast with the future, as in 1 Corinthians 13:12 . For ἐπιμεῖναι , “to stay on” (in time) distinguished from καταμένω , “to stay fixedly” (in place or condition: 6), see parls. ἐὰν ὁ Κύρ . κ . τ . λ ., see parls., also to 1 Corinthians 4:19 , pia conditio (Bg [2643] ): Paul’s plans have been repeatedly overruled (Acts 16:6 f.; 1 Thessalonians 2:18 ). He says “if the Lord permit ,” thinking of his visit as a pleasure; but “if the Lord will ,” in the parl [2644] clause, 1 Corinthians 4:18 f., viewing it as a painful duty.

[2640] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2641] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2642] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2643] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

[2644] parallel.

Verses 8-9

1 Corinthians 16:8-9 . “But I stay on in Ephesus until the Pentecost” τῆς πεντηκοστῆς ( ἡμέρας ), “the fiftieth day” from the 16th Nisan in the Passover Feast (see parls.). This suggests that P. is writing not very long before Whitsuntide; 1 Corinthians 5:6 ff. indicated a date for the Ep. immediately antecedent to Easter. 1 Corinthians 16:9 explains why the Ap. must remain at Eph. some time longer, although required at Cor [2645] : “for a door is open to me, great and effectual, and (there are) many adversaries”. This θύρα is defined in Colossians 4:3 ( cf. 2 Corinthians 2:12 ) as a θύρα τοῦ λόγου a door open to the preacher ; in Acts 14:27 it is seen from the other side, as θύρα πίστεως a door for the entrance of the believing hearer ; see parls. for kindred applications of the figure. The door is μεγάλη in respect of its width and the region into which it opens, ἐνεργής in respect of the influence gained by entering it. ἀντικείμενοι πολλοί ( cf. 1 Corinthians 15:32 ): an additional reason for not retreating; cf. Philippians 1:28 . The terrible riot that shortly afterwards drove Paul from Eph. verified this statement (Acts 19:0 ). Evangelism flourishes under fierce opposition; “Sæpe bonum et, contra id, malum simul valde vigent” (Bg [2646] ).

[2645] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2646] Bengel’s Gnomon Novi Testamenti.

