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Bible Commentaries

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 6



Verses 1-5

Luke 6:1-5 . The ears of corn (Matthew 12:1-8 , Mark 2:23-28 ). ἐν σαββάτῳ : Mk. makes no attempt to locate this incident in his history beyond indicating that it happened on Sabbath . Mt. uses a phrase which naturally suggests temporal sequence, but to which in view of what goes before one can attach no definite meaning. Lk. on the other hand would seem to be aiming at very great precision if the adjective qualifying σαββάτῳ δευτεροπρώτῳ , were genuine. But it is omitted in the important group [58] [59] [60] , and in other good documents, and this fact, combined with the extreme unlikelihood of Lk.’s using a word to which it is now, and must always have been, impossible to attach any definite sense, makes it highly probable that this word is simply a marginal gloss, which found its way, like many others, into the text. How the gloss arose, and what it meant for its author or authors, it is really not worth while trying to conjecture, though such attempts have been made. Vide Tischendorf, N. T., ed. viii., for the critical history of the word. ἤσθιον , ate, indicating the purpose of the plucking, with Mt. Mk. omits this, vide notes there. ψώχοντες τ . χ ., rubbing with their hands; peculiar to Lk., indicating his idea of the fault (or that of the tradition he followed); rubbing was threshing on a small scale, an offence against one of the many minor rules for Sabbath observance. This word occurs here only in N. T., and is not classical.

[58] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[59] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[60] Codex Regius--eighth century, represents an ancient text, and is often in agreement with א and B.

Verse 2

Luke 6:2 . τινὲς : more exact than Mt. and Mk., who say the Pharisees generally, but not necessary to make their meaning clear. Of course it was only some of the class.

Verse 3

Luke 6:3 . οὐδὲ , for Mk.’s οὐδέποτε and Mt.’s οὐκ = not even; have ye so little understood the spirit of the O. T.? (De Wette). The word might be analysed into οὐ , δὲ , when it will mean: but have ye not then read this? So Hofmann, Nösgen, Hahn. ὁπότε , here only in N. T., if even here, for many good MSS. have ὅτε (W.H [61] ).

[61] Westcott and Hort.

Verse 4

Luke 6:4 . Lk. contents himself with the essential fact: hunger, overruling a positive law concerning the shewbread. No reference to the high priest, as in Mk., and no additional instance of the Sabbath law superseded by higher interests, as in Mt. (Matthew 12:5 ). The controversy no longer lives for him, and his accounts are apt to be colourless and secondary.

Verse 5

Luke 6:5 . καὶ ἔλεγεν : in Lk. this important logion about the Son of Man’s Lordship over the Sabbath is simply an external annex to what goes before = and He said: instead of arising out of and crowning the argument, as in Mt., and partly in Mk., though the latter uses the same phrase in introducing the logion peculiar to him about the Sabbath being made for man. If Lk. had Mk. before him, how could he omit so important a word? Perhaps because it involved a controversial antithesis not easily intelligible to Gentiles, and because the Lordship of the Son of Man covered all in his view. How did he and his readers understand that Lordship?

Verse 6

Luke 6:6 . ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ : simply intended to indicate that the following incident, like the one going before, happened on a Sabbath. Observe Lk. uses here, as in Luke 6:1 ; Luke 6:5 , the singular for the Sabbath. τὴν συν : the article here might point to a particular synagogue, as in Mt., or be generic. διδάσκειν , present, εἰσελθεῖν , aorist: the entering an act, the preaching continuous. He was preaching when the following happened. καἰχεὶρ : by comparison with Mt. and Mk. Lk. is here paratactic and Hebraistic in construction. But Palairet, against Grotius emphasising the Hebraism, cites from Aelian, Hist. Anim. (lib. xii., c. 24): ἐν τῇ θαλάτττῇ Ἐρυθρᾷ ἰχθὺς γίνεται , καὶ ὄνομα αὐτῷ ὑγρὸς φοῖνιξ . ἡ δεξιὰ , the right hand. This particular peculiar to Lk., with the Hebrew style, proves, some think (Godet, Hahn), a source distinct from Mt. or Mk. Not necessarily. It may be an inference by Lk., added to magnify the beneficence of the miracle. The right hand the working hand, the privation great, the cure the more valuable.

Verses 6-11

Luke 6:6-11 . The withered hand (Matthew 12:9-14 , Mark 3:1-6 ).

