Saturday, June 3rd, 2023
the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary Garner-Howes
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Acts 2". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
commentaries/ eng/ ghb/ acts-2.html. 1985.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Acts 2". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/
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Church Empowered by Holy Spirit of Promise V. 1-13
1) "And when the day of Pentecost was fully come (Kai ento sumplerousthai ten hemeran tes pentekostes) "And when (in the day of Pentecost was completed," was now come. Pentecost was the fiftieth day from the second day of the Passover with an interval of seven weeks, called the Feast of Weeks in the Old Testament, Leviticus 23:15-16; Deuteronomy 16:9.
2) "They were all with one accord in one place " (esan pantes homou epi to auto) "They (the hundred and twenty of the church) were all together of one accord, in harmony, in one place," perhaps in one room referred to in Acts 1:15. Too many congregations are in one place today with two parties 1. accord, and 2. discord.
The feast of Pentecost, described in Leviticus 23:15-22, may be considered with the descent of the Holy Spirit as its antitype as he came down to empower and dedicate the church as one body, one assembly body, to bear the gospel of Jesus Christ to all nations, Luke 24:46-48. Leaven was present to signify sin that will always have some presence in the church, because the carnal nature remains in every baptized believer in every church, Matthew 13:33; Acts 5:1; Acts 5:10; Acts 15:1. The descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost did not create the church, organize or form the church, but empowered it as the church, congregation, or “you all" people Jesus called out, organized, led, and commissioned before His crucifixion and later resurrection and ascension into heaven, John 14:16-17; John 14:26; John 15:26-27; John 16:7-11; Luke 24:49.
1) "And suddenly there came," (kai egentoaphno) "And there was (became, or existed) suddenly," instantly, in an instant, or in a moment.
2) "A sound from heaven," (ek tou ouranou hechos) "A sound out of (originating or emanating) from heaven," of Divine descent, from above, sent from the Father, John 14:26.
3) "As of a rushing mighty wind," (hosper pheromenes pnoes biaias) "Just as if being borne of a violent wind," or as if borne by a powerful ferry boat, unstoppable. The words describe a Supernatural, not natural, occurrence. The wind is often used in the Scriptures to symbolize Divine presence of the working, generating, life-giving power and presence of the Holy Spirit, 2 Samuel 5:24-25; 1 Kings 19:11-13; John 3:8; Ecclesiastes 11:5.
4) "And it filled all the house," (kai eperosen holon ton oikon) "And it (the sound) filled all the house," entered throughout the room, the dwelling-place, perhaps still the upper room, Acts 1:13; Acts 1:15.
5) "Where they were sitting," (hou esan kathemenoi) "Where they were being seated," or reclined, in waiting, tarrying obedience, as they had for ten days, for this special occasion, with church-long consequences thereafter, Luke 24:45-49; John 14:16-17.
For when He (the Holy Spirit) has come, He was to be “with" and "in" the "you, ye, or you all" (church body) church as an institution forever.
1) "And there appeared unto them," (kai ophthesan autois) "And there appeared or was manifested to them," to the brethren of the church, gathered in prayerful accord in the house, a supernatural, phenomena, invisible form.
2) "Cloven tongues," (diamerizomenia glossai) being distributed among them tongues," or "tongues parting asunder," for distribution to all through, originating from, one common supernatural source. They parted like streams from one body of water, one source.
3) "Like as of fire,"(hosei puros) "Similar in appearance to the glow of fire," or a flame of fire parted into many parts (flames or tongues of leaping flames). Fire, like the wind, is symbolic of Divine or Supernatural presence, Exodus 3:2, and of the Spirit who purifies, Ezekiel 1:3; Malachi 3:2.
4) "And it sat upon each of them," (kai ekathisen eph’ hena hekaston auton) "And it (the shekina glow) sat or hovered on or over each and all of them," of the hundred and twenty church brethren there, having been assembled. This was a token of divine favor, in conferring divine power, to divine things, in another language and dialect, as follows, Acts 2:4.
1) "And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost," (kai eplesthesan pantes pneumatos hagiou) "And they were all filled, completed, or controlled of the Holy Spirit," which came upon and over and within them with enduing power, Luke 24:49. They received the "in-filling" promised, John 14:16-17.
2) "And began to speak with other tongues," (kai erksanto heterais lalein glossais) "And they (all) began to speak repeatedly in other language-tongues," in tongues, other than their native language-tongue, other than any they had themselves learned. Four times, to four classes of people the Holy Spirit manifested himself in the book of Acts in conferring the gift of tongues:
1) To the Jews on Pentecost, Acts 2:1-13; 1 Corinthians 14:21-22; 1 Corinthians
2) To the Samaritans, Acts 8:5-25; Acts 3) To the Gentiles
3) To Old Testament Saints, Acts 19:17.
4) "As the Spirit gave them utterance," (kathos to pneuma edidou apophthengesthai autois) "Even as the Holy Spirit gave (doled out to them) to be speaking out." As the Holy Spirit gave them both power and knowledge to speak out in other languages, the enduing promised, Luke 24:49. This was a special unction, for a special purpose, given for a limited, special time, to and for the benefit of special peoples, as cited above, 1 Corinthians 14:21-22. The three Supernatural phenomena that came to the church, with the Holy Spirit, on Pentecost were:
a) The sound of a mighty rushing wind.
b) The fiery cloven tongues.
c) The speaking with tongues and dialects, Acts 1:6; Acts 1:8.
1) "And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews," (esan de eis lerousalem karoikountes loudioi) "Now there existed in Jerusalem Jews, who were continually making their homes there," perhaps to be near the temple, to study the law of Moses, to live and die within the city walls.
2) "Devout men," (andres eulabeis) "Devout or devoted male persons," devout men, men who continually regarded God with reverence. These were likely devout Jewish men, like Simeon, waiting for the consolation hope of Israel, Luke 2:25-32.
3) "Out of every nation under heaven," (apo pantos ethnous ton hupo ton ouranon) "From every ethnic origin or background under heaven," who had returned from dispersion and captivities of their people while they were once under the Babylonians, Persians, Grecians and Romans, in an hundred countries or more, Ezra 1:1-8. It is reasonable to accept the premise that those who came from sixteen nations, later named in this chapter (Acts 2:9-11), were there both for the feast of Pentecost and to visit their devout friends and relatives who were permanent devout dwellers in Jerusalem- -the city of peace.
1) "Now when this was noised abroad," (genomenes de tes phones tautes) "Now when this came about, when the sound had been heard, and the witnessing gifts began to be spoken in every native language of Jewish dwellers in Jerusalem," to even those temporarily dwelling there.
2) "The multitude came together," (sunelthen to plethos) "The multitude (the mass population of Israel) came closely together," like a herd of sheep or cattle huddling at a time of storm.
3) "And were confounded," (kai sunechuthe) "And they were confounded, astounded, or in near shock of surprise," with uncertainty of mind and disposition what this Holy Spirit witnessing all meant, John 1:11-12; John 5:42; Their eyes had been blinded by the god of this world, 2 Corinthians 4:3-4.
4) "Because that every man heard them speak in his own language." (hoti ekouson heis hekastos te idia dislekto lalounton auton) "Because they of the multitude (each one) heard them speaking intelligibly in his own dialect," in the language and dialect of his own nation, place of ethnic birth. It appears that the disciples began to obey the Lord in "being witness unto Him" as afore-commanded, Acts 1:8. The witnessing was with endued power of the Holy Ghost so that each person to whom they witnessed of Jesus heard in the language or dialect of his own native land, Luke 24:49. This appears to be a fulfillment of Prophecy, Deuteronomy 28:49; Isaiah 28:11-12.
1) "And they were all amazed and marvelled," (eksistanto de kai ethaumazon) "And they (the multitude) were amazed (astonished) and marvelled," pondered what they were witnessing. Their confusion was increased by the knowledge that the 120 witnesses were all from the country and language and dialect of Galilee, but were witnessing in some seventeen different dialects or languages.