Verses 10-11

1 Corinthians 16:10-11 . ἐὰν (not ὅταν ) δὲ ἔλθῃ Τιμόθεος : “But if Timothy come” his coming is not certain . He and Erastus have been before this sent to Macedonia (Acts 19:21 f.) in advance of P., with instructions to go forward to Cor [2647] (1 Corinthians 4:17 above); he might be expected to arrive about the same time as this letter. But local circumstances, or even the report of the unfriendly attitude of the Cor [2648] (Ed [2649] ), might detain him in Mac. He is found in Mac. with P. when some months later 2 Cor. is written: there is no explicit ref [2650] in that Ep. to Timothy’s presence at Cor [2651] in the interval; but Titus’ visit and report are largely in evidence. Ed [2652] says, “In point of fact he (Tim.) did not come “( cf. Lt [2653] , Journal of Sac. and Cl [2654] Philology , ii., 198 ff.; also El [2655] ). But this assertion is too positive. In 1 Corinthians 4:17 above P. announced Tim.’s coming definitely and laid stress upon it. Tim. shares in the Address of 2 Cor., and the fact that he is associated by the Ap. with himself in the significant “we” of 1 Corinthians 7:2 ff. ( cf. 1 Corinthians 2:5-11 ) points to his being involved in some way in the “grief” which P. had suffered from Cor [2656] subsequently to the writing of 1 Cor. Very possibly Timothy was the ἀδικηθεὶς of 2 Corinthians 7:12 , in whose person, seeking as he did to carry out the directions of 1 Corinthians 4:17 , Paul had been insulted by some prominent Cor [2657] Christian ( ὁ ἀδικήσας ). If this actually happened, the apprehensions expressed here about the treatment Tim. might receive, proved only too well-founded: “see (to it) that without fear he may be with you” (or hold converse with you : γένηται πρὸς ὑμᾶς , see 1 Corinthians 2:3 , and parls.) … “let no one then set him at naught”. These words point to Timothy’s diffidence, as well as to his comparative youth: see 1 Timothy 4:12 , and the vein of exhortation in 2 Timothy 2:1-13 and 2 Timothy 3:10 to 2 Timothy 4:18 . Tim. was P.’s complement, as Melanchthon was Luther’s gentle, affectionate, studious, but not of robust or masculine character. The temper of the Cor [2658] Church would be peculiarly trying and discouraging to him. Paul hopes that regard for him will have some restraining effect upon the Cor [2659] τὸ γὰρ ἔργον Κυρίου ( cf. 1 Corinthians 15:58 ) κ . τ . λ . identifies Timothy in the strongest way with P. himself: cf. 1 Corinthians 4:17 , Philippians 2:20 ; similarly respecting Titus, in 2 Corinthians 8:23 . For ἐξουθενέω , see parls. “But send him forward in peace ” for if Tim. attempts the task indicated in 1 Corinthians 4:17 , a rupture is very possible, such as, we gather from 2 Corinthians 2:7 , actually ensued. From the following words, “that he may come to me, for I am awaiting him,” it appears that P. expects Tim’s return before he leaves Eph.: cf. , for the vb [2660] , 1 Corinthians 11:33 . It is doubtful whether μετὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν qualifies the subject “I with the brethren” those of 1 Corinthians 16:12-18 , the Cor [2661] brethren now in Eph. and interested in Tim’s success at Cor [2662] , who are delaying their return until he brings his report (so Hf [2663] , Gd [2664] ); or the object “I await him with (= and) the brethren,” i.e. those, including possibly Erastus, whom P. expects to arrive at Eph. from Cor [2665] along with Tim. (so most interpreters). The relevancy of the words on the latter construction is not obvious. On the former view, “the brethren” of 1 Corinthians 16:11-12 are the same, being the deputies who had brought over the Cor [2666] Church Letter to P., and who are now awaiting Tim’s return before they themselves return home. This hints an additional reason why the Cor [2667] should with all speed send Timothy back to Paul “in peace”.

[2647] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2648] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2649] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians .

[2650] reference.

[2651] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2652] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians .

[2653] J. B. Lightfoot’s (posthumous) Notes on Epp. of St. Paul (1895).

[2654] classical.

[2655] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians .

[2656] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2657] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2658] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2659] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2660] verb

[2661] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2662] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2663] J. C. K. von Hofmann’s Die heilige Schrift N.T. untersucht , ii. 2 (2te Auflage, 1874).

[2664] F. Godet’s Commentaire sur la prem. Ép. aux Corinthiens (Eng. Trans.).

[2665] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2666] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2667] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

Verse 12

1 Corinthians 16:12 . The manner in which the clause Περὶ δὲ Ἀπολλὼ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ is loosely prefixed to the statement of this ver. (“Now about Apollos the brother” ) suggests that Apollos’ coming had been mentioned in the Church Letter: cf. 1 Corinthians 16:1 , 1 Corinthians 7:1 , etc. Respecting Apollos , see notes to 1 Corinthians 1:12 , and Acts 18:24 ff. Considering the way in which Ap. had been made a rival to P. in Cor [2668] , it shows magnanimity on Paul’s side to desire his return, and a modest delicacy on the side of Apollos to decline the request: καὶ πάντως οὐκ ἦν θέλημα ἵνα κ . τ . λ ., “And there was no will at all (it was altogether contrary to his will) that he should come now”. εὐκαιρέω (see parls.) denotes “to have good opportunity”. The present ferment at Cor [2669] affords no καιρὸς for Apollos’ coming. For πάντως , and θέλημα ἵνα , see parls.