Verse 7

Luke 6:7 . παρετηροῦντο , they kept watching, in a sly, furtive manner, ex obliquo et occulto , Bengel on Mk. εἰ θεραπεύει , whether He is going to heal, if that is to be the way of it.

Verse 8

Luke 6:8 . ᾔδει : a participle might have been expected here = He knowing their thoughts said, etc. ἔγειρε καὶ στῆθι , etc.: this command was necessary to bring the matter under the notice of the audience present, who as yet knew nothing of the thoughts of the Pharisees, and possibly were not aware that the man with the withered hand was present.

Verse 9

Luke 6:9 . ἀγαθοποιῆσαι , κακοποιῆσαι : on the meaning of these words and the issue raised vide on Mk.

Verse 10

Luke 6:10 . περιβλεψάμενος . Lk. borrows this word from Mk., but omits all reference to the emotions he ascribes to Jesus: anger mixed with pity. He looks round merely waiting for an answer to His pointed question. None being forthcoming, He proceeds to heal: “qui tacet, consentit,” Bornemann.

Verse 11

Luke 6:11 . ἀνοίας : they were filled with senseless anger . They were “mad” at Jesus, because He had broken the Sabbath, as they conceived it, in a way that would make Him popular: humanity and preternatural power combined. τί ἂν ποιήσαιεν : ἂν with the optative in an indirect question, in Lk. only, following classic usage. This combination of occasional classicism with frequent Hebraism is curious. It is noticeable that Lk. does not impute murderous intentions to the opponents of Jesus at this stage, nor combination with politicians to effect truculent designs ( vide Mark 3:6 ).

Verse 12

Luke 6:12 . ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις : a vague expression, but suggestive of some connection with foregoing encounters. ἐξελθεῖν , went out; whence not indicated, probably from a town (Capernaum?) into the solitude of the mountains. εἰς τὸ ὄρος : as in Matthew 5:1 . and Mark 3:13 , to the hill near the place where He had been. προσεύξασθαι , to pray, not in Mk.; might be taken for granted. But Lk. makes a point of exhibiting Jesus as a devotional Model, often praying, and especially at critical times in His life. The present is viewed as a very special crisis, hence what follows. ἦν διανυκτερεύων , etc., He was spending the whole night in prayer to God; διανυκτερεύων occurs here only in N. T. τοῦ θεοῦ is genitive objective: prayer of which God is the object; but if προσευχὴ were taken as = a place for prayer in the open air, as in Acts 16:13 , we should get the poetic idea of the proseucha of God the mountains!

Verses 12-19

Luke 6:12-19 . On the hill (Matthew 4:24-25 ; Matthew 10:2-4 ; Mark 3:7-19 ).

Verse 13

Luke 6:13 . τοὺς μαθητὰς , the disciples, of whom a considerable number have gathered about Jesus, and who have followed Him to the hill. ἀποστόλους , Apostles, used by Lk. in the later sense, here and elsewhere. The word is more frequent in his Gospel than in Mt. and Mk. (six times in Lk., once in Mt., twice in Mk.).

Verse 14

Luke 6:14 . Σίμωνα : here follows the list much the same as in Mt. and Mk. Lk., though he has already called Simon, Peter (Luke 5:8 ), here mentions that Jesus gave him the name. In the third group of four Judas Jacobi takes the place of Thaddaeus in Mk. and Lebbaeus in Mt. and Simon the Kananite is called Simon the Zealot. Of Judas Iscariot it is noted that he became a traitor, “turned traitor” (Field, Ot. Nor. ). προδότης has no article, and therefore should not be rendered the traitor as in A. V [62] and R. V [63] When the verb is used it is always παραδιδόναι .

[62] Authorised Version.

[63] Revised Version.