2) "Saying one to another," (legontes) "Repeatedly saying," or speaking one to another, throughout the gathered multitude, expressing doubt, uncertainty, and confusion because that they and their people had rejected the Messiah, the Redeemer, the Christ, John 1:11-12; Matthew 23:37-39.
3) "Behold, are not all these which speak Galileans?" (ouchi idou pantes houtoi eisin hli lalountes Galilaioi) "Behold, all these speaking (in these gift languages) are Galileans, are they not?" This seems to be a rhetoric question of affirmation that all the 120 who spoke in tongues were Galilean church members. They had tarried, fellowshipped, and prayed after the ascension, Pentecost, and received the gift of different dialect languages witnessing power that day, Acts 1:11; Acts 10:37; John 15:27.
1) "And how hear we," (kai pos hemeis akouomen) "And how do we hear," for they were hearing and comprehending what was being witnessed by the members of the Holy Spirit empowered church, which had been empowered on that very day to go into all nations, beginning at Jerusalem, Acts 1:8.
2) "Every man in our own tongue," (hekastos tes idia dialekto hemon) "Each of us (how do we hear) in his own dialect," so that there was no basis for failing to understand the testimony of Jesus Christ that was being effectively witnessed by the church, throughout the Jerusalem area that morning very early, perhaps even during the night which preceded the light of the Hebrew day, Luke 24:45-47.
3) "Wherein we were born?" (en he egennethemen) "in which we were born?" in the dialect of the language of the national origin of each, in their native land tongue. Yet, this is what prophecy had affirmed would come to Israel in her years of rebellion against God, Deuteronomy 28:49; Isaiah 28:11-12; as specifically interpreted by Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:21-22. The countries of their nativity covering the continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa are as follows:
The tongues spoken on this occasion were intelligible, recognizable, national languages, literally spoken and literally understood - not some imagined "heavenly gibberish."
1) "Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites," (Parthoi kai Medoi kai Elamites) "Even, Parthians, Medes, and Elamites," far east of Palestine geographically. These were Babylonian Jews of the dispersion whose forebearers carried them or their fathers there in captivity.
2) "And the dwellers in Mesopotamia," (kai hoi katoikountes ten Mesopotamian) "And those continually dwelling in or inhabiting the land of Mesopotamia," perhaps Babylonian Jews who had returned to observe the annual Pentecost in Jerusalem. They dwelt between the great Euphrates and Tigris rivers in part of ancient Babylon, which also was near the place of Abraham’s nativity.
3) "And in Judea, and Cappadocia," (loudaion te kai Kappadokian) "As well as those dwelling in Cappadocia, and Judea." These were known historically as Syrian Jews of the Dispersion.
4) "In Pontus, and Asia," (Ponton kai ten Asian) "Including those inhabiting Pontus and Asia." Some five hundred miles north of Palestine, yet also known as Syrian Jews of the Dispersion.
1) "Phrygia, and Pamphylia," (phrigian te kai Pamphulian) "Those continually dwelling in both Phrygia and Pamphylia;” These were Syrian Jews of the Dispersion.
2) "In Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene," (Aigupton kai ta mere tes Libues tes kata Kurenen) "in Egypt and the regions (areas) of Libya over against or alongside of Cyrene," on the continent of Africa. These too had crossed the Mediterranean Sea to be at the great Pentecost. These were known as Egyptian Jews, perhaps last driven there under the Grecian Empire rule of Alexander.
3) "And strangers of Rome," (kai hoi epidemountes Romaioi) "And those temporarily residing (dwelling in Jerusalem) who were Romans nationally," from the European continent. They were known as Roman Jews.
4) "Jews and proselytes," (loudaioi te kai proselutoi) "Who were both Jews and proselytes," heard of Jesus in their own Roman dialect, as the newly empowered church witnessed of Jesus. Proselytes were Jews converted from heathenism.
Thus one is to realize there were four classes of Dispersed Jews from three continents in Jerusalem on that occasion:
1) The Eastern or Babylonian.
2) The Syrian.
3) The Egyptian.
4) The Roman.
Whether many of these were born in other nations, on other continents, thereafter came to Jerusalem and established citizenship, is not certain, but whether temporary or permanent dwellers all heard and understood the gospel plainly.
1) "Cretes and Arabians," (Kretes kai Arabes) "Cretans and Arabians," listed here out of geographical sequence grouping, almost as if an afterthought. Crete is an island in the upper Mediterranean Sea while Arabia is south and far east of Palestine, yet from these far away places they were at Pentecost.
2) "We do hear them speak in our tongues," (akouomen lalounton auton tais hemeterais glossais) "We hear them repeatedly speaking in our native languages;” the "we" who heard the 120 Spirit unction empowered disciples speaking, in their own native tongues, were the Jews from these three continents and fifteen or more nations, who had journeyed to the Jerusalem festive Pentecost, but found more than any had ever found there before.
3) "The wonderful works of God," (ta megaleia tou theou) "The great deeds of God we hear, do we not?" Their testimony in question form seems to be these witnesses who testify of the risen, living, and coming Messiah of God could tell it like they do, being Galileans only, but how? If not by Divine Supernatural power, how could they talk in our native dialects so clearly and keep their story straight?" Luke 1:49; Paul testified to these wonderful, manifest works of God thru Christ, 1 Timothy 3:16.
1) "And they were all amazed," (eksistanto de pantes) "And they of all these multitude of dialectical races and languages were all amazed;- Divine matters amaze the devout worshippers of religions of error. They are often perplexed by Supernatural matters they seem neither to be able to accept not to explain, as Nicodemus was, John 3:1-16.
2) "And were in doubt," (kai dieporounto) "And they were troubled, disturbed, in doubt or frustrated," befuddled, by uncertainty, unable to explain the experience the city of Jerusalem was entertaining that day, except that by the mighty power of God the witness was beginning to all nations, as predicted and mandated by the Lord, Luke 24:45-49.
3) "Saying one to another," (allos pros allon legontes) "Continually saying to one another (asking repeatedly) among themselves," as desiring, searching for an answer that would affirm their bend of convictions to accept the Messiah-Savior right then. Perhaps a similar condition existed at Cornelius’ house after the visions of Peter and Cornelius had been discussed and reviewed, Acts 10:1-47.
4) "What meaneth this?" (ti thelei touto einai) "What is the present (or existing) will, mind or meaning of this?" What do these witnesses want or will to do, to exist? What can or should we do? They asked themselves and inquired one of another, so great and broad-based was this central thought and conviction among them. What results may be expected? Our Lord had already disclosed, "if there be first a willing mind- -if any man wills to do His will, he shall know (comprehend) the teaching," John 7:17; 2 Corinthians 8:12.
1) "Others mocking said," (heteroi de diachleauzontes elegon) "But others of a different attitude and disposition said, mocking or jeering repeatedly," responded, had something to say, in derision and scoffing cynicism against those who witnessed and the august Jews, who under conviction were declaring that the testimony of the Messiah-Christ heard in every person’s native country language, had to be nothing less than by the mighty power and works of God.
2) "These men are full of new wine," (hoti gleukous memestomenoi eisin) "That they were filled (tanked up with) new or sweet wine," that is they were inebriated or drunk. This group of Jews reflected unbelief, cynicism, derision, and total rejection of the gospel message that was being carried by the Holy Spirit empowered disciples and the church. Later some of these believed and were baptized that very day.
Three responses often found toward the gospel are:
1. Acceptance thru faith, Acts 17:34.
2. Mocking, scoffing, and derision, Acts 17:32; Proverbs 1:21; Proverbs 1:31.
3. Procrastination, a deference to a later time, Acts 17:32; Acts 24:25.
Introduction to Peter’s Address Fulfillment of Joel’s Prophecy Declared, V. 14-21.
1) "But Peter standing up with the eleven," (statheis de he petros sun tois endeka) "But Peter standing up in close affinity (in colleague with) the eleven other apostles," and proceeding to defend the testimony that the 120 had given of the mighty works of Jesus in many other languages or other native tongues for the benefit of those who had already heard that day, Acts 2:1-13.
