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Friday, July 12th, 2024
the Week of Proper 9 / Ordinary 14
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Bible Commentaries
Acts 7

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

1) "Then said the High Priest," (eipen de ho archereus) "Then the high priest said," or responded, after he had listened to the malicious charges brought against Stephen, by the hired or suborned false witnesses, Acts 6:11-14. The presiding (questioning) high priest was Annas, Acts 4:6.

2) "Are these things so?" (ei tauta houtos echei) "Are these charges factual, correct, or substantially accurate?" Stephen was thus confronted before the council and the high priest with a jury of stacked, adversary attitude people, and called upon to answer charges that bordered on anarchy and sedition against the law of Moses, and against the popular, established Jewish order of worship and service of the day.

Verse 2

The historical Defense of Stephen v. 2-53

1) "And he said," (ho de ephe) "And he (Stephen) replied or responded," to the false charges of the lying witnesses before the stacked jury of adversaries.

2) "Men, brethren, fathers, hearken;” (andres adelphoi kai pateres akousate) "Ye responsible men, brethren, and fathers, give heed, earnest and honest attention;" A respectful appeal to those of his own race and family lineage, similar to Paul’s later address, Acts 22:1; Acts 23:1.

3) "The God of glory appeared unto our father Abraham," (ho theos tes dokes ophthe to patri hemon Abraam) "The one true God of glory appeared to Abraham our patriarch father," the God who is the source of shekinah glory, Exodus 24:16-17; Psalms 29:3; 1 Corinthians 2:8.

4) "When he was in Mesopotamia," (onti en te Mesopotamia) "While he was (existing) living, down in Mesopotamia," in the land between the rivers of the Euphrates and the Tigris, Genesis 15:7; Joshua 24:3; Ne 93; Romans 4:3.

5) "Before he dwelt in Charran," (prin e Katoikesai auton en charran) "Before the time he ever dwelt in Charran," as recounted, Genesis 11:31-32; Galatians 3:6.

Verse 3

1) "And said unto him," (kai eipen pros auton) "And (God) said to (addressed) him," as follows, directly:

2). "Get thee out of thy country," (ekselthe ek tes ges soul "Go forth (if you will to obey my voice) out of thy

land," out of and away from your fatherland, your

homeland, Genesis 12:1-5. This was a call to separation, for Abraham, from false, idol worship, to trust and

obey the living God.

3) "And from thy kindred," (kai tes sungeneias sou) "And out away from close association with your relatives," who had close family and land ties with heathen worship. Obedience to salvation of the soul and a useful life requires separation from bad, evil company, 2 Corinthians 6:14-17; 1 John 2:15-17.

4) "And come into the land which I shall shew thee," (kai deuro eis tes ten gen hen an soi deikso) "And come into the land (territory) which I may show or point out to you;" individually, and personally. Abraham found righteousness with God by faith, then in that faith he sought to live a life of obedient, voluntary service as God’s child and servant, Ephesians 2:10. His following God indicates that he was led by the Spirit of God, Romans 8:14; He proved the good and acceptable will of God for him, by a life of service, Romans 12:1-2; 1 Thessalonians 1:4; 1 Thessalonians 1:10.

Verse 4

1) "Then came he out of the land of the Chaldaeans," (tote ekselthon ek ges Chaldaion) "Then he went forth out of the land of the Chaldaeans," at the call of the Lord, of his own will, own accord, or voluntarily, by faith, from the land of his family, though it appears his immediate family went with him into Charran.

2) "And dwelt in Charran:" (katokesen en Charaan) "And he dwelt (settled down to live) in Charran," or Haran for a time, until his father, Terah died, Genesis 11:31-32.

3) "And from thence, when his father was dead," (kakeithen meta to apothanein ton patera autou) "And from there, after his father died," Genesis 12:1-5.

4) "He removed into this land," (methkisen auton eis ten gen tauten) "He (God) removed him into this land," Genesis 12:6-9.

5) "Wherein you now dwell," (eis hen humeis nun katoikeite) "in which you all now and hereafter (are to) dwell," by Divine promise of covenant, in Judea, with Jerusalem as the holy place conter, from which the gospel mandate was to go out into every nation, Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15; Acts 1:8; Luke 24:46-49.

Verse 5

1) "And he gave him none inheritance in it," (kai ouk edoken auto kleronomian en aute) "And God gave (to him) Abraham not an inheritance or heirsetting in it," though he sojourned in it, and his family after him, for more than 400 years, together with the sojourn in Egypt, Genesis 15:13; Exodus 12:40.

2) "No, not so much as to set his foot on:" (oude bema podos) "Not even a space for his foot, or a foot of space," which did not include the burial place he purchased, though it was offered to him as a gift - - he had no inheritance in it; though he kept sojourning by faith, Genesis 23:9-17; Hebrews 11:9-11; Hebrews 6:12.

3) "Yet he promised that he would give it to him for a possession," (kai epenge latodounai autois kataschesin auten) "And (yet) he promised to give (it) over to him for a property possession," for ownership, Genesis 15:18; Genesis 17:2-11.

4) "And to his seed after him," (kai to spermati autou met’ auton) "And to his (own) seed after him," Genesis 15:3-4; Genesis 17:19; Hebrews 11:11-12.

5) "When as yet he had no child," (ouk ontos auto teknou) "While he (then even) had no child," no child of his own begetting, Genesis 17:15-19; Genesis 24:60. The faith of Abraham kept him sojourning even when he had no child, after long waiting. He sojourned by faith, not by sight, Romans 4:16-25.

Verse 6

1) "And God spake on this wise," (elalesen de houtos ho theos) "Then God spoke this," after this manner or about this matter.

2) "That his seed should sojourn in a strange land," (hoti estai to sperma autou paroikon en ge allotria) "That his seed will be sojourners in a land belonging to other people," land outside this land, outside this country- -referring to the sojourn in Egypt, Genesis 15:13-14, and in the land of the Philistines, Genesis 21:23; Genesis 21:34.

3) "And that they should bring them in bondage," (kai doulosousin auto) "And they (of the other land) will enslave it (the seed of Abraham)," and they did in Egyptian bondage, Exodus 1:8-14; Exodus 12:40-41.

4) "And entreat them evil four hundred years," (kai kakosousin ete tetrakosia) "And they (of another country) will treat them evil for a period of four hundred years," Exodus 12:40. The period formerly used is in round numbers, Genesis 15:13-14; Galatians 3:17 is precise, perhaps counting from the time Abraham left Haran, until that very day Israel was led out of Egyptian bondage, Exodus 12:41; Exodus 12:51.

Verse 7

1) "And the nation to whom they shall be in bondage," (kai to ethnos ho ean douleusousin) "And the other nation which they will serve," in bondage, slavery, or servitude, a state of slavery, the nation of Egypt, Exodus 20:1-2.

2) "Will I judge, said God:" (krino ego ho theos eipen) "I will judge, God afore-said," or God asserted to Abraham, referring to the ten plague judgments that were to come and did come, upon Egypt which held Israel in bondage, servitude, Exodus 3:6-12.