Verse 17

Luke 6:17 . καταβὰς , descending , with the Twelve, suggesting descent to the foot of the hills, the plain below. Yet the expression τόπου πεδινοῦ is peculiar; hardly what we should expect if the reference were to the plain beside the lake; rather suggestive of a flat space lower down the hill. πεδινὸς , here only in N. T. The descent takes place in order to the delivery of a discourse which, with the choice of the Apostles, constitutes the occasion with reference to which Jesus had spent the night in prayer. The audience consists of three classes separately named (1) the Twelve, (2) the company of disciples described as an ὄχλος πολὺς , (3) a multitude ( πλῆθος ) gathered from a wide area. This is the same multitude from which in Mk.’s narrative Jesus escaped to the hill, taking His disciples with Him, to get rest, and presumably to devote some leisure time to their instruction. Of this desire to escape from the crowd, so apparent in Mk., there is no trace in Lk. In indicating the sources of this great human stream Lk. omits Galilee as superfluous, mentions Judaea and Jerusalem, passing over ldumaea and Peraea (Mark 3:8 ), and winds up with Tyre and Sidon, defining the territory there whence people came by the expression τῆς παραλίου ( χώρας understood), the sea-coast. The people come from all these places to hear Jesus ( ἀκοῦσαι αὐτοῦ ) in the first place, as if in expectation of a great discourse, and also to be healed. The eagerness to get healing even by touch, of which Mk. gives so graphic a picture (Luke 3:10 ), is faintly indicated by ἐζήτουν ( ἐζήτει , T. R.).

Verse 19

Luke 6:19 . δύναμις may be nominative both to ἐξήρχετο and to ἰατο (A. V [64] and R. V [65] ), or we may render: “power went forth from Him and He healed all”.

[64] Authorised Version.

[65] Revised Version.

Verse 20

Luke 6:20 . ἐπάρας τ . ὀφ .: in Lk. the Preacher lifts up His eyes upon His audience ( τ . μαθητὰς , who are themselves a crowd), in Mt. He opens His mouth; both expressions introducing a solemn set discourse. Lk.’s phrase suggests a benignant look, answering to the nature of the utterance. μακάριοι : Lk. has only four Beatitudes , of which the poor , the hungry , the weeping , the Persecuted are the objects; the sorrows not the activities of the children of the kingdom the theme. πτωχοί , πεινῶντες , κλαἰοντες are to be taken literally as describing the social condition of those addressed. They are characteristics of those who are supposed to be children of the kingdom, not (as in Mt.) conditions of entrance. The description corresponds to the state of the early Church. It is as if Jesus were addressing a church meeting and saying: Blessed are ye, my brethren, though poor, etc., for in the Kingdom of God, and its blessings, present and prospective, ye have ample compensation. Note the use of the second person. In Mt. Jesus speaks didactically in the third person. Christ’s words are adapted to present circumstances, but it is not necessary to suppose that the adaptation proceeds from an ebionitic circle, ascetic in spirit and believing poverty to be in itself a passport to the kingdom, and riches the way to perdition.

Verses 20-26

Luke 6:20-26 . First part of the discourse: Beatitudes and Woes (Matthew 5:1-12 ).

Verses 20-49

Luke 6:20-49 . The Sermon (Matthew 5-7). That it is the same sermon as Mt. reports in chapters 5 7 may be regarded as beyond discussion. How, while the same, they came to be so different, is a question not quite easy to answer. There probably was addition to the original utterance in the case of Mt., and there was almost certainly selection involving omission in the case of Lk.’s version, either on his part or on the part of those who prepared the text he used. Retouching of expression in the parts common to both reports is, of course, also very conceivable. As it stands in Lk. the great utterance has much more the character of a popular discourse than the more lengthy, elaborate version of Mt. In Mt. it is didache , in Lk. kerygma a discourse delivered to a great congregation gathered for the purpose, with the Apostles and disciples in the front benches so to speak, a discourse exemplifying the “words of grace” (Luke 4:22 ) Jesus was wont to speak, the controversial antithesis (Matthew 5:17-48 ) eliminated, and only the evangelic passages retained; a sermon serving at once as a model for “Apostles” and as a gospel for the million.

Verses 22-23

Luke 6:22-23 . In the corresponding passage in Mt. there is first an objective didactic statement about the persecuted. then an expansion in the second person. Here all is in the second person, and the terms employed are such as suited the experience of the early Christians, especially those belonging to the Jewish Church, suffering, at the hands of their unbelieving countrymen, wrong in the various forms indicated hatred, separation, calumny, ejection. ἀφορίσωσιν may point either to separation in daily life (Keil, Hahn) or to excommunication from the synagogue (so most commentaries) = the Talmudic נִדָּה . In the former case one naturally finds the culminating evil of excommunication in the last clause ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄ . ὑ . = erasing the name from the membership of the synagogue. In the latter case this clause will rather point to the vile calumnies afterwards heaped upon the excommunicated. “Absentium nomen, ut improborum hominum, differre rumoribus,” Grotius.