2) "Lifted up his voice and said unto them," (eperen ten phonen autou kai apephthegksato autois) "Raised his voice (spoke loudly and distinctly) and spoke out or responded to them," in response to their derision and mocking, Acts 2:13.
3) "Ye men of Judea," (andres loudaioi) "Men of Judea," Jewish men, or all you Jewish men, of the Jewish race, whether from the Asian, African, or European continents or from among the more than fifteen native countries named, Acts 2:8-11.
4) "And all ye that dwell at Jerusalem," (kai hoi katoikountes lerousalem) "Even or including all those Jewish inhabitants of Jerusalem," those who had long been settled in the Jerusalem area, near the temple, devout students of the Law of Moses, Acts 2:5.
5) "Be this known unto you," (touto humingnosten esto) "Let this be known to you all," or let all of you know this, hold this in your mind, comprehend this that I have to tell you. Only a few days before he had cursed, denied the Lord, but he had since returned to God, 2 Peter 3:9; John 1:8-9.
6) "And hearken unto my words:" (kai enotisasthe ta harmata mou) "And you all (all the multitude that had come together) give ear to (an honest hearing to) my address, testimony, or explanation of this event and its meaning to you all," The words of God and God’s witnesses are to be considered with earnest response, obedience, Hebrews 2:1-3.
1) "For these are not drunken, as ye suppose," (ou gar hos humeis hupolanbabete houtoi methuousin) "Because these men (who witness in your dialects, native or national tongues) are not inebriated or drunk as you all imagine or suppose," and charge in scoffing, derision, Acts 2:13. The Jews of a similar attitude had charged and circulated that our Lord was "a winebibber and a glutton," Matthew 11:19; Luke 7:34.
2) "Seeing it is but the third hour of the day," (estin gar hora trite tes hemeras) "For the simple reason it is only the third hour (nine a.m.) of the day," the hour of morning prayer or devotion. What is more they did not normally even eat until the sixth hour of the day (high noon) on feast days. The heart and imagination that is carnally inclined to evil continually seemed to work overtime in the scoffing, deriding Jews early on that Pentecost morning, Genesis 6:5. The charges were, beyond reasonable doubt, as false in nature as the scoffing of the Jews was wicked in unbelief, Proverbs 1:23-30.
1) "But this is that which was spoken," (alla touto estin to heiremenon) "But this (event) is (exists as) that thing which is having been spoken," and recorded or recounted, set forth in historical prophecy.
2) "By the Prophet Joel;” (dia tou propetou) "Through the prophet Joel," in or by the prophecy of Joel. This recognizes the book of Joel as an authentic, inspired book of the Old Testament, that Joel who made this prophecy was an holy man, and that God had spoken of this very hour thru him, 2 Peter 1:20-21. Inclusive of this prophecy of Joel Jesus asserted, "The Scriptures cannot be broken," John 10:35.
1) "And it shall come to pass in the last days," (lao estai eschatais hemirais) "And it shall be (exist) in the last days," come to happen or occur, the days of the end of the Gentile dispensation, in the church age, not in the last days of Israel. Let us distinguish always between "the last days," and "the last day." The first is from the first advent of Christ, Hebrews 1:2, until the time of the Gentiles is finally fulfilled, Luke 21:24.
2) "Saith God," (legei ho theos) "The true (trinitarian) God says," asserts, or affirms, continually or it continues to be the truth, as accurate prophetic promise. For His word is true from the beginning," Psalms 119:160.
3) "I will pour out of my spirit upon all flesh:” (ekcheo apo tou pneumatos mou psasn sarka) "I will pour out, (empty, anoint) from my Spirit, special spiritual gifts, upon all flesh," flesh from all nations, heathen, or races of humanity- -not upon the Jew or Israel only any longer. This is an extended quotation Acts 2:17-21, taken from Joel 2:28-32. This same spirit had convicted some of the visiting foreign Jews that the testimony of the disciples was true regarding the mighty works of God, Acts 2:11.
4) "And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy," (kai propheteusousin hoi huoi humon kai haithugateres humou) "And the heir-sons and daughters of you shall prophesy," and this is what they(the church brethren and sisters) had done and were doing on that day of Pentecost, by means of the gift of languages to witness to the Jews and proselytes from three continents on that day, Acts 2:5-11.
5) "And your young men shall see visions," (kai hoi neoniskou humon horaseis opsontai) "And your young men will see visions;” The heir-sons and daughters were to, and did, prophecy and see visions in those days- -Anna, the prophetess and daughters of Phillip, Luke 2:36-38; Acts 21:9; note also Peter’s vision, Acts 10:9-16; Paul, Acts 9:1-5; Acts 16:9-10.
6) "And your old men shall dream dreams:" (kai hoi presbuterai humon enupniois enupniasthesontai) "And the elderly men among you all (among the church) shall dream dreams," Acts 22:17-21.
1) "And on my servants," (kai ge epi tous doulous mou) "And indeed upon my male servants," or both upon my men (male) servants, meaning "bond-servants," bought and paid for, who owe their total life service to their master, as 1 Peter 2:16.
2) "And on my handmaidens," (kai epi tas doulas mou) "And upon my female servants," they were among the 120 disciples, followers of the Lord, witnesses of His ministry "from the beginning," beginning in Galilee until He was caught up into heaven- -and they received the Spirit too, on that great Pentecost day, John 15:27.
3) "I will pour out in those days of my Spirit;” (en tais hemerais ekeinais ekcheo apo tou pneumatos mou) "I will pour out (upon them) in those days of my Spirit," or from my Spirit I will put upon them my Spirit; The term "in those days" refers to "the last days," during "the time of the Gentiles," beginning with the first advent of Christ, specifically manifest in the coming of the Holy Spirit of promise on Pentecost, "on all flesh," empowering the church to begin her Gentile world-wide and age long message of repentance and remission of sins to all nations beginning that day in Jerusalem, Luke 24:45-49; Acts 1:8; affirmed by Joel 2:28-32.
4) "And they shall prophesy:” (kai propheteusousin) "and they will prophesy," in those days when the Spirit is put upon or poured out upon them. And they did on that Pentecost so that all in Jerusalem, even from three continents, heard them speak forth in their own native languages and dialects, the "wonderful works of God," Acts 2:8-11.
All matters of Joel’s prophesy considered Acts 2:19-21, is yet to be fulfilled in "the last days" of the Spirit’s dealing with Israel, in connection with the restoration of Israel to her homeland, the restoration of the temple and temple worship, and the tribulation the great, until Christ shall return to sit on David’s throne to rule for a thousand years, Luke 1:32-33.
1) "And I will shew wonders in heaven above," (kai dosoterata en to ourano ano) "And I will give out wonders in the heaven above," in the upper heaven. One of the first wonders from heaven shall be the shout, the voice of the archangel, and the trump of God when Jesus comes to resurrect the righteous and rapture the Saints who are then living and looking for his return, Acts 1:9-11; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; Hebrews 9:28; He went into heaven blessing His own and is returning in the same manner, for the same purpose, Revelation 22:12; Revelation 22:16; Satan (the Devil) is to be cast down with his demon accusing helpers about this same time, Revelation 12:7-12.
3) "Blood and fire and vapor of smoke - (haima kai pur kai atmida kapnou) "Blood and fire and vapor of smoke," I will give forth or cause to pour forth upon or from the earth, from the earthquake openings, of the earth, fire, smoke and brimstone, bitter acid-vapor, similar to that described, Revelation 9:17-18.
1) "The sun shall be turned into darkness," (ho helios metastrapgesetai eis skotos) "The sun will be turned into darkness," as one of those signs of the great and notable day of the Lord, as He shall come in judgement wrath and vengeance, Isaiah 13:9-10; Ezekiel 32:7.
2) "And the moon into blood,"(kai he selone eis haima) "And the moon will be turned into blood," as one of those signs shewn, afore prophesied by Joel, similar to a total eclipse, indicating the anger of God against a rebellious world from which He shall withdraw all mercy and light which He has so long extended to all men, 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Proverbs 1:25-29.