3) "And after that shall they come forth," (kai meta tauta ekseleusontai) "And after these experiences they will come forth out of or from that land, of their own faith, will, and accord, Exodus 6:4; Exodus 6:6; Exodus 6:6-8.

4) "And serve me in this place," (kai latreusousin moi en to topo touto) "And they will offer worship service to me in this specific place or locality;" in the land grant territory described to Abraham, Genesis 9:13-15; Genesis 15:18; Exodus 14:29-30.

Verse 8

1) "And He gave the covenant of circumcision:" (kai edoken auto diatheken peritomes) "And He (God) gave him (Abraham) a covenant or pledge of circumcision," Genesis 17:9-14. This circumcision law for the male Hebrew child was the "sign" of the covenant and covenant race.

2) "And so Abraham begat Isaac," (kai houtos egennesen ton Isaak) "And thus (after this manner) he (Abraham) begat the Isaac," after he was circumcised at 99 years of age, begat Isaac, Genesis 17:23-27; He gave all that he had accumulated in life to Isaac before his death, Genesis 25:5-11.

3) "And circumcised him the eighth day:" (kai perietemen auton te hemera to ogdon) "And Abraham circumcised him (Isaac) upon the eighth day," after his birth, Genesis 21:4-5, when Abraham was an hundred years old.

4) "And Isaac begat Jacob;"- (kai Isaak ton Iskob) "And then, thereafter, Isaac (begat) Jacob, Genesis 25:19-26.

5) "And Jacob begat the twelve patriarchs," (kai lakob tous dodeka patriarchas) "And thereafter Jacob (begat) the twelve patriarchs," of Israel, Genesis 49:1-33.

Verse 9

1) "And the patriarchs, moved with envy," (kai hoi patriarchai zelosantes) "And the patriarchs while moved with (boiling with) jealousy," because of dreams he had seen and told to them, Genesis 37:8-11; Matthew 21:38; Matthew 27:17-18.

2) "Sold Joseph into Egypt:” (loseph apedonto eis Aigupton) "Sold Joseph into the (nation) Egypt," to the Ishmaelites, into slavery for envy and money for the moment, Genesis 37:26-32; Genesis 37:36. The price they received was twenty pieces of silver, while Judas betrayed our Lord to his own heathen brethren of the religious Jewish hierarchy for thirty pieces of silver, Matthew 26:14-15.

3) "But God was with him," (kai en ho theos met autou) "And (thru it all) God was (existed) with him," with this Ishmaelite slave, Joseph, in Potiphar’s house, Genesis 39:1-4. In this betrayal and sale by his own brethren Joseph was a type of Christ, rejected, betrayed, and sold by his own, John 1:10-11; Matthew 23:37; John 5:43.

Thru it all God was with Joseph, 1 Corinthians 10:13; Hebrews 13:3; Hebrews 13:5. He was with him in the pit, with him in the slave market, with him in Potiphar’s house, with him in prison, and with him in Pharaoh’s official service. He experienced in reality the "I will never leave thee nor forsake thee" promise of God, fulfilled in all these trials.

Verse 10

1) "And delivered him out of all his afflictions," (kai ekseilato auton ek paso ton thlipseon autou) "And (God) rescued him (Joseph) out of all his afflictions or tribulations," which he experienced; It was God who delivered him from the envy and hate of his brothers, from the pit where they cast him, from the Ishmaelites to whom they sold him, from prison where Potiphar’s lying wife caused him to be sent, see? Genesis 39:6-23.

2) "And gave him favor and wisdom," (kai edoken auto charin kai sophian) "And God gave to him grace and wisdom," both Divine favor and Divine- judgement in making wise decisions and in interpreting dreams, Genesis 40:7-23.

3) "In the sight of Pharaoh king over Egypt," (en enation Pharaoh basileos Aiguptou) "Before the eyes or in the sight of Pharaoh (who was) king of Egypt," Genesis 41:1-16; Genesis 41:38-44.

4) "And he made him governor over Egypt," (kai katestesen auton hegoumenon ep’ Aigupton) "And he (Pharaoh) made (appointed) him (Joseph) to be governor over Egypt," Genesis 41:39-46.

5) "And all his house," (kai holon ton oikon autou) "And (governor) over all his household," to superintend all domestic matters of the king’s household of family and servants, Genesis 41:40.

Verse 11

1) "Now there came a dearth," (elthen de limos) "Then there came to be a famine," a state of hunger and near starvation for men and animals, a shortage of fodder, or provendor, or sustenance, especially for those with herds and flocks; It spread slowly over all the land, Genesis 41:54.

2) "Over all the land of Egypt and Chanaan," (epi’ hole ten Aigupton kai Chanan) "Upon, over, or covering all the territory, including Egypt and Canaan:" The famine was said to cover all the face of the earth, also, Genesis 41:56.

3) "And great affliction," (kai thlipsis megale) "And great affliction or trouble," covered all the territory, the lands of Canaan and Egypt in particular, so that people were in frustration, near starvation, Genesis 41:55-57.

4) "And our fathers found no sustenance," (kai ouch heurisko chortasmata hoi pateres hemon) "And our fathers (of Israel) found not sustenance (food sufficient) for livelihood," for their families and cattle; Even corn or small grain used for man’s food, for bread, could hardly be found. It was for this hour God had used Joseph as food administrator in Egypt to prepare to feed the needy, hungry of the land of Egypt and surrounding countries, Genesis 41:45-54.

Verse 12

1) "But when Jacob heard that there was corn in Egypt," (Akousas de lakob onta sitia eis Aigupton) "Then when Jacob had heard that corn was to be found in Egypt," the kind of corn (Gk. sita) small grain from which bread was made for man to eat and also useful to keep flocks and herds alive, Genesis 2:1-2.

2) "He sent out our fathers first," (eksapestelen) "He sent forth, (delegated) sent on a mission, our fathers into Egypt first. - He did not trust his servants to go and return, but sent ten of his own sons, all he then had, except Benjamin, to bring back corn for food, Genesis 42:3-5.

In this may be seen the love of God in sending not angel servants but his only begotten Son to do His bidding in providing the bread of life for the satisfaction of the soul-hungry starving, John 6:51-58; Isaiah 55:2-3.

Verse 13

1) "And at the second time," (kai en to deuteron) "And at the second time," when he sent them forth into Egypt for corn, Genesis 43:1-5. Though Jacob hesitated to send Benjamin with the other ten brethren, he did it at Joseph’s requirement, rather than starve to death.

2) "Joseph was made known to his brethren;" (egnoristhe loseph tois autou) "Joseph was made known to his (own) brothers," who had sold him to the Ishmaelites and thus into Egyptian slavery. This is an illustration of the axiom, "be sure your sins will find you out," Numbers 32:23.

3) "And Joseph’s kindred was made known unto Pharaoh," (kai phaneron egeneto to Pharaoh to genos loseph) "And the race of Joseph was made or came to be manifest to Pharaoh;" That they were of the family line of the Patriarchs - - Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, was at this time revealed to Pharaoh, who only then realized who his food administrator, Joseph really was racially. Tho he knew he was a Hebrew he did not know his actual lineage, Genesis 41:12; Genesis 41:16. Pharaoh at this time realized the real racial lineage of Joseph to the people of God (Elohim) who had promised them a land-grant, by covenant, Genesis 45:16-28. The hand of Divine Providence and sovereignty is certified in this account, Genesis 45:5-13; Genesis 50:20; 2 Corinthians 12:9-10.