Verse 23

Luke 6:23 . σκιρτήσατε , leap for joy; the word occurs in Luke 1:41 ; Luke 1:44 , and this and other terms found in the sermon have led some to infer that Lk. uses as his source a version of the discourse emanating from a Jewish-Christian circle. Vide the list of words in J. Weiss, Meyer, note, p. 387. Vide also Feine, Vork. Überlief .

Verses 24-26

Luke 6:24-26 . πλὴν , but, used here adversatively, a favourite word with Lk., suggesting therefore the hypothesis that he is responsible for the “woes” following, peculiar to his version of the sermon. ἀπέχετε , ye have in full; riches and nothing besides your reward ( cf. Matthew 6:2 ).

Verse 25

Luke 6:25 . ἐμπεπλησμένοι , the sated, a class as distinct in character as the δεδιωγμένοι of Matthew 5:10 , on whom vide remarks there. Readers can picture the sated class for themselves.

Verse 26

Luke 6:26 . This woe is addressed, not to the rich and full without, but to the disciples within, and points out to them that to be free from the evils enumerated in Luke 6:22 is not a matter of congratulation, but rather a curse, as indicative of a disloyalty to the faith and the Master, which makes them rank with false prophets.

Verse 27

Luke 6:27 . ὑμῖν λέγω : Lk. here uses the phrase with which Mt. introduces each dictum of Jesus in opposition to the dicta of the scribes. But of the many dicta of the Lord reported in Mt. he has preserved only one, that relating to the duty of loving (Matthew 5:44 ). The injunction to love enemies is much weakened in force by omission of the antithesis: love neighbours and hate enemies. As if to compensate Lk. gives the precept twice , (1) as a general head under which to collect sayings culled from the section of the discourse omitted (Matthew 5:17-42 ), (2) as a protest against limiting love to those who love us (Luke 6:35 , cf. Luke 6:32 ). τοῖς ἀκούουσιν , to you who hear; a phrase by which the discourse is brought back to the actual audience from the rich and the false disciples apostrophised in the preceding verses. It is an editorial phrase. καλῶς ποιεῖτε , etc.: Lk., in contrast with Mt. (true text), enlarges here, as if to say: you must love in every conceivable case, even in connection with the most aggravated evil treatment. In the clause enjoining prayer for such as have done wrong Lk. substitutes ἐπηρεαζόντων (Luke 6:28 ) for Mt.’s διωκόντων = those who insult you, the people it is hardest to pray for. Persecution may be very fierce, at the prompting of conscience, yet respectful.

Verses 27-35

Luke 6:27-35 . The law of love (Matthew 5:38-48 ).

Verse 29

Luke 6:29 = Matthew 5:39-40 with some changes: τύπτειν for ῥαπίζειν , παρέχειν for στρέφειν ; αἴροντος suggests the idea of robbery instead of legal proceedings pointed at by Mt.’s κριθῆναι ; ἱμάτιον and χιτῶνα change places, naturally, as the robber takes first the upper garment; for Mt.’s ἄφες Lk. puts μὴ κωλύσῃς = withhold not (for the construction τινὰ ἀπό τινος κωλύειν , which Bornemann thought unexampled, vide Genesis 23:6 , Sept [66] ).

[66] Septuagint.

Verse 30

Luke 6:30 . Lk. passes over Mt.’s instance of compulsory service (Matthew 5:41 ), perhaps because it would require explanation, or was not a practical grievance for his readers, and goes on to the duty of generous giving, which is to be carried the length of cheerfully resigning what is taken from us by force.

Verse 31

Luke 6:31 . Lk. brings in here the law of reciprocity (Matthew 7:12 ), hardly in its proper place, as the change from singular to plural shows, but in sympathy with what goes before, though not quite in line, and therefore inserted at this point as the best place to be found for the golden rule. It seems to be meant as a general heading for the particular hypothetical cases following = you would like men to love you, therefore love them whether they love you or not, etc.

Verse 32

Luke 6:32 . χάρις , here and in the following verses stands for Mt.’s μισθὸς , as if to avoid a word of legal sound and substitute an evangelical term instead. Yet Lk. retains μισθὸς in Luke 6:23 . χάρις probably means not “thanks” from men but favour from God. It is a Pauline word, and apparently as such in favour with Lk. Vide on Luke 4:22 . ἁμαρτωλοὶ here and in Luke 6:33-34 for τελῶναι and ἐθνικοὶ in Mt., a natural alteration, but much weakening the point; manifestly secondary.