3) "Before that great and notable day of the Lord come:” (prin elthein hemeran kurion ten megalen kai epiphane) "Prior to the coming of the day of the Lord, that is, the great and notable day," of His wrath upon all the earth in the Tribulation the Great, Joel 2:31; 1 Thessalonians 5:13; Isaiah 2:10-22; Amos 8:9-13; Revelation 6:14-17.
1) "And it shall come to pass," (kai estai) "And it will occur or be," as a state, condition or being, or fact.
2) "That whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord," (pas hos ean epikalesetai to onoma kuriou) "That everyone (whoever he may be) that calls upon (invokes) the name of the Lord," the Jehovah of the Old Testament, who has now come as the Lord Jesus Christ, triumphant over death and interceding at the right hand of the Father, Joel 2:32; Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2.
3) "Shall be saved," (sothesetai) "He will be saved." There is no "maybe" "has a good chance," or conditional "hope-so" to be saved. This is a Divine affirmative that he "will be saved," Whosoever he may be that invokingly calls upon Jesus Christ for deliverance from sins, guilt and penalty, affirmed again, Romans 10:10-13.
Miracles, Works, and Resurrection Prove Lordship of Jesus,
1) "Ye men of Israel," (andres Israelitai) "Ye responsible men, Israelites," of Israel. The tone of Peter’s direct address is to win, not repulse his hearing Hebrew brethren of the flesh.
2) "Hear these words;” (akousate tous logous toutous) "You all heed these words," give heed to, respond ye to these words. He then proceeds to submit evidence that Jesus as both Lord and Christ was that redeemer of their Old Testament Covenant promise, Romans 10:17; Acts 3:22-23.
3) "Jesus of Nazareth," (lesoun ton Nazoraion) "Jesus the Nazarene," the Jesus who is of Nazareth, who came to fulfill prophecies as the Messiah, Matthew 2:23; Isaiah 11:1. Jesus was that (Heb netzer) "rod out of the stem of Jesse." Did any good thing come out of Nazareth? John 1:45-46.
4) "A man approved of God among you," (andra apodedeigmenon apo tou theou eis humas) "A responsible man who has been approved from God among you all," who while among you all was demonstrated, approved, sanctioned, or attested as being from God among you all, Matthew 3:16-17.
5) "By miracles and wonders and signs," (dunamesi kai terasi kai semeoios) In three ways, "by powerful, or dynamic deeds, by marvelous wonders, and by signs," Peter presses the idea that it was the one true God who worked mightily in manifesting Himself thru Christ in these mighty words, works, and deeds, John 3:1-2; Hebrews 1:3; 2 Corinthians 5:19.
6) "Which God did by Him in the midst of you," (ois epoiesen di’ autou ho theos en meso humon) "Which things God did through Him in the very midst of you all These miracles, wonders, and signs which Jesus did are by Him attributed to and as "works" of His Father, John 5:19; John 5:36; John 14:10.
7) "As ye yourselves also know:” (kathos autois oidate) "Even as or just as you all yourselves know:” as you all comprehend as an established fact or evident truth; So that they were without excuse, John 7:17; Romans 2:1-2; John 1:11-12.
1) "Him being delivered," (touton ekdoton) "This one (Jesus) having been given up," by Judas Iscariot, not by God the Father, except by the permissive will of God, not by decree of God, Matthew 26:47-49.
2) "By the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God," (te horismene boule kai prognosei tou theou) "by or according to the former order, council, and previous knowledge or aforeknowledge of God;” His betrayal by Judas was not a decree of God or a prefixation of God; but because of, coming forth from His omniscience, (all knowing attribute) He afore-chose to disclose in prophesy that Jesus would be delivered up by Judas. But this does not even infer that He pre-prepared and prefixed Judas as a robot who had no personal determining choice of His actions in life, Psalms 41:9; John 13:18-19.
3) "Ye have taken and by wicked hands," (dia cheros anomon prospeksantes) "You all have reached out and with the wicked, (lawless), illegal hand of men," or with the aid and abetting of lawless men, in hiring false witnesses against Him and numerous other wicked and illegal ways, to secure His death at the hands of Roman soldiers; Tho the Jews themselves, men of natural Israel, are here charged as first degree prepetrators of the crime, 1 Thessalonians 2:14-15; Acts 7:52; Matthew 26:60-61; Mark 14:55-60.
4) "Have crucified and slain:" (prospeksantes aneilate) "You all have fastened (to a tree) and killed," where He bare our sins in His body on the accursed cross or tree of Calvary, 1 Peter 2:24; Galatians 3:13.
1) "Whom God hath raised up," (hon ho theos anestesin) "Whom God has raised up," raised up or brought forth from death, from the grave, Acts 3:15; Acts 4:10; Acts 10:40; Romans 8:11. God raised Jesus from the dead thru the dynamic Spirit.
2) "Having loosed the pains of death:" (lusa tas onidas tou thanatou) "Loosening or releasing the pangs of death:” or releasing Him from death, as a child is released from birth-pangs, alive. As a bird or animal of prey is released from a net-entrapment or snare by a hunter, so Jesus was released or delivered from death, victorious over it, to be an intercessor and Justifier of the believer, Romans 4:24-25.
3) "Because it was not possible," (kathoti ouk hen dunaton) "Because it did not exist as a possibility," or there was not a possibility, or a restraining potential, that could cause His promise to come forth from the grave to be defeated, John 2:19; Matthew 26:32.
4) "That He should be holden of death," (krateisthai auton hup’ autou) "For Him to be held by it," by the pangs or bonds of death, Acts 3:15; The purpose of our Lord’s going into the grave was to come forth as victor over fear, death, and the devil, to deliver all believers from death’s hold, by the power of His Spirit, Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:14-15; Revelation 1:18.
David Foretold Resurrection and Kingship of the Messiah, V. 25-31.
1) "For David speaketh concerning Him," (David gar legei eis auton) "For David speaks with reference to Him," when he wrote the Psalms, thus indicating Peter’s acceptance of the Psalms as prophetically accurate, trustworthy, and this particular passage as fulfilled in the resurrection of Christ.
2) "I foresaw the Lord always before my face," (prooromen ton kurion enopion mou dia pantos) "I saw beforehand the Lord always before my face," standing before me as one to whom I should one day give account in judgement, Psalms 16:8-11; as all saved and unsaved must one day do for a judgement of rewards or retribution, 2 Corinthians 5:10-11; Hebrews 2:1-2; Romans 14:11-12; Philippians 2:10-11; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14.
3) "For He is on my right hand," (hoti ek dekson mou estin) "Because He is (exists or abides) out (on or at) my right hand," as my helper, confidant, defense, or my strength; As the attorney or advocate historically stands at the right hand of the accused or client, sodoesthe Lord Jesus Christ stand as the advocate, present helper of every believer in time of trouble, Psalms 46:1; Hebrews 13:5; as the Father was at the right hand of the Son, to bring Him forth from the grave, so is He with His children.
4) "That I should not be moved:” hina me saleutho)"In order that I might not be moved, shaken or turned aside from pursuit of His will and work in my life, Psalms 16:8; Psalms 30:6; Psalms 62:2; Like Paul, when children of God know the will of God for their lives in spite of life’s cares they should be able to say "none of these things moved me," Acts 20:24; As Jesus was not moved by death from doing the Father’s will, neither should we, His children, Matthew 26:39; John 17:1-4.
1) "Therefore did my heart rejoice," (doa touto euphranthe mou he kardia) "As a result my heart was glad;" The joy of Jesus in doing the will of His Father, even in going to the grave, should also fill the hearts of believers in full assurance that they too shall one day be brought forth to be with Him forever, John 15:11; John 16:24.
2) "And my tongue was glad;” (kai egalliasato heglossa mou) "And my tongue was exulted," witnessed in or with gladness, Luke 15:32; John 8:56; our Lord was glad and sad at the death of Lazarus- -sad from His affectionate attachment to His bereaved family, but glad that the Father thru Him might demonstrate His power in the resurrection of Lazarus from the dead, John 11:15; John 11:35; John 11:42.