[2668] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2669] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

Verses 13-14

1 Corinthians 16:13-14 . Γρηγορεῖτε , στήκετε belong to a class of vbs. peculiar to later Gr [2670] presents based on older perfects; the former from ἐγρήγορα ( ἐγείρω ), the latter from ἕστηκα ( ἵστημι ). The first exhortation recalls 1 Corinthians 15:33 f., the second 1 Corinthians 4:17 , 1Co 10:12 , 1 Corinthians 15:2 ; 1 Corinthians 15:11 ff. ἀνδρίζεσθε , “play the man,” viriliter agite (Vg [2671] ), adds an active element to the passive and defensive attitude implied in the previous impvs.; it looks back to 1 Corinthians 13:11 and 1 Corinthians 14:20 (relating to the glossolalia ), but exhorts in general to the courageous prosecution of the Christian life by the Cor [2672] , who were enfeebled by contact with heathen society (x., 2 Corinthians 6:11 ff.). This word is common in cl [2673] Gr [2674] ; cf. 1Ma 2:64 , ἰσχύσατε κ . ἀνδρίζεσθε ἐν τῷ νόμῳ , also the Homeric ἀνέρες ἐστέ . κραταιοῦσθε enjoins manful activity, in its most energetic form (see parls.). κράτος , from which, through κραταιός (1 Peter 5:6 ), the vb [2675] is derived (cl [2676] Gr [2677] κρατύνω ), signifies superior power, mastery (see Colossians 1:11 , 1 Timothy 6:16 ): “be [not merely strong, but] mighty ”. The four impvs. of 1 Corinthians 16:13 are directed respectively against the heedlessness, fickleness, childishness , and moral enervation of the Cor [2678] : the fifth “All your doings, let them be done (or carried on: γινέσθω ) in love” reiterates the appeal of chh. 8 and 13 touching the radical fault of this Church; see also 1 Corinthians 2:3 , 1 Corinthians 4:6 , 1Co 6:1-8 , 1 Corinthians 11:21 f., 1 Corinthians 11:12 . as, etc.

[2670] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2671] Latin Vulgate Translation.

[2672] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2673] classical.

[2674] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2675] verb

[2676] classical.

[2677] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2678] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

Verses 13-18

1 Corinthians 16:13-18 . § 59. CONCLUDING HOMILY. According to the Apostle’s wont, at the end of his letter he gathers up the burden of his message into a single concise and stirring exhortation (1 Corinthians 16:13 f.). Watchfulness , steadfastness, manly vigour , above all Christian love , were the qualities in which this Church was lacking. Their “love” they would have a particular opportunity of showing to the family of Stephanas, who had been foremost in works of benevolence (1 Corinthians 16:15 f.); for St. is now returning home in charge of this Ep. with his two companions, after they had brought the letter of the Church to P. and cheered him by their society. The deputation has done a timely public service in the best spirit; their kindly offices must be duly acknowledged (1 Corinthians 16:17 f.).

Verses 15-16

1 Corinthians 16:15-16 urge particular instances of the above ἐν ἀγάπῃ γινέσθω . The ἵνα clause of 1 Corinthians 16:16 is complementary to παρακαλῶ (see note on 1 Corinthians 1:10 ), and is suspended to make room for the explanatory οἴδατε … ἑαυτοὺς : “you know that the household of Stephanas is the first-fruit of Achaia, and that they set themselves for ministering to the saints”. τὴν οἰκίαν κ . τ . λ ., acc [2679] by attraction to οἴδατε , according to the well-known Gr [2680] usage with vbs. of this class (Wr [2681] , p. 781). There were earlier individual converts in Achaia (see Acts 17:34 ), but with this family the Gospel took root in the province and the earnest appeared of the subsequent ingathering: cf. Romans 16:5 ; also 1 Corinthians 1:16 above, and note. The St. family must have been of independent means; for ἔταξαν ἑαυτοὺς ( they arrayed or appointed themselves made this their business) implies a systematic laying out of themselves for service, such as is possible only to those free to dispose, as they choose, of their persons and their time; see this idiom in Plato, Rep ., ii., 371C. “The saints” can hardly be the Jerus. saints of 1 Corinthians 16:1 , since εἰς διακονίαν is quite general, and the last words of 1 Corinthians 16:16 imply manifold Christian labour; the present commission of St. to Eph. is an instance of “service to the saints”. P. “exhorts” his “brethren … that you also (in return for their service to you) submit yourselves to such as these ( τ . τοιούτοις , referring to the interpolated οἴδατε κ . τ . λ .), and to every one that shares in the work and labours”. These persons did not constitute a body of Church officers; we find no traces as yet of an official order in the church of Cor [2682] : the Ap. enjoins spontaneous submission to the direction of those able and disposed to lead in good works. The prp [2683] in συν - εργοῦντι refers not to St. specifically, still less to P., but generally to co-operative labour in the Church, while κοπιῶντι implies labour carried to the point of toil or suffering (see note on κόπος , 1 Corinthians 3:8 ; also 1 Corinthians 15:58 ). Loyal and hard work in the cause of Christ earns willing respect and deference in the Church: cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:12 f.