Verse 33

Luke 6:33 . For Mt.’s salutation Lk. substitutes doing good ( ἀγαθοποιῆτε ).

Verse 34

Luke 6:34 . This example is robbed of its point if it be supposed that Lk. had an ascetic bias. If a man despise money there is no merit in lending without expecting repayment.

Verse 35

Luke 6:35 . πλὴν , but , in opposition to all these hypothetical cases. μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες , “hoping for nothing again,” A. V [67] , is the meaning the context requires, and accepted by most interpreters, though the verb in later Greek means to despair, hence the rendering “never despairing” in R. V [68] The reading μηδένα ἀπ . would mean: causing no one to despair by refusing aid. υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου , sons of the Highest , a much inferior name to that in Mt. In Lk. to be sons of the Highest is the reward of noble, generous action; in Mt. to be like the Father in heaven is set before disciples as an object of ambition. χρηστός , kind; by generalising Lk. misses the pathos of Mt.’s concrete statement (Luke 6:45 ), which is doubtless nearer the original.

[67] Authorised Version.

[68] Revised Version.

Verse 36

Luke 6:36 corresponds to Matthew 5:48 , which fitly closes the promulgation of the great law of love = be ye therefore perfect, as your Father in heaven is perfect ( vide notes there). Lk. alters the precept both in its expression ( οἰκτίρμονες for τέλειοι ), and in its setting , making it begin a new train of thought instead of winding up the previous one = be compassionate ( οὖν omitted, [69] [70] [71] [72] , etc.) as, etc. the precepts following being particulars under that general. γίνεσθε , imperative, for the future in Mt. οἰκτίρμονες : a legitimate substitution, as the perfection inculcated referred to loving enemies, and giving opportunity for setting forth the doctrine of God’s free grace. καθὼς for Mt.’s ὡς , common in Lk. (twenty-eight times), witnessing to editorial revision. ὁ πατὴρ ὑ .: without ὁ οὐράνιος , which is implied in the epithet “the Highest” (Luke 6:35 ).

[69] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[70] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[71] Codex Bezae

[72] Codex Regius--eighth century, represents an ancient text, and is often in agreement with א and B.

Verses 36-38

Luke 6:36-38 . Mercifulness inculcated. God the pattern .

Verse 37

Luke 6:37 . In these special precepts it is implied throughout that God acts as we are exhorted to act. They give a picture of the gracious spirit of God. καὶ , connecting the following precept as a special with a general. No καὶ in Matthew 7:1 , where begins a new division of the sermon. In Mt. the judging condemned is referred to as a characteristic Pharisaic vice. Here it is conceived of as internal to the disciple-circle, as in James 4:12 . ἀπολύετε , set free, as a debtor (Matthew 18:27 ), a prisoner, or an offender ( τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἀπολυθῆναι , 2Ma 12:45 ).

Verse 38

Luke 6:38 . δίδοτε : this form of mercy is suggested by Matthew 7:2 , ἐνμέτρῳ μετρεῖτε , etc.: be giving, implying a constant habit, and therefore a generous nature. μέτρον καλὸν , good, generous measure; these words and those which follow apply to man’s giving as well as to the recompense with which the generous giver shall be rewarded. πεπιεσμένον , etc., pressed down, shaken, and overflowing; graphic epexegesis of good measure, all the terms applicable to dry goods, e.g. , grain. Bengel takes the first as referring to dry ( in aridis ), the second to soft ( in mollibus ), the third to liquids ( in liquidis ). κόλπον : probably the loose bosom of the upper robe gathered in at the waist, useful for carrying things (De Wette, Holtz., H. C., al. ). It is implied that God gives so, e.g. , “plenteous redemption” (Psalms 130:7 ).

Verse 39

Luke 6:39 . εἶπε δὲ : the Speaker is represented here as making a new beginning, the connection of thought not being apparent. Grotius says plainly that there is no connection, and that Lk. has deemed it fitting to introduce here a logion that must have been spoken at another time. Mt. has a similar thought to that in Luke 6:39 , not in the sermon but in Luke 15:14 . τυφλὸς τυφλὸν : viewing the sermon as an ideal address to a church, this adage may apply to Christians trying to guide brethren in the true way (James 5:19 ), and mean that they themselves must know the truth.

Verses 39-45

Luke 6:39-45 . Proverbial lore .