3) "Moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope:” (eti de kai he sarks; mou kataskenosei ep’ elpidi) "And what is more my flesh will also tabernacle or dwell in a state of hope or expectance," while I live without fear or anxiety of the coming hour of death, as expressed by the Psalmist, Psalms 23:1-4. As our Lord faced the hour of death and the grave in triumphant and expectant joy, so should we know and love Him, Hebrews 12:2.
1) "Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell," (hoti ouk egkataleipseis ten pouchen mau-eis haden) "Because thou wilt not give, abandon, or desert my soul into hades," or sever my soul from my body into hades, -as is some times supposed by some Bible commentators. That the soul of Jesus made a trip thru hades, after Jesus said to the Father, "it is finished, into thy hands I commit my Spirit," seems to be unjustified speculation and presumption, with no reasonable grounds of Scriptural sanction, Luke 23:46. The English term "leave" means "permit"- -or give up or over. Thus the soul of Jesus in death went to the Father, not to hell for a while, as some have supposed.
2) "Neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One," (oude doseis ton hosion sou) "Nor wilt thou give over or deliver thy Holy One," the Jesus of Nazareth, of whom the prophecy speaks, Psalms 16:10. The term "Holy One" refers to Jesus Christ in His earthly body, which was prepared of the Father for Him, Hebrews 10:5.
3) "To see corruption," (idein diaphthoran) "To perceive corruption," or experience putrefaction and decay of His body.
The only logical conclusion to be drawn from this parallelism seems to be that 1) The body of Jesus was kept from any taint of putrefaction or corruption, and, 2) The soul of Jesus was not permitted even to go to the hadean world at all, much less make a canvass of the place after He had "borne our sins in His body on the tree," 1 Peter 2:24; "finished the work the Father had given Him to do," and cried, "it is finished," John 17:4; and given His Spirit into the Father’s hand, Luke 23:46.
1) "Thou hast made known to me the ways of life
(egnorisas mou hodous zoes) "Thou didst make me the ways or paths of life," disclosed the ways of life. The fuller "ways of life," experienced by our Lord victoriously, involved life, death, resurrection, and ascension; It holds nothing less for His children, in full deliverance from all that death insinuates, 1 Corinthians 15:57-58; Proverbs 3:6. "In all thy ways acknowledge Him and He shall direct thy paths."
2) "Thou shalt make me full of joy," (pleroseis me euphrosunes) "Thou wilt fill me with gladness;- He who gives to man the joy of salvation longs to lead him into fullness of joy in doing the Father’s will and work, an experience to every obedient child of God, thru His church, John 15:11; John 16:24; Philippians 4:4.
3) "With thy countenance," (meta tou prosopou sou) "With thy very face presence," or personal fellowship and company, as a comforter; So the Psalm ends as it began, "in the presence of God," Acts 2:25, with joy ever more, Psalms 16:11.
1) "Men and brethren," (andres adelphoi) "Men, brethren," an affectionate form of interracial address as in Acts 2:14; Acts 2:22; Acts 7:2; Acts 22:1.
2) "Let me freely speak unto you," (ekson eipein meta parresias pros humas) "Let (permit) me to speak to you all with boldness," or with plain speech, unrestrained, without "pulling punches." Peter proposed to present incontestable facts concerning David before he proceeded to give equally substantiated evidentiary facts concerning Jesus Christ, the Son of David.
3) "Of the Patriarch David," (peri tou patriarchou David) "Concerning David the patriarch;” Words that are of respect and honor to the name and memory of David. The term "patriarch" is used of Abraham, Hebrews 7:4, of the sons of Jacob, Acts 7:8-9, in honor and esteem, and it is here used of David as a term of High honor and esteem as ancestor of the kingly royal race, of which Jesus is come, Luke 1:32-33.
4) "That he is both dead and buried," (hoti kai eteleutesen kai etaphe) "That he both died and was buried;” This statement emphasizes the certainty of David’s death and implies that his body had seen corruption, putrefaction, or normal decay. 1 Kings 2:10.
5) "And his sepulchre is with us unto this day." (kai to mnema autou estin an hemin achri tes hemeras tautes) "And his tomb is among us until this day;” or his burial place is still in our midst today, up to the day when Peter was speaking on Pentecost." As evidence that his body had seen corruption and the prophetic psalm had not been fulfilled in connection with his death and burial alone, Nehemiah 3:16; Acts 13:36.
1) "Therefore being a prophet," (prophetes oun huparchon) "Therefore being (existing as) a prophet," David is here declared to be a prophet, also as an Old Testament writer referred to as an "holy man" who wrote trustworthy, reliable, prophetic matters, 2 Peter 1:21.
2) "And knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him," (kai eidos hoti orko homosen auto ho theos) "And comprehending or knowing (well) that God swore to him with an oath, Psalms 89:20-21; Psalms 89:27-36.
3) "That of the fruit of his loins according to the flesh," (ek tes osphuos autou) "Out of or from the loins of his own flesh;” thru and by means of what is termed the Davidic covenant, 2 Samuel 7:12-17.
4) "He would raise up Christ to sit on his throne;” (kathisai epi ton thronon autou) "To sit (reign) on his throne;" (onastesein ton Christon) "He purposed to raise up Christ;” this is left out of some of the better manuscripts, yet the idea is clearly, explicitly set forth in Luke 1:32-33; Acts 15:14-17; Isaiah 9:6-7; 1 Corinthians 15:24-28.
1) "He seeing this before spake," (proidon elalesen) "Foreseeing (this event) he spoke," the "he" who spoke was David as an Holy prophet, Psalms 16:10; 2 Peter 1:21.
2) "Of the resurrection of Christ," (peri tes ansstaseos tou Christou) "Concerning the resurrection of the Christ," of which He Himself also spoke, John 2:19; Matthew 26:32; Matthew 28:6.
3) "That His soul was not left in hell," (hoti oute eglate; eiphthe eis haden) "That He was neither abandoned (permitted) unto hell, the hadean realm," not sent on, or did not voluntarily go on, a trip into hades, after He said, "it is finished," or declared He had finished the work the Father had given Him to do, with His final cry on the cross, John 17:4; Luke 23:46.
4) "Neither His flesh did see corruption," (oute he sarks autou eiden diaphthoran) "Nor did His flesh see corruption," Psalms 16:10; Romans 8:11; Acts 1:11. As He went into heaven in an incorruptible resurrected, visible body, so will He come again to give to His children a body of like kind to live and ever be with Him, 1 Corinthians 15:51-55; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18.
Resurrection Is Evidence of Lordship of Jesus V. 32-36
1) "This Jesus hath God raised up," (touton ton lesoun anestesen he theos) "This Jesus (of whom I speak) God has raised up," from death and the grave. That God raised Jesus from the dead was a compelling, unimpeding, driving motivational influence in the lives of the early new Testament church people, Acts 1:2; Acts 2:24; Acts 3:15; Acts 4:2; Acts 10:40.
2) "Whereof we all are witnesses," (hou pantes hemeis esmen martures) "Of which (one) we are all witnesses," the "we" of which Peter spoke were those who had been charged with being drunk, when it was but the third hour of the day, Acts 2:15. They were witnesses chosen of our Lord, most of whom had companied with Him from the beginning of His ministry, Acts 1:20-21, until He was taken up into heaven. They were of such character and reputation that their testimony would have been received in most any reasonable court of equity in any civilized world territory, John 15:27; Acts 1:8-11; 1 Corinthians 15:3-7.
1) "Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted," (te dekoia oun ten theou hupsotheis) "Therefore He being exalted to the right hand of God," or "having been exalted," to the right hand of God, a matter affirmed by Peter to be an incontestable fact. The ascension of Jesus is an incontrovertible fact, affirmed by Peter, Paul, Luke, above five hundred brethren, and two angelic beings, Acts 1:8-11; Acts 5:13; 1 Corinthians 15:4-8; Ephesians 1:20; Col 31; Hebrews 10:12. God had highly exalted Jesus, Philippians 2:9. These witnesses knew it.