Verse 14

1) "Then sent Joseph," (aposteilas de loseph) "Then Joseph sent (commissioned)," his brethren, Genesis 45:9.

2) "And called his father Jacob to him," (metekalesato lakob ton patera autou) "And he called to his side his father," Genesis 45:10; Genesis 45:13; Genesis 45:17-18. And in the call he promised his needs for the journey, Genesis 45:19-28; Then he assured him of a safe journey, in a vision at Beersheba, after a sacrifice that night, Genesis 46:1-7.

3) "And all his kindred," (kai pasan ten sungeneian) "And all his family," all his father’s direct family and their offspring," both coming out of Canaan and those of Joseph’s family already in Egypt, to come together as one race-family, Genesis 46:5-7.

4) "Threescore and fifteen souls," (en psuchais hebdomekonta pente) "in number seventy five souls," or seventy five people, including Jacob, Joseph, his wife and two sons, Genesis 46:27, the latter five named here were in addition to the threescore and ten listed Genesis 46:1-27.

See also Exodus 1:5, or the sixty six of Genesis 46:26, plus Jacob, Joseph and his two sons make the threescore and ten of Genesis 46:27 - - the "all his kindred" of seventy five includes unnamed wives of Jacob’s sons.

Verse 15

1) "So Jacob went down into Egypt," (kai katebe lakob eis Aigupton) "And Jacob went down into the land of Egypt," an established Biblical and secular fact, Genesis 46:27-28.

2) "And died," (kai eteleutesei autos) "And there he died," after charging his sons regarding his burial, or reburial, that he was to be buried back in Canaan at Machpelah, where Abraham and Isaac were buried, Genesis 49:29-33.

3) "He, and our fathers," (autos kai hoi pateres hemon) "Both he and our fathers," there died as well, others of the Hebrew kindred also died in Egypt, away from their land of promise, though they like we, shall one day dwell in a better land, a better place of promise, John 14:1-3; 2 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18.

Verse 16

1) "And were carried into Sychem," (kai metetethesan eis Suchem) "And were transferred (transported) into Sychem," where Abraham had long before bought a burial place for his family, Genesis 23:8-20.

2) "And laid in the sepulchre," (kai etethesan en to mnemati) "And they were put or placed in a tomb," in Sychem, in the cave of Machpelah, according to Jacob’s instructions before his death, Genesis 49:30-33.

3) "That Abraham bought for a sum of money," (ho onesato Abraham times arguriou) "Which Abraham bought for a price (or payment) of silver," in amount of four hundred shekels, a value of 650 per shekel or $130.00, Genesis 23:16-18.

4) "Of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem," (para ton huion Emmor en Suchem) "From the sons of Emmor in (the territory of) Sychem." It appears that some eighty years after Abraham purchased the field, Genesis 23:4-20, that Jacob repurchased it from Hamor or (Emmor, Acts 7:15-16; Genesis 33:19, as a descendant of Heth who had apparently repossessed the field in which the burial cave was located. See also Joshua for the account of Joseph’s final burial.

Joseph’s bones, brought out of Egypt at the Exodus, were later buried in Shechem, on a parcel of ground purchased by Jacob for sacred purposes, Joshua 24:32.

Verse 17

1) "But when the time of the promise drew nigh," (kathos de engizen ho chronos epangelias) "Then just as the time of the promise (fulfillment) drew near," the promise of deliverance from four hundred years of bondage in Egypt, Genesis 15:13-14; Exodus 2:23-25. God always remembers and honors His covenants and promises.

2) "Which God had sworn to Abraham," (hes homologesen ho theos to Abraam) "Which God declared to Abraham," vouchsafed or certified, that beyond, or after his death, his people would return to possess this land grant, Genesis 17:15-16; Genesis 17:18-21.

3) "The people grew and multiplied in Egypt," (euksisen ho laos kai eplethunthe en Aigupto) "The people grew and multiplied in number in Egypt;" In a strange land God continued to bless the seed of Abraham, even under oppression, verifying his repeated promises, Genesis 12:1-3; Genesis 13:14-17; Genesis 17:13-21. The rapid increase of Israelites in Egypt aroused fears in the Egyptians from which persecutions came against them, Exodus 1:7; Exodus 1:9-12; Psalms 105:24-25.

Verse 18

1) "Till another king arose," (achri ou aneste basileus heteros ep’ Agupton) "Until another kind of king (one with another disposition) arose or rose up to reign over Egypt;"

This king’s disposition was one of enmity toward the people of Joseph’s family, Abraham’s seed; whereas that Pharaoh who made Joseph his food administrator of Egypt was kindly toward them, Genesis 45:16-23; Genesis 47:1-11.

2) "Which knew not Joseph," (hos ouk edec ton loseph) "Who did not know, have regard for Joseph," Exodus 1:8. This king was not kindly disposed toward the family race of Joseph, because he did not know Joseph and Joseph’s life, testimony of faith in Israel’s God. This was a new dynasty of kings from that of the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings dynasty. The latter king had little respect for either Joseph and his people or the Pharaoh who had befriended Joseph and whom Joseph faithfully served.

Verse 19

1) "The same dealt subtilly with our kindred," (houtos katasophisamenos to genos hemon) "This king of an unkind (different disposition) was dealing craftily with our family-race;" It was rendered "deal wisely with them," Exodus 1:10. But what is wisdom or wise to the men of heathendom is foolishness, wickedness with God, 1 Corinthians 1:19-25; 1 Corinthians 3:19.

2) "And evil entreated our fathers," (ekakosen tous pateras tou) "And he ill-treated or abused our fathers," treated them with contempt and derision, imposing beastly burdens and slave-tasks upon them repeatedly, continually, Exodus 1:11-14.

3) "So that they cast out their young children," (poiein ta brephe auton) "To repeatedly make their babies be aborted, exposed, or cast out to die," Exodus 1:15-16, that is all male babies were to be destroyed at birth, Exodus 1:22.

4) "To the end they might not live," (eis to me zoogoneisthai) "So that they would not be preserved alive," or be permitted to live, except the girt babies were permitted to live, that Egyptians might raise them up to be concubine- slaves to them, Exodus 1:16-22.

Verse 20

1) "In which time Moses was born," (en ho kairo egennethe Mouses) "At which period in time Moses was born," with a death penalty over his head, that he should be murdered at birth, Exodus 1:22.

2) "And was exceeding fair," (kai en asteios to theo) "And he was fair to or toward God," in an excelling degree toward God, called also a goodly child, physically sound, Exodus 2:2.

3) "And nourished up in his father’s house three months:” (hosanetraphe menas treis en to oiko tou patros) "Who was reared(cared for)three months in his father’s house," or family residence, because abortion or infanticide was against the Hebrews, who believed that children were an heritage of the Lord, not slave chattel, Exodus 2:1-2; Genesis 11:23; Psalms 127:3.