Verse 40

Luke 6:40 . The connection here also is obscure; the adage might be taken as directed against the conceit of scholars presuming to criticise their teachers, which is checked by the reminder that the utmost height that can be reached by the fully equipped ( κατηρτισμένος , a Pauline word, 1 Corinthians 1:10 , cf. 2 Timothy 3:17 , ἐξηρτισμένος ) scholar is to be on a level with his teacher.

Verse 41

Luke 6:41 introduces a thought which in Mt. stands in immediate connection with that in Luke 6:37 (Matthew 7:1-3 ). If the view of Luke 6:40 , above suggested, be correct, then this and the next verses may also be understood as referring still to the relations between teacher and taught in the Church, rather than to the vices of the Pharisees, which in Lk.’s version of the sermon are very much left out of account. Censoriousness is apt to be a fault of young converts, and doubtless it was rife enough in the apostolic age. On the parable of the mote and the beam vide on Matthew 7:3-5 .

Verse 42

Luke 6:42 . οὐ βλέπων : this is one of the few instances in N. T. of participles negatived by οὐ . The οὐ in such cases may = μὴ , which in classical Greek has the force of a condition, οὐ being used only to state a fact ( vide Burton, § 485).

Verses 43-45

Luke 6:43-45 . In Mt. these parabolic sayings are connected with a warning against false prophets (Matthew 7:15-19 ). Here the connection is not obvious, though the thread is probably to be found in the word ὑποκριτά , applied to one who by his censoriousness claims to be saintly, yet in reality is a greater sinner than those he blames. This combination of saint and sinner is declared to be impossible by means of these adages.

Verse 44

Luke 6:44 . For τριβόλοι in Mt., Lk. puts βάτος = thorn bush, rubus , and for συλλέγουσιν applied to both thorns and thistles in Mt., Lk. uses in connection with βάτου τρυγῶσιν , the proper word for grape-gathering.

Verse 45

Luke 6:45 . θησαυροῦ τῆς καρδίας : either, the treasure which is in the heart, or the treasure which the heart is (Hahn). In either case the sense is: as is the heart, so is the utterance.

Verse 46

Luke 6:46 , introducing the epilogue, rather than winding up the previous train of thought, answers to Matthew 7:21-23 ; here direct address (2nd person), there didactic (3rd person); here a pointed question, and paratactic structure as of an orator, in lively manner, applying his sermon, there a general statement as to what is necessary to admission into the Kingdom of Heaven οὐ πᾶςλέγων , etc.

Verse 47

Luke 6:47 . πᾶςἐρχόμενος , etc.: the style of address here corresponds to the idea of the discourse suggested by Lk.’s presentation throughout, the historical Sermon on the Mount converted into an ideal sermon in a church = every one that cometh to me by becoming a Christian, and heareth my words generally, not these words in particular.

Verses 47-49

Luke 6:47-49 . The epilogue (Matthew 7:24-27 ).

Verse 48

Luke 6:48 . ἔσκαψε καὶ ἐβάθυνε , dug, and kept deepening. A Hebraism, say Grotius and others = dug deeply. But Raphel produces an example from Xenophon of the same construction: σαφηνίζει τε καὶ ἀληθεύει for ἀληθῶς σαφηνίζει ( Oeconomici , cap. xx.). πλημμύρης (from πίμπλημι , ἅπ . λεγ . in N.T.), a flood, “the sudden rush of a spate,” Farrar (C. G. T.); “Hochwasser,” Weizsäcker. προσέρρηξεν , broke against, here and in Luke 6:49 only, in N. T.

Verse 49

Luke 6:49 . χωρὶς θεμελίου , without a foundation; an important editorial comment. The foolish builder did not make a mistake in choosing a foundation. His folly lay in not thinking of a foundation, but building at haphazard on the surface. Vide notes on Mt. for the characteristics of the two builders. τὸ ῥῆγμα ( πτῶσις in Mt.), the collapse, here only in N. T. This noun is used to answer to the verb προσέρρηξεν .

The impression produced by the foregoing study is that Lk’s version of the Sermon on the Mount, while faithfully reproducing at least a part of our Lord’s teaching on the hill, gives us that teaching, not in its original setting, but readapted so as to serve the practical purposes of Christian instruction, either by Lk. or by some one before him.

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Bibliographical Information
Nicoll, William Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 6". The Expositor's Greek Testament. 1897-1910.