2) "And having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost," (ten te epangelian tou pneumatos tou hagiou labon) "And progressively receiving the promise of the Holy Spirit," both the 120 who had witnessed of Jesus in tongues and dialects to the understanding of the hearers, from each nation gathered in Jerusalem, and Peter at that moment, interpreted the prophecy of Joel, under the enduing power of the Holy Spirit, which God also had promised thru Jesus Christ.
3) "He hath shed forth this," (para tou patros eksecheen touto) "From the Father he has poured out this;” See also John 15:26-27; Acts 2:1-4. This outpouring of the Spirit in these "last days," days of the church age and Gentile dispensation was declared to have been specifically foretold by Joel, Acts 2:16-18; Acts 10:45; Joel 2:28-30; Ephesians 4:8.
4) "Which ye now see and hear,"(ho hemeis kai blepete kai akouete) "Which you all of Israel both (now) see and hear," as witnessed by the disciples of the church who had been filled with the Holy Spirit, and obediently began to witness of the life, works, resurrection, ascension, and saving power of Jesus Christ, John 20:21; Acts 2:4-8; Acts 2:11-12. Even the Jews from three continents and more than fifteen nations were referring to the witness and testimony of the church that day as the "wonderful works of God," Acts 2:11; Acts 2:17. The Gospel of which they witnessed was the "power of God unto salvation" that day.
1) "For David is not ascended into the heavens:”(ou gar David anebe eis tous ouranous) "For David ascended not into the heavens," as Jesus did. His body went to the grave, remains there today and will till the first resurrection, Acts 2:29; 1 Thessalonians 4:16-18.
2) "But he saith himself," (legei de autos) "But he himself says," in his prophetic writings concerning Jesus, then quotes Psalms 110:1, giving sanction to the Inspiration of David as an holy man of God, 2 Peter 1:21.
3) "The Lord said unto my Lord," (eipen kurios to kurio mou) "The Lord (almighty Lord) said unto my Lord," God was both Lord of Jesus Christ, (Jehovah), whom David called "my Lord," much as Thomas did as he recognized Jesus from His voice and the scars in His hands and sides, John 20:28, and He was Lord of David.
4) "Sit thou on my right hand," (kathou ek deksion mou) "Sit thou at my right hand," Matthew 22:44; Ephesians 1:20; Col 31; 1 Corinthians 15:25, and share my throne. David did not ascend into heaven, could not have said this of himself. It was God, His Father, who said this of His Son, Jesus Christ, who asked Jesus, at His ascension to sit and share His throne for intercession until He returns to the earth, Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 9:24; 1 John 2:1-2.
1) "Until I make thy foes," (heos an though tous schthrous sou hupopodion) "Until the time when I put, place, or set your enemies (as) your footstool." The Jews always considered this 11Oth Psalm to be a Messianic Psalm that asserted the eventual kingly rule and regal supremacy of the Messiah over all their enemies.
2) "Thy footstool," (ton podon sou) "Of your feet," on which you may rest your feet in complete and final subjection over them, as an ancient king placed his heel on the neck of a conquered enemy as a public demonstration of total subjection of the conquered and all that he once controlled, Joshua 10:24. This does not mean that Jesus will then quit reigning, but that He will no longer have enemies to subdue as He reigns over the house of Jacob forever 1 Corinthians 15:25-28; Hebrews 1:13; Luke 1:33.
1) "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly," (asphalos oun ginosketo pas ockos Israel) "Therefore let all the house of Israel know or recognize for certain (assuredly); This is (exists as) the logical and scriptural conclusion to which all Israel is called to recognize as factual truth that they must face, as expressed by Paul and by Peter, Acts 17:31; Acts 10:36; Acts 10:42.
2) "That God had made that same Jesus," (hoti ho theos epoiesen touton ton lesoun) "That God has made (to be), caused to be, this Jesus," the resurrected and living Jesus at His own right hand, the Lord and Savior, the coming king, Acts 5:31-32.
3) "Whom ye have crucified," (hon humeisestaurpsate) "Whom you all (of Israel) crucified," nailed to the cross, put to death at Calvary. While Roman soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross, it was Israel (the Jews) who condemned Him to death, killed Him, Acts 2:22-23; Acts 12:15; Acts 5:30-32; Acts 7:52. It was the Jews or "house of Israel ye" who killed Jesus.
4) "Both Lord and Christ,"(kai kurion auton kai Christon) "Himself both Lord and Christ," this very, or same Jesus to be both Lord and Christ, in exaltation, Philippians 2:9-11; John 3:35.
TWO THINGS ISRAEL MUST DO TO BE: 1. Right With God, and 2. Right Before the World, Regarding Jesus, V. 37-40.
1) "Now when they heard this," (akousantes de) "Moreover having heard," having heard this testimony concerning Jesus and His resurrection, that they were, as a body of people, and as individuals who called for His death, guilty of murder, or premeditated murder with malice aforethought, Acts 2:23; Acts 2:36; Acts 3:12-15.
2) "They were pricked in their heart," (katenugesan ten kardian) "They were stung in the heart," they were pierced, stung sharply in their heart, in their emotional affections, with a conscious sense of personal guilt and grave offence against God, heaven, and holiness, which brought a sense of fear, remorse; death, and hell to them, John 16:7-9; Zechariah 12:10; Acts 9:6; Acts 16:30.
3) "And said unto Peter," (eipon te pros ton petron) "And they said (they responded) to Peter," Let witnesses of Jesus, soul winners always be conscious that men must be both convinced in their minds and convicted in their hearts, souls, of affections before they search for relief or personal pardon, Matthew 11:28; Acts 8:30-31.
4) "And the rest of the apostles," (kai tous loipous apostolous) "And to the remaining (the rest of) the apostles," those who were overseers, guides, and advisors of the 120 witnesses of the church. These murderers and criminals of Israel convinced and convicted that they were open to Divine wrath for having killed Christ, called for help, not to Peter alone, but to the twelve Apostles, Acts 1:20-21.
5) "Men and brethren," (andres adelphoi) "Men (responsible men) brethren," Israelite brethren in the flesh. They had scarcely acknowledged the twelve Apostles as brethren before. These Israelites had had a zeal for God, but not in harmony with true knowledge, Romans 10:1-4.
6) "What shall we do?" (ti poiesomen) "What may we do?" In light of their grave sin against God they first wanted (asked to know) what they might do to be right with Him, to escape the gravity of judgement for condemning and slaying (crucifying) His Son, and second, what they might do to be right before the Gentile world that looked on as they had condemned and crucified the Redeemer, or Savior; note their similar cry at the preaching of John the Baptist, Luke 3:2-12; Luke 3:14-18.
Men must recognize and acknowledge guilt and condemnation for personal sins before they ask for or find a personal remedy, Luke 13:3-5; Acts 17:30-31.
1) "Then Peter said unto them," (Petros de pros autous) "Then Peter (responded) to them," to the unsaved Israelite brethren who had asked, "What may we do?" In the light of their guilt, remorse, pricked hearts, and heavy conscience Peter proceeded to tell them two things: 1. First how they could be or become right before an offended God, and 2. Second how they could become right before the world before whom they had murdered their own Redeemer.
2) "Repent," (metanoesate) "You all repent;” The "you all" refers to all who had asked what they might do- -not just to be saved, but also to have a right testimony before the world. The second person plural "you all’ were commanded to repent, Luke 13:3; Luke 13:5; Acts 3:19 for repentance brings conversion into life, Acts 11:18.
3) "And be baptized every one of you," (kai baptistheto hekatos humon) "And let each one of you (individually), who has repented, (or been converted unto life) be baptized," only those who have repented unto God, and placed faith in the crucified one, those who in repentance have been converted unto life are exhorted to be baptized, that they may be identified as followers of the one against whom they once stood as enemies.