Verse 21

1) "And when he was cast out," (ektethentos de autou) "Then when his person was exposed," cast out of his home, where he, and when he could not be kept safely any longer by his mother and father, Exodus 2:3-4.

2) "Pharaoh’s daughter took him up," (aneilato auton de thugater pharao) "The daughter of Pharaoh took him up," took him under her control, Exodus 2:5-8.

3) "And nourished him for her own son," (kai anethrepsato auton heaute eis huion) "And reared him as (if he were) her own son," Exodus 2:8-10.

The wisdom and goodness of God in the rearing and formal training of Moses, for a later deliverer and lawgiver for Israel, is beyond human comprehension, though we know it is true, Romans 8:28; Romans 11:33.

Verse 22

1) "And Moses was learned," (kai epaideuthe Mouses) "And Moses was trained," instructed and disciplined, after the regal order or rank of the house of Pharaoh, then king of Egypt, at least from the time he was a child of school age, after which he was educated under the direction of Pharaoh’s daughter, Exodus 2:10.

2) "In all the wisdom of the Egyptians " (pase sophia Aiguption) "In all (the) wisdom of (the) Egyptians," inclusive of their methods of magic by which they often deluded their heathen followers, Exodus 7:11; Among these were Jannes and Jambres, 2 Timothy 3:8. But neither Satan nor his emissaries can create or give life, Exodus 8:18; Revelation 13:15; 2 Thessalonians 2:9.

3) "And was mighty in words and in deeds," (en de dunatos en logeis kai ergois autou) "And was very powerful in his word and works; as a type of Jesus Christ, Deuteronomy 18:15-19; Luke 24:19. Moses’ might or power in words and work was in the content of that he received and delivered from God to the Pharaohs and to Israel, not in his oratorical abilities, Exodus 4:10-13. He did God’s work, in God’s way, and spoke God’s word, depending on God’s help, much as Paul did when he went up to the Gentile Corinthians to bear God’s message to them, 1 Corinthians 2:1-5.

Verse 23

1) "And when he was full forty years old," (hos de eplerouto auto tresserakontaetes chronos) "Then when he was full forty years of age (chronological time)," as recounted Exodus 2:11-12.

2) "It came into his heart," (anebe epi ten kardian autou) "it came upon his heart," it became a desire, longing heavy upon his heart, "The interest of ones kindred is important in determining real character, whether that interest be in their physical or spiritual welfare, or both, 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Timothy 3:14-15.

3) "To visit his brethren," (episkepsasthai tous adelphous autou) "To make a visit to his brethren," the Hebrews. He was interested in both the physical and spiritual welfare of his own family-race, even as Paul was, after his conversion, Romans 9:1-3; Romans 10:1-4.

4) "The children of Israel,’-’, (tous huious Israel) "The sons or heirs of Israel," Our Cord came to His own and called, stretched out His hands to help them first, John 1:10-11; Matthew 23:37; and it is declared that he who cares or provides not, ’ has not compassion for his own family-line, denies the faith and is ’Worse than an infidel, 1 Timothy 5:8; 1 Timothy 5:16.

Verse 24

1) "And seeing one of them suffer wrong," (kai idontina adikoumenon) "And seeing that one was being injured or abused," Exodus 1:11; Exodus 2:11; Perhaps this was over their grievous work loads, Exodus 5:4-5.

2) "He defended him," (emunato) "He defended (him)," the brother of his kindred or race who was being overpowered, injured, burdened, and oppressed, Exodus 6:6-7. He smote the Egyptian and killed him.

3) "And avenged him that was oppressed," (kai epoiesin ekdikesin to kataponoumeno) "And he personally defended or avenged his racial brother who was being injured," who was getting the worse of a fight; and Moses refused any longer to be known as Pharaoh’s daughter’s son, Hebrews 11:24.

4) "And smote the Egyptian:" (pataksas ton Aiguption) "Repeatedly he struck or was striking the Egyptian," Exodus 2:12. It appears that this was the point in his life when he made his choice of faith to trust in Israel’s God, beheld him who is invisible as Savior, deliverer, and sustainer for him, Hebrews 11:25.

Verse 25

1) "For he supposed," (enomizen de) "Now he supposed," or considered that.

2) "His brethren would have understood," (sunienai tous adelphous) "That his racial brethren would understand," perhaps from the curious history of his life which they should have heard and applauded for his patriotism, care for his actual racial family.

3) "How that God by his hand," (hoti ho theos dis cheiros autou) "That God through his hand," thru the instrument of his leadership, God who had so miraculously preserved them thru Joseph, would lead them to freedom, liberation or release from their oppressions, Genesis 49:10.

4) "Would deliver them:” (didosin soterian autois) "Would give over deliverance to them:- from the bondage of Egypt, by his hand one day, and he was willing to identify himself by physically standing up for and with them in shaking off the shackles of their bondage, Hebrews 11:25-26.

5) "But they understood not," (hoi de ou sunekan) "But they had no understanding," or did not comprehend, as reflected by their speech when he tried to settle a brawl between two of his own Hebrew brethren the following day, Exodus 2:14.

Verse 26

1) "And the next day," (te epiouse hemera) "Then on the coming (next) day," following the day he had slain the Egyptian, Exodus 2:11-12.

2) "He showed himself unto them as they strove," (ophthe autois machomenois) "He appeared to two of them as they were fighting or rioting," brawling one with another, among themselves, Exodus 2:13.

3) "And would have set them at one again," (kai sunellassen autous eis eirenen) "And he attempted to reconcile them in peace," Matthew 5:9.

4) "Saying, Sirs, ye are brethren;" (eipon andres adelphoi este) "Saying, Men, you all, you two are brethren," of the same racial family, similar to the appeal that Abraham made to Lot for peace when their herdsmen fought over grazing grounds, Genesis 13:5-9.

5) "Why do ye wrong one to another?" (hinati adikeite allelous) "Why do you all injure (do harm to) one another?" Exodus 2:13; John 13:34-35. Moses addressed the two as "sirs" respectfully, not with any lordly contempt.

Verse 27

1) "But he that did his neighbor wrong," (ho de adikon ton plesion) "But the one who was injuring the neighbor," beating him up, inflicting injury, the stronger of the two with inflamed passion, tasting carnal victory.

2) "Thrust him away, saying," (aposato auton eipon) "Pushed (thrust) him away, saying," with sarcasm and derision to Moses who tried to intercede as a peacemaker, Matthew 5:9; Matthew 5:11-12.

3) "Who made thee a ruler," (tes se katestesen archonta) "Who appointed you (to be) a ruler," just as Jesus was long years later despised and rejected of men, by His own countrymen, Isaiah 53:3; Matthew 27:30-31.

4) "And a judge over us?" (kai dikasten eph’ hemon) "And (to be) a judge over us?" How carnal it is for one in or doing wrong to seek to justify his wrong by deriding or cutting another down, even as the enemies of Christ on the cross, Matthew 27:39-44.