[2679] accusative case.

[2680] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2681] Winer-Moulton’s Grammar of N.T. Greek (8th ed., 1877).

[2682] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2683] preposition.

Verses 17-18

1 Corinthians 16:17-18 . “But I rejoice at the presence ( or coming) of Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaïcus.” The stress lying on παρουσίᾳ explains the introductory δέ : “You must show respect to such men, when they reach home; but I am glad that just now they are here ”. Fortunatus (Lat. name, and common) and Achaïcus (Gr [2684] , and rare) are Stephanas’ companions in the deputation; the three will speedily return to Cor [2685] Since P. thus commends them at the end of his Ep., written in reply to the Letter they had brought from Cor [2686] , perhaps they were to be its bearers also. On Stephanas , see 1 Corinthians 1:16 . The two latter names are also h.ll . in N.T.; a Fortunatus appears in Clement’s list of emissaries from Rom. to Cor [2687] ( ad Cor . § 65). Ed [2688] supposes all three to be slaves ( Achaïcus , at least, resembles a slave-name), and identifies them with οἱ τ . Χλοῆς of 1 Corinthians 1:11 ; but this does not comport with the position given to Stephanas in 1 Corinthians 16:15 f.; see, further, note on 1 Corinthians 1:11 . (“I rejoice at their presence), because the ( or my) lack of you these have filled up”. ὑμέτερον represents the objective gen [2689] ( cf. 1 Corinthians 15:31 ): the presence of the three with P. could not make up any lack in Cor [2690] , but it made up to P. for the absence of the Cor ., supplying him, representatively, with their desired society. El [2691] and others read the poss. pron [2692] subjectively “what you were lacking in ( i.e. , your want of access) towards me”: this constr [2693] is consistent with the usage of ὑστέρημα (see parls.); but the former suits better the antithesis to παρουσία (Ed [2694] ), and Paul’s fine courtesy. “For they refreshed my spirit and yours.” ἀναπαύω (see parls.) describes the restful effect of friendly converse and sympathy. Paul adds καὶ ὑμῶν , realising that the comfort of heart received by himself will react upon his friends at Cor [2695] : the Cor [2696] will be cheered to know that their fellowship, in the persons of S., [2697] ., and A., has so greatly cheered him at a time of weariness and heavy trial ( cf. 2 Corinthians 2:3 ; 2 Corinthians 7:3 ).

[2684] Greek, or Grotius’ Annotationes in N.T.

[2685] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2686] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2687] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2688] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians . 2

[2689] genitive case.

[2690] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2691] C. J. Ellicott’s St. Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians .

[2692] pronoun.

[2693] construction.

[2694] T. C. Edwards’ Commentary on the First Ep. to the Corinthians . 2

[2695] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2696] Corinth, Corinthian or Corinthians.

[2697] Codex Augiensis (sæc. ix.), a Græco-Latin MS., at Trinity College, Cambridge, edited by Scrivener in 1859. Its Greek text is almost identical with that of , and it is therefore not cited save where it differs from that MS. Its Latin version, f, presents the Vulgate text with some modifications.

1 Corinthians 16:18 b repeats in another form the advice of 1 Corinthians 16:16 : “Acknowledge (know well) then such men as these”. For τοὺς τοιούτους , see parls., and 1 Corinthians 16:16 . ἐπιγινώσκω (see parls.) denotes strictly accurate knowledge , of persons or things; but knowledge of personal qualities implies corresponding regard to and treatment of those who possess such qualities: cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:12 f.

Bibliographical Information
Nicoll, William Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on 1 Corinthians 16". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/egt/1-corinthians-16.html. 1897-1910.
Ads FreeProfile