4) "In the name of Jesus Christ,"(epi to onomati lesou Christous) "Relying upon the name of Jesus Christ," by the authority of Jesus Christ, as authorized, approved by Jesus Christ; He authorized and approved for baptism only such as had first become converted, disciples, received forgiveness of sins, and become His children, Matthew 28:18-20.
5) "For the remission of sins," (eis aphesin ton hamartion humon) "With reference to the forgiveness of your sins;” The Greek “eis” means "with reference to" remission of sins for each of you who has repented, it is becoming that each of you be baptized to acknowledge that you have received and desire to follow Jesus Christ whom you crucified.
6) "And ye shall receive," (kai lempsesthe) "And you all will receive (of your own accord), by virtue of your own choice, the Holy Spirit, 1 John 4:13; Romans 5:5. The erroneous idea of baptismal regeneration is not alluded to in any manner in this passage. It is by the Holy Spirit one is begotten to eternal life when he repents or believes in Jesus Christ, John 6:63; 1 John 5:1.
7) "The gift of the Holy Ghost." (ten dorean tou hagion pneumatos) "The gift of the Holy Spirit," which comes to one in regeneration, in the new birth, to abide in and with Him forever, even as He came on Pentecost to abide with and empower the church forever, John 14:16-17; Acts 1:8; Acts 2:1-4.
This passage, when taken in contextual setting, has no enigmas, hidden mysteries, or complex meanings. Nor is it necessary for one to be a Greek Scholar or Oriental mystic to set forth its basic meaning.
Under the gospel witnessing of the Holy Ghost Power which had comedown to the church and upon the church, as the Promised comforter, the church had witnessed of Jesus Christ in power in tongues and dialects understood by Jews from three continents and more than fifteen nations.
In this context Peter charged that the Israelites (Jews) with wicked hands had crucified the promised Redeemer who had been resurrected, met with them, then ascended to heaven, awaiting the hour when He would return to judge all men, including them for their wicked deeds. Under the gospel witnessing and judgement preaching of Peter they cried out, "what shall or should we do?" Peter responded by telling them that they should all do two things: 1 ) First, all should, and he imperatively commanded them, "you all repent," Second person active plural. This was that they might have their sins remitted, be converted, or be granted eternal life, Acts 3:19; Acts 11:18; Acts 17:30-31; 2 Corinthians 7:10.
2) Second, to all who repent, were converted, he added, "Let each of you be baptized with reference to remission of your sins," "each of you" is third person singular and "be baptized" is passive; Then each too would receive the gift or benefit of the gift of the Holy Ghost upon the church forever, John 14:16-17.
1) "For the promise it unto you," (humin gar estin he epangelia) "For the promise is (exists) to or toward you all," as a Divine offer, without respect of persons. The offer is that of both salvation and the gift of the Holy Spirit as a comforter, and a guide to all who are saved and who will be baptized and follow the comforter and guide as He abides in and with them in and thru the church, John 15:16; John 14:16-17; 1 John 3:13; Romans 8:14; Ephesians 3:21.
2) "And to your children,"(kai toisteknois humon) "And to your not yet responsible children," to your immature offspring, those not having arrived at a personally responsible age. Salvation, and a call to service, in and thru the church, where the Holy Spirit dwells, leads, and guides, is available to all, Jew and Gentile, in this age, Joel 2:28; Acts 10:43.
3) "And to all that are afar off," (kai pasin tois eis makran) "And the promise is for, (exists toward) all those not having yet been born," or toward those of generations to come. As a pillar of cloud by day and fire by night led Israel from Egyptian bondage into the Promised Land, so the Gift of the Holy Spirit, as a vice-gerant, empowering one, came to the church on Pentecost to be a comforter and guide into all truth till Jesus returns, Exodus 13:20-22; John 14:26; John 16:13; Romans 8:14.
4) "Even as many as the Lord our God shall call," (hosou an proskalesetai kurios ho theos hemon) "That is so many as the Lord our God may hereafter call." This promise of covenant concerns not Israel, restrictedly, but to the Gentile world, to whom God speaks and witnesses in and thru the church, as he pours out His spirit upon all (all kinds) of flesh thru the witnessing of the church. Jesus chose the church, established it, purchased it with His own blood, empowered it to be His calling media till He comes again, John 15:16; Acts 20:28; Acts 15:13-17; Acts 11:15; Acts 11:18; Acts 14:27; Acts 15:3; Acts 15:8; Acts 15:15; Joel 2:28. The new covenant promise of Salvation for all and the overshadowing leadership of the Spirit in the church was offered to all flesh, for the first time.
1) "And with many other words," (hrterois te logois pleiosin) "And with many other kind of words," not related restrictedly to Joel’s prophecy. Much that our Lord and His followers taught and exhorted could not be written (recounted) in the Bible, by virtue of limitation of its usage and being contained in one book, as He desired it to be, John 20:30-31; John 21:25.
2) "Did he testify and exhort," (diemarturato parekalei autous) "He solemnly witnessed, and exhorted them," he both affirmed in testimony regarding Jesus, and motivated the hearers to act upon his testimony of their need of repentance, confession and then baptismal identity with the very Christ that they themselves had crucified, Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; John 14:15.
3) "Saying, Save yourselves," (legon sothete) "Saying be ye saved, or become ye saved," of your own volition, choice, will, accord or in your own behalf, for your own well being. After one is born again, regenerated, converted, he is admonished to "save himself" in the sense of personally determining to deliver his life, turn it over, in surrendered service to Jesus Christ thru His church, John 15:14-16; Ephesians 2:10; Romans 6:16.
4) "From this untoward generation," (apo tes geneas tes okolias tautes) "From (identity with) this (present) perverse generation." This is to be done through separated, holy living, in committed surrender to Jesus Christ, as an active witness, thru His church, Romans 12:1-2 ; Matthew 5:15-16.
Additions to, Growth of, and Service in, the Church, V. 41-47
1) "Then they that gladly received His word," (hoi men oun apodeksamenoi ton logon autou) "Those therefore who were receiving from Him His words," those receiving His message of their own will, accord, or choice. Such only receive it with gladness. Those who do it out of fear, fear of hell, if they do not, do not receive it gladly, but as Judas Iscariot, only to be numbered among professors. They believed His word as the truth, concerning Christ, salvation baptism, and how they might be benefactors of the gift or empowering of Holy Ghost.
2) "Were baptized," (ebaptisthesan) "Were baptized or came of their own accord and were baptized," as a requisite to their being added to the church, and becoming sharers in the gift of empowering and comforter of the Holy Spirit, Matthew 28:18-20; John 14:16-17; John 14:26.
3) "And the same day there were added unto them," (kai prosetehesan en te hemera ekeine) "And the result was that there were set forth (added to the church) on that very day," on that Pentecost day; The company of baptized believers who had companied from the baptism of John is here designated as the church, to which the Holy Spirit of Promise had come early on that Pentecost day. Acts 1:20-21; Acts 2:1-4.
4) "About three thousand souls," (pouchai hosei trischiliai) "About (approximately) three thousand souls or individuals." These near three thousand were perhaps both natives of Jerusalem and believers from the dispersed Jews, returned on that occasion, who had heard the witness, both of the 120 in their own native tongues and dialects, and had heard Peter’s message of the Risen Lord that day. These 3,000 obeyed both Peter’s command to repent and his hortative exhortation to be baptized, after repentance, in the name (by the authorization of Jesus Christ) for (Gk. eis) "with reference to" the forgiveness of their sins, on which basis they became sharers of the Gift of the Holy Spirit, as they were added to the church.
1) "And they continued steadfastly," (esan de proskaterountes) "And they were steadfastly continuing, pursuing, or going on;- The "they" refers to the three thousand who had both received Jesus Christ voluntarily, John 1:11-12, and had subsequently been baptized voluntarily, and then continued in the new covenant (testament) company, called the church, that they might by the church be taught to observe the "all things" commanded of the Lord, Matthew 28:19-20.