Verse 28

1) “Wilt thou kill me," (me anelein me su theleis) "You want to kill me, don’t you?" It may be noted that Moses in love sought the good and safety of his Hebrew people, even standing in the gap, interceding, praying to God, and even offering to die in their stead. His motives were, like our Lord’s impugned by his own brethren, Exodus 32:31-32.

2) "As thou diddest the Egyptian yesterday?" (on tropon aneiles echthes ton Aiguption) "in the same way you killed the Egyptian yesterday?" Exodus 2:14. Moses did good and prayed for those who despitefully treated him, Matthew 5:44; Acts 7:60; Romans 12:14; Romans 12:20.

Verse 29

1) "Then fled Moses at this saying," (ephugen de Mouses en to logo touto) "Then at this word Moses fled," when the word got out or the report became known to the Egyptians and Pharaoh’s house. And Pharaoh sought to apprehend (arrest) him and slay him, Exodus 2:15. He had perhaps been represented to Pharaoh by the Egyptians as a seditious man.

2) "And was a stranger," (kai egeneto paroikos) "And he became a sojourner," a temporary dweller, an itinerant.

3) "In the land of Midian," (en ge Madian) "In the land (called) Midian," the peninsular desert of Sinai, Exodus 3:1. It was a general desert, wilderness or uninhabited area. The Midianites came from Keturah, the fourth son of Abraham; They were Nomadic and mercantile people, Exodus 2:15.

4) "Where he begat two sons," (hou egennesen huious duo) "Where he begat two sons," became the natural father of two sons, by his wife Zipporah, daughter of Jethro (also known as Reuel) priest of Midian, Exodus 2:22; Exodus 18:3-4.

Verse 30

1) "And when forty years expired," (kai plerothenton eton tesserakonta) "And when a period of forty years was fulfilled," in the land of Midian an extended sojourn from. Egypt, bondage-land of his Hebrew brethren, from which he had been a fugitive for forty full years.

2) "There appeared to him," (ophthe auto) "There appeared (was made manifest) to or before him," in a physical and visible way.

3) "In the wilderness of Mount Sina," (ente eremo tou orous sina) "In the desert (wilderness or desert place) of Mount Sina," the peak of a mountain range called Horeb.

4) "An angel of the Lord in a flame of fire in a bush," (angeloe en phlogi puros batou) "An angel in a flame of fire (of) a thorn bush;" It appears that the angelic speaker was Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in angelic messenger form, Exodus 3:2; Exodus 3:7; Acts 7:31. It was the voice of the Lord that spoke.

The burning, yet unconsumed bush, seems to represent Israel as a thorn-bush in the spiritually barren land of Egypt, under flames of persecution by the Egyptians; yet God cared for His thorn bush and was preserving it thru the flame, as He did the Hebrew children, Daniel 3:15-30.

Verse 31

1) "When Moses saw it," (ho de Mouses idon) "Then Moses perceiving or recognizing it," as something extraordinary, unusual in a desert place, with no one around to start or kindle the fire, Exodus 3:2-3.

2) "He wondered at the sight:" (ethaumazen to horama) "He marveled at the vision," at the sight his eyes were beholding, and considered what it meant. His philosophy could not explain how a bush could burn, yet not be consumed. In some way it surely indicated God’s care of His own people and property from fire and destruction, Daniel 3:19-27; Matthew 16:18.

3) "And as he drew near to behold it," (proserchomenou de autou katanoesai) "Then as he approached it to take close observation," Exodus 3:3; Perhaps he did not realize that in drawing near to God, nearer than he had ever been before, and drawing near to receive the Emancipation Mission Mandate as commander-i n-chief to liberate Israel from Egyptian bondage, James 4:7-8; Psalms 73:28.

4) "The voice of the Lord came unto him," (egeneto phone kuriou) "There was or came (a) voice of (the) Lord;" It is therefore believed that Jesus Christ, the Redeemer from the foundation of the world, was the angel-form messenger that spoke to him, Exodus 3:4, as surely as he spoke to Saul of Tarsus on the Damascus road, and in the nighttime on a stormy sea, Acts 9:5-6; Acts 27:20-25.

Verse 32

1) "Saying, I am the God of thy fathers," (ego ho theos ton pateron soul "I am (exist as) the God of thy fathers; This is why it is believed the angelic messenger speaker was Jehovah, the Christ who was to come, Matthew 22:31-32.

a) "The God of Abraham," (ho theos Abraam) "Even the God of Abraham," to whom the covenant was given, who received the gospel when God preached it to him, Hebrews 11:8; Galatians 3:8-9; Romans 4:3; Romans 4:5.

b) "And the God of Isaac," (kai Isaak) "And the God of Isaac," who blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come, Genesis 27:27; Genesis 27:29; Hebrews 11:20.

c)"And the God of Jacob,"(kai lakob)"As well as the God of Jacob," who went down into Egypt with all his family, where they had remained to that hour, Genesis 47:31; Genesis 48:5; Genesis 48:16; Genesis 48:20; Hebrews 11:21.

2) "Then Moses trembled," (entromos de genomenos) "Then Moses began trembling continually," as he drew near the bush and heard the vibrating voice of God, as Saul trembled saying, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?" Acts 9:6; Felix also trembled, but did not ask the Lord’s will for him, Acts 24:25.

3) "And durst not behold," (ouk etolmakatanoesai) "And he dared not to continually take notice or look directly upon the burning thorn bush," Much as Israel could not behold the face of Moses after he had been in the presence of the Lord to receive the ten commandments, Exodus 34:29-30; Exodus 34:34-35. Moses hid or shaded his eyes from the brightness of the glow, Exodus 3:6; 1 Kings 19:12-13.

Verse 33

1) "Then said the Lord to him," (eipen de auto ho kurios) "Then the Lord said to him," to Moses directly and alone in the desert of Sinai; God takes the initiative thru His Word, His Spirit, His church, nature, and His children to call the lost to salvation and the saved to service, Isaiah 55:6-7; Matthew 11:28-29; John 6:37.

2) " Put off thy shoes from thy feet:" (Iuson to hupodema ton podon soul "Loosen, or release, or (take off) the sandals of your feet," that are strapped on your feet, as an expression of holy respect, Mark 6:9; Acts 12:8. Similar instructions were later given to Joshua, Joshua 5:14-15. Priests went barefoot in the temple and tabernacle in respect of the holy place.

3) "For the place where thou standest," (ho gar topos eph’ ho estekas) "Because the place (location) upon which you stand at this moment," Exodus 3:5; Genesis 17:25.

5) "Is holy ground," (ge hagia estin) "Exists as holy or sacred ground," by virtue of the Divine presence of the Lord, himself, as surely as the Holy of Holies was an holy place where the Lord met to commune His will to His people before the mercy seat; Even today one may not enter an Islamic mosque without removing his shoes of covering street shoes with large soft coverings, Exodus 26:33-34; Numbers 18:9-10; Judges 1:20.

Verse 34

1) "I have seen, I have seen," (idon eidon) "Seeing uninterruptedly or continually, I saw," expressing a divine intense, compassionate observation: Note, Hebrews 1) Saw, and 2) Heard, and 3) Came down to deliver, to rescue his people; Deep concern or care is here expressed, as he beholds and cares, 1 Peter 5:7; Psalms 37:5.

2) " The affliction of my people which is in Egypt," (ten kakosin tou laou mou tou en Aigupto) "The ill-treated (cruel treatment) of my people in Egypt," Exodus 2:25; Nehemiah 9:9.

3) "And I have heard their groaning," (kai tou stenagmou autou ekousa) "And the groan of my people I have heard;" God is both a "seeing," and "hearing" God who compassionately beholds and listens to the cries of His people, Exodus 23:24; 2 Corinthians 1:3-4.

4) "And am come down to deliver them," (kai kateben ekselesthai autous) "And I came down to rescue them," to begin a continuing rescue mission till they are rescued from their afflictions, Exodus 3:8; Joshua 24:11.

5) "And now come, I will send thee into Egypt,"(kai nun duro apostello se eis Aigupton) "And now and hereafter from this moment, I will send (commission or deputize you) to Egypt," Exodus 3:7. And he became a special apostle (or sent one) into Egypt. He sent Moses to become a General when was 80 years of age and succeeded, Exodus 7:6-7.

Verse 35

1) "This Moses whom they refused, saying," (touton ton Mouses hon eresanto eipontes) "This (is) the Moses whom they denied, (derided) repeatedly scoffing," in rejecting and denying him as one who cared for them, much as Israel denied and rejected Jesus, John 1:11-12; Acts 3:13.

2) "Who made thee a ruler and a judge?" (tis se katestesen archonta kai dikasten) "Who appointed you (as or to be) a ruler and a judge?" Exodus 2:13-14; Genesis 19:9; In Egypt the Hebrews became so callous and backslidden that they could not even recognize compassion from Moses, their own race-brother. So did- the Jews toward Jesus, John 5:43.

3) "The same did God send to be a ruler and a deliverer," (touton ho theos kai archonta kai lutraten apestalken) "This same Moses God has sent both (as) a ruler and a redeemer," or spiritual as well as physical deliverer, a type of what Jesus did for all men, Luke 1:68; Luke 2:38; Titus 2:14; Hebrews 9:12.

4) "By the hand of the angel," (sun cheri angelou) "With the affinity (leading) hand of the angel," Exodus 14:19, which went before the camp, then behind them as the pillar of cloud went before them. The term "hand of the angel" refers to the help of the angel. Numbers 20:16; Psalms 34:7.

5) "Which appeared to him in the bush," (tou ophthentos auto en te bato) "The one which appeared to him in the bush," Exodus 3:2; Hebrews 1:14.

Verse 36

1) "He brought them out," (houtos ekeagigen autous) "This man led them out," out of the land of Egypt; He rescued them as if from a sinking ship, a burning building, or quick-sand pit, even like Joseph, he had formerly been rejected and derided and betrayed by his brethren, Exodus 3:10; Exodus 12:41; Exodus 12:43; Exodus 12:51; Genesis 37:27-28.

2) "After that he had shewed wonders and signs in the land of Egypt," (poiesas terata kai semeia en ge Aigupto) "After he had done (made or showed) wonders and signs in the land of Egypt;" After he had ministered the ten plagues with his rod over Egypt, a miraculous demonstration, seal or evidence of his credentials of commission from God, Exodus 7:8 to Exodus 12:30.

3) "And in the Red Sea," (kai en eruthra thalasse) "As well as in the Red Sea," as the waters were rolled back, the Israelites passed through the sea dry shod, and the Egyptians trying to follow them were drowned therein, Exodus 14:10-31.

4) "And in the wilderness forty years," (kai en te eremo ete tesserakonta) "And in the desert (or wilderness of Sinai) for a period of forty years," as he led and fed them for a period of forty years, till his death at Mt Nebo. He fed them with quail, manna from heaven, and water from the rock, by supernatural intervention and provision, Exodus 16:35; Deuteronomy 34:1-7. He cared for his own to the end, Philippians 4:19; Hebrews 13:5.

Verse 37

1) "This is that Moses," (houtos estin ho Mouses) "This is the particular Moses," not to be confused with any other person called Moses, Acts 7:35. The idea is that Jesus Christ, whom Stephen himself was then preaching, was a type.

2) "Which said unto the children of Israel," (ho eipas tois huois Israel) "Who said to the sons of Israel," to the heirs of Jacob, as Moses as a prophet spoke and wrote, Deuteronomy 18:15.

3) "A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you," (propheten humin anastesei ho theos) "God will raise up (stand up)a prophet for you all;" Jesus was "that prophet" like unto or similar to Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15; Acts 3:22-23.

4) "Of your brethren, like unto me;”(ek ton adelphon humon hos eme) "Out of your own kindred-brethren, similar to me," a deliverer, a law, or covenant giver - - a provider; 0 to be like Him, Philippians 2:5-9; Luke 9:23; 1 John 3:1-3.

5) "Him shall ye hear," (This phrase omitted in better Greek manuscripts) Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:19. To him you shall give ear, give heed, obey; yet they did not, John 1:11-12; Matthew 17:5; Hebrews 1:1-2; Hebrews 2:1-3.

Verse 38

1) "This is he " (houtos estin ho) "This is the one who," Acts 7:35.

2) "That was in the church in the wilderness," (genomenos en te ekklesia en te eremo) "Was having been in the assembly, congregation, or church in the desert;" In the organized house of Moses, assembly of Divine organized program of worship and service in the wilderness of Sinai; It was not the new covenant church that Jesus built, Hebrews 3:1-9; 1 Timothy 3:15.

3) "With the angel," (meta tou angelou) "in company, association, or harmony with the angel," who spoke to Moses at his call, Exodus 3:2; Exodus 3:4; Exodus 3:7.

4) "Which spake to him in Mount Sina," (tou lalountos auto en to orei sina) "That is of the angel that spoke to him on the mountain called Sina," both at his call, and when he received the ten commandments, Exodus 31; Exodus 19:2; Exodus 20:1-26.

5) "And with our fathers:" (kai ton pateron hemon) "As well as with our kindred fathers," Isaiah 63:9, to lead them and feed and clothe them thru it all, all the journey from Egypt to Canaan, Hebrews 1:1-2. Moses acted as mediator between Israel and God, as Jesus does for us, Exodus 19:3; Exodus 19:17; 1 Timothy 2:5-6; Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2.

6) "Who received the lively oracles to give unto us:”(hos edeksato logia zota dounai humin) "Who received the living oracles to dole out to or give over to you all:" and they (Israel) pledged to hear and keep these oracles or orders, Deuteronomy 5:27-29; Isaiah 63:9; Romans 3:1-2; Galatians 3:19.

Verse 39

1) "To whom our fathers would not obey," (ho ouk ethelesan hupekoai genesthai hoi pateres hemon) "To whom (the Lord) our fathers had not a spiritual will or disposition to become obedient," they perverted, distorted, detested this Moses, lawgiver of God and His laws, oracles, Mark 7:1-13.

2) "But thrust him from them," (alla aposanto) "But (instead) thrust him away," rejected him, when he first came to their defense and many times in their experiences of life, Exodus 2:13-14.

3) "And in their hearts turned back again into Egypt," (kai esteraphesan en tes kardiais auton eis Aigupton) "And in their hearts (affections), desires they turned toward Egypt," desiring the leeks and onions and garlic and carnal things, even their idol gods, after so miraculous a deliverance, Exodus 14:11-12; Exodus 15:24; Exodus 16:2-3; Numbers 11:4-5; Numbers 14:1-5; 1Co 10:6. Oh that Christians might avoid faultfinding, lusting, looking back, desiring things of the old nature, Romans 12:1-2; 1 John 2:15-17.

Verse 40

1) "Saying unto Aaron," (eipontes to Aaron) "Repeatedly saying or appealing to Aaron;" Moses was receiving the law of Divine Worship and Service from the Lord at that very time, Exodus 31:18.

2) "Make us gods to go before us:" (poieson hemin theous hoi proporeusontai hemon) --make for us (for our protection) gods which will go before us," something we can took at, reminding us of Egypt, our former dwelling place, Exodus 32:1-8.

3) "For as for this Moses," (ho gar Mouses houtos) "Because this Moses," who had been in the mount for forty days receiving the law of the Lord for them, Deuteronomy 9:11-12.

4) "Which brought us out of the land of Egypt," (hos eksegagen hemas ek ges Aiguptou) "Who led us out of and from the territory (land) of Egypt," liberated us. How fickle is man regarding devotion to Divine leadership. 1 Corinthians 11:1-2; Hebrews 13:7; Hebrews 13:17; Hebrews 13:24; 1 Timothy 5:17.

5)"We wot not what is become of him,"(oukoidaminti egeneto auto) "We do not know (perceive) what has become of him," or what happened to him, and the idea was they did not care too much, Exodus 24:18. Let us follow the "faith" system of teaching of Christ and faithful men, Hebrews 13:7; Judges 1:3.

Verse 41

1) "And they made a calf in those days," (kai emoschopoiesan en tais hemerais ekeinais) "And they made a likeness, model, or look-alike of a calf in those days," Exodus 32:4; Psalms 104:19-21; 1 Kings 12:28-30. The calf was made of gold, perhaps molten over wood or clay, in imitation of Apis at Memphis, Egypt or Mnevis at Hechiopolis, Psalms 106:19.

2) "And offered sacrifice unto the idol," (kai anegagon thusin to eidolo) "And they brought up a sacrifice to the idol," to the model, likeness, or look-alike of the calf that they had fashioned of their own handmaking, Exodus 32:5-7; Exodus 22:20. They professed to be worshipping God under or before this symbol, but he was neither then nor is he now with such worship, Exodus 32:5.

3) "And rejoiced in the works of their own hands," (kai euphrinonto en tois ergois ton cheiron auton) "And they made merry (worked up an excited merriment) in the works of their hands," Their object of merriment, like the “get excited" objects of merriment of fleshly religious objectives in this and every age, was the worship or adoration of that which had been fashioned of their own hands, Exodus 32:8; Exodus 34:11-16; Psalms 115:1-8; 1 Corinthians 10:6-7. They simply had a festive celebration, bowing before, complementing themselves on their own achievement of making themselves a god, a false god, but a god, nevertheless, Exodus 20:1; Exodus 20:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6.

Verse 42

1) "Then God turned," (estrepsen de ho theos) "Then God turned," changed His course of action toward them, Psalms 81:12; Ezekiel 20:23-25; Joshua 24:20-21.

2) "And gave them up to worship the host of heaven;”(kai paredoken autous latreuein te stratia tou ouranou) "And gave them over to pursue a course to worship the host of heaven," 2 Thessalonians 2:11, heavenly bodies, stars, planets, sun and moon, a form of worship called Sabaism, Deuteronomy 17:2-5; Judges 2:11-14, which carried the death penalty by stoning.

3) "As it is written in the book of the prophets," (kathos gegraptai en biblo ton propheton) "Just as it has been written in the roll-book of the prophets," Amos 5:25-26. The twelve minor prophets were reckoned as one book by the Jews.

4) "0 ye house of Israel," (oikos Israel) "0 house of Israel," organized assembly of Israel’s program of worship and service, Hebrews 3:1-7.

5) "Have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices," (me sphogia kai thusias prosenegkate mou) "Did you all not offer to me victims and sacrifices," Exodus 24:3-7.

6) "By the space of forty years in the wilderness?" (ete tesserakonta en te eremo) "For a period of forty years in the desert of Sinai," in the wilderness wandering years? Ezekiel 20:7-24; Amos 5:25-26.

Verse 43

1) "Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch," (kai anelabete ten skenen tou Moloch) "And ye also took up the tent of Moloch," actually took up preserved and deliberately perpetuated the tabernacle for idol worship, Amos 5:26. The idol was the head of an ox with the body of a human - - It was hollow and heated from below. Children were burned in its arms while drums were beaten to drown their cries, Leviticus 18:21; Leviticus 20:2-5; 2 Kings 23:10; 1 Kings 11:7; Jeremiah 32:35.

2) "And the star of your god Remphan," (kai to astron tou theou hrompha) "As well as the star (banner) of the god Rompha," the star-god of Saturn. Thus they placed idol gods on an equal level with Jehovah God in worship.

3) "Figures which ye made to worship them:" (tous tupous ous epoiesate proskunein autois) "The models (images) figures, you all made to worship toward them," or to bow down to them, in disobedience to the very law they had pledged loyally, faithfully to obey, Exodus 20:1-5; Exodus 20:19; Exodus 20:26, Amos 5:25-26.

4) "And I will carry you away beyond Babylon," (kai metoikio humas epekeina Babulonos) "And I will deport you all (as a nation) beyond Babylon," their political exile from Israel, in Babylon was a divine chastisement upon Israel for her consorting with idolatry, 2 Chronicles 36:11-21; Jeremiah 25:9-12. The time of exile was specifically for seventy years, as cited in the two passages herewith and recognized by Daniel as having been fulfilled, Daniel 9:2.

Verse 44

1) "Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness," (he skenetou marturiou entoispatrasin hemon) "Our fathers had, held, or possessed the tent of witness," a tent built by Divine blueprints, set apart, sanctified for religious purposes for the Hebrew worship, Exodus 25:9; Exodus 25:40; Hebrews 8:5.

2) "In the wilderness," (en to ereno) "While in the desert," the wilderness of Sinai, Exodus 25:9; Exodus 26:30.

3) "As he had appointed, speaking unto Moses," (kathos dietaksato ho lalon to Mouses) "Just as he commanded, while repeatedly speaking to Moses." Exodus 25:18; Exodus 25:40; Exodus 13:21-22; Exodus 40:34.

4) "That he should make it," (poiesai auten) "That he should make, form, or structure it," as a witness or testimony, Numbers 9:15; Because it was to be accompanied, lighted the way for Israel’s journeying and resting by day and by night for forty years, Nehemiah 9:12; Nehemiah 9:19.

5) "According to the fashion that he had seen," (kata ton tupon honheorakei) According to the type, model, or figure which he had beheld," as Divinely shown to him in the wilderness, Hebrews 8:5; Exodus 25:9; Numbers 8:4.

Verse 45

1) "Which also our fathers," (en kai hoi pateres hemon) "Which (pattern or type) also our fathers," fathers of Israel, their racial fathers who came thru the wilderness wandering.

2) "That came after brought in with Jesus," (eisegagon diadeksamenoi hoi meta lesou) "Having previously received, brought in with Jesus," or Joshua; they brought or carried the tabernacle with them across Jordan under Joshua’s leadership after Moses died, Joshua 3:13.

3) "Into the possession of the Gentiles," (en te kataschesei ton ethnon) "in the possession of the nations," when they entered into Canaan, then possessed by or occupied by the Gentiles, Joshua 3:14-17. Neither Miriam, Aaron, the priests, nor Moses was able to lead Israel into their promised possession, but Joshua, or Jesus was, Matthew 1:21.

4) "Whom God drove out before the face of our fathers," (hon eksosen hotheos apo prosopou ton pateron hemon) "Whom God put out (drove away from) the face of our fathers," Deuteronomy 7:1-6; Deuteronomy 11:23-25; Deuteronomy 12:29-32; Joshua 14:1-2; Psalms 78:55.

5) "Unto the days of David;" (eso ton hemeron David) "Even up until the days of David;" That is the tabernacle of worship made after the pattern God had given, was kept in transit usage from the wilderness wanderings until the days of David, when he had it in his heart to build an house for God, Nehemiah 9:22-24; Psalms 44:1-3.

Verse 46

1) "Who found favor before God," (hos heuren chsrin enopion tou theou) "Who found favor before (in the presence) of God;" The "who" was David, 1 Samuel 16:1-5; Who found favor (Grace) before God, Psalms 40:1-3.

2) "And desired to find," (kai etesato heurein) "And even requested to find," had a godly concern to find, to locate, or to build, 2 Samuel 7:1-12; 1 Kings 8:17-19.

3) "A tabernacle for the God of Jacob," (skenoma to oiko lakob) "A tent or tabernacle for the house of Jacob," 2 Chronicles 6:6-9; Psalms 132:1-5; 1 Chronicles 22:1-9. It was to be a (Greek oiko) habitation, dwelling place for God, where He would meet and commune with Israel in a special way, as Jesus promised to be with and in the church, in the promised presence of His Spirit forever, after the Pentecost empowering, John 14:16-18; Ephesians 3:21; John 17:24.

Verse 47

1) "But Solomon built," (Solomon de oikodomesen) "But Solomon built or constructed;" Solomon put the pieces together, fabricated the material that David had transported to the site in Jerusalem, 1 Kings 6:1-2; 2 Chronicles 3:1-2.

2) "Him an house," (auto oikon) "For Him an house," a central, national place for the nation of Israel’s worship, 1 Kings 8:20. This was a favor denied to his father, David, 2 Samuel 7:5; 2 Samuel 7:12-13; 1 Chronicles 17:11-15. The term (oikon) referred to the Temple at which Solomon prayed the following prayer of dedication, 2 Chronicles 6:12-42; Then God responded to that dedication prayer, 2 Chronicles 7:1-22.

Verse 48

1) "Howbeit the most High dwelleth not," (all’ ouch ho hupsistos katoikei) "But the most High (God) dwells not at all;" But the most High God is not restricted to an earthly sanctuary, He is not exclusively present in one place at any time. He is an omni-present, everywhere existing God, 1 Kings 8:26-29.

2) "In temples made with hands;" (en cheiropoietois) "in places made by hand," in hand-made or hand-built places only, though He may appear there; He is not limited in His being or works to an hand-made place of worship, no matter what spacious or costly splendor it may have, Isaiah 66:2; Acts 17:24.

3) "As saith the prophet," (kathos ho peophetes) "Just as the prophet says," asserts or declares, 2 Chronicles 2:6; 2 Chronicles 6:17-21; Isaiah 66:1-2.

Verse 49

1) "Heaven is my throne," (ho ouranos moi thronos) "The (upper) heaven (exists as) a throne to me," 1 Kings 8:27; Matthew 5:34; Matthew 23:22.

2) "And earth is my footstool:” (he de ge hupopodion ton podon mou) "Then the earth area (exists as) a footstool of me," of my making and my use, Isaiah 66:1-2; Matthew 5:35.

3) "What house will ye build me?" (poion oikon

oikodomesete moi) "What (manner) house will you all build for me?" Acts 17:24.

4) "Saith the Lord:” (legei kurios) "Inquires the Lord," Isaiah 66:1-2.

5) "Or what is the place of my rest?" (e tis topos tes katapauseos mou) "Or what (exists as) the place (location) of my rest?" that you have prepared for me, for worship of me? The idea is that the Lord is not confined to an earthly temple, to worship there only, John 4:24.

While the greatest degree of worship and praise to God re today rendered in and thru the church (Ephesians 3:21), this is not the only place He can be worshipped, honored, and praised, 1 Corinthians 10:31.

Verse 50

1) "Hath not my hand," (ouchi he cheir mou) "Has not my hand," the hand of the Lord, denoting His strength, wisdom, and skill, Exodus 15:6; Psalms 17:7; Psalms 20:6; Psalms 44:3. The hand of the Lord is said to be upon men for good who seek Him, Ezra 8:22.

2) "Made all these things?" (epoiesen touta panta) "Made, done, formed, or put together all these things?" This is a rhetoric question, the answer to which is an affirmative "yes," 1 Corinthians 8:6; John 1:1-3.

Verse 51

1) "Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised," (sklerotracheloi kai aperitmetoi) "You all (are) or (exist) hardnecked and uncircumcised;" To be such to an Israelite was to be an heathen. This was Stephen’s charge against those who had sanctioned the crucifixion of Jesus and persecution of Peter, John, and the other apostles of the twelve; Exodus 32:9; Proud and obstinate, Leviticus 26:41; Deuteronomy 10:16; Isaiah 48:4.

2) "In heart and ears," (kardiais kai tois osin) "In (your) hearts (affections) and in (your) ears," in rejecting the spirit and voice of God, Jeremiah 4:4; Jeremiah 6:10; Romans 2:29; Colossians 2:11. They were destitute of any genuine disposition to honor God in spirit and truth, of which fleshly circumcision was supposed to be a sign.

3) "Ye do always resist the Holy Ghost:” (humeis aei to pneumati to hagio antipiptete) "You all always oppose or press against (resist) the Holy Spirit," Isaiah 63:9-10; Exodus 24:15; Psalms 78:40. The matter of rejecting the message of God’s prophets was a matter of resisting the Holy Spirit by which His prophets spoke.

4) "As your fathers did, so do ye," (hos hoi pateres humon kai humeis) "As your fathers did, Hebrew fathers, so do you all," Exodus 33:3; Exodus 33:5; Exodus 34:9; Isaiah 7:13; Proverbs 1:22-30; Ephesians 4:30; Deuteronomy 9:6; Deuteronomy 9:13; Deuteronomy 10:16. Stephen