2) "In the apostles’ doctrine," (te didache ton apostolon) "in the teaching of the apostles," following their leadership and instruction, as the apostles sought to obey Jesus Christ in teaching these new-made, baptized disciples the observance of all things the Lord had commanded them, John 20:21; Romans 6:16; Luke 9:23. The apostles’ doctrines were those Jesus had given them to observe, John 15:14.
3) "And fellowship," (kai te koinonia) "And they were continually going on in common fellowship," from day to day, in one accord, as when the church waited for the Holy Spirit to come down as comforter and for empowering of the church, to abide with and in her forever, Acts 1:14; They shared not only the common Spirit but also shared food and shelter to meet the needs of each, bearing and sharing one another’s burdens, Galatians 6:2.
4) "And in breaking of bread," (te klasei tou artou) "Even in the breaking of the loaf," to meet their daily need for the staff of life; There is a serious question regarding the view held by some that this alludes to the Lord’s Supper. It is apparently a description of daily witnessing fellowship among the new covenant church, without an half-allusion to the Lord’s Supper, with no mention of the wine or fruit of the vine or of the breaking of bread as a memorial.
5) "And in prayers," (kai tais peoseuchais) "As well as continually pursuing in prayers," the will of God and instructions of their Lord, praying always, as their Lord had taught; Ephesians 6:18; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Colossians 4:2.
1) "And fear came upon every soul:” (egineto de pase psuche phobos) "Moreover fear came to every soul," a fear of awe and reverence to their Lord. The saved are taught to fear God with reverence, with respect, knowing that He lovingly chastens His children for sins of omission and commission, sins of neglect and moral and ethical deeds of wrong, Acts 5:11; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14; Hebrews 12:6; James 4:17.
2) "And many wonders and signs," (polla de terata kai semeia) "And many (a great number of) wonders and signs," miraculous deeds that demonstrated they had Divine credentials from God for what they did, Hebrews 2:4; Acts 4:33; Acts 5:12; Acts 14:3; Acts 19:11. What the signs and wonders were, are not always explained, but they were done by and thru the apostles to confirm that they were God’s called and ordained ministers, till the apostles died, at which time the special sign and wonder gifts ceased, except Faith, Hope, and Love, 1 Corinthians 13:13; Ephesians 4:11-14.
3) "Were done by the apostles," (dia ton apostolon egineto) "Came to be done through the apostles." Only Peter and Paul are named as apostles who performed specific miracles, though the plurality of the apostles, it is affirmed, did work wonders and signs.
a) Three instances are attributed to Peter:
1. Healing the lame man, Acts 3:1-11.
2. Strengthening the palsied Aeneas, Acts 9:32; Acts 9:35.
3. Raising Dorcas from the dead, Acts 9:36-43. b) Five miracles by Paul are recounted:
1. Healing of the cripple at Lystra, Acts 14:8-10.
2. Casting out divination spirit, Acts 16:16-18.
3. Restoring Eutychus to life, Acts 20:6-12.
4. Shaking poisonous snake from his hand, Acts 28:1-6.
5. Healing Publuis at Melita, Acts 28:7-8.
Among other signs and wonders of general nature the following were named as workers; Peter, Philip, Stephen, and Paul, Acts 5:12-16; Acts 6:8; Acts 8:6; Acts 19:11-20; Acts 28:9.
1) "And all that believed were together," (pantes de hoi pisteusantes epi to auto) "And all those who believed were together," in colleague or affinity of new covenant church fellowship, of their own accord, to obey their Lord, out of (from) the motivation of love, John 14:15, and love one for another, by which all men might know (recognize, perceive, or comprehend) that they were disciples of the Lord indeed, John 13:34-35. They sought to pursue the unity or harmony of the Holy Spirit of Promise in peace together, Ephesians 4:1-4.
2) "And had all things common;” (eichon hapanta koina) "And they had all things common," in salvation in baptismal common identity, in doctrine, in fellowship, in breaking the loaf, sharing meals in common for the hour of need, and in a common access to God in prayers, as explicitly stated later, Acts 4:32-34. They were "bearing one another’s burdens," thus fulfilling the law of Christ, especially in sharing food, clothing, shelter and common needs with the new converts from three continents who remained some time after Pentecost in company of fellowship, prayer, and study of the word, Galatians 6:2; Hebrews 13:2; Matthew 25:35; 1 Peter 4:9.
1) "And sold their possessions and goods," (kai ktemata kai tas huparkseis epipraskon) "And they also sold (their) properties and possessions," as a voluntary matter, constrained by the love of Christ to show hospitality, a Christian grace so often neglected among believers and in the church fellowship today, Acts 4:34-35.
2) "And parted them to all men," (kai diemerizon auto pasin) "And distributed them to all," to all of their church fellowship, shared with them in an extremely hospitable manner, Isaiah 58:7-8; Matthew 25:34-40. Such is here expressed as being praised of the Lord.
3) "As every man had need," (kathoti as tis chreian eichen) "According to a need (that) anyone had," or based on a need that anyone had among them; Such is the spirit expressed by our Lord, John 13:34-35, and by John, 1 John 3:16-18; and by James 2:15-16. Let us show hospitality one to another, especially as any among the church company has need for sustaining things of life, 1 Peter 4:9; Galatians 6:10.
1) "And they, continuing daily," (kath’ hemeran te proskarterountes) "And they were continuing, going on repeatedly, from day to day," in what they had been doing, witnessing and fellowshipping, in word and deed in the name and to the honor of Jesus Christ, Colossians 3:17.
2) "With one accord in the temple," (homothumadon en to hiero) "With one mind, disposition, or with harmony and accord among them in the temple," in unity of the Spirit, Luke 24:53; Acts 1:14; Acts 5:42; Ephesians 4:1-3.
3) "And breaking bread from house to house," (klontes te kat’ oikon arton) "Even breaking bread (sharing food) from house to house," wherever they gathered for teaching, fellowship, witnessing etc., in various homes, showing hospitality, love one for another, 1 Peter 4:9.
4) "Did eat their meat with gladness," (metelambenon trophes en agalliasei) "They shared food in a state or condition of gladness," evidently bearing one another’s burdens and cares, even in their daily meals. In eating and drinking it appears that they glorified God in everything they said and did, 1 Corinthians 10:31-33.
5) "And singleness of heart," (kai apheloteti kardias) "And in simplicity of heart or affections," without carnal conflict or fleshly quarreling, bickering, showing child-like affection for one another and the Lord; This was a manifest obedience to the new commandment of Jesus Christ, John 13:34-35; 1 Peter 4:11.
1 ) "Praising God," (ainountes ton theon) "Continually praising (extolling) God,"
2) "And having favour with all the people," (kai echontes charin pros holon ton laon) "And having, holding, or possessing favour with all the people." Even those without the church, as our Lord had done in daily living as He grew up in Nazareth, Luke 2:52. Such conduct of Christian service is declared to be acceptable to God and approved or sanctioned by men, Romans 14:18.
3) "And the Lord added," (ho de kurios prosetitkei) "Moreover the Lord added," attached to, made an enlargement to the number of 3,120 company members of the church, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:41.
4) "To the church daily," (kath’ hemeran epi to auto) "To them (the church) from day today," repeatedly. He did this by ordained means such as: The preaching and witnessing of the Gospel, prayer, fellowship, influence of service on the part of the church which He empowered; then He did it as sinners repented -unto life trusted in or received Jesus Christ, and were baptized at the direction and by the supervision and administration of baptism, by the church, as He had commanded, Matthew 28:18-20.
5) "Such as should be saved," (tous sozomenous) "Those saved of their own accord," or those who were in a saved state or condition of being. He never added or adds unsaved to the church. The Lord used "means" in adding them to the church, as He uses "means" in giving men their daily bread. He sustains men in all needs as they go about honoring and obediently working for their livelihood, Genesis 3:18-19; Acts 17:28. He adds men to the church as the church "ye" of Matthew 28:18-20 makes disciples and then administers baptism to them, bringing them into identity of their church company fellowship, where they teach them to observe the all things commanded of the Lord, Ephesians 3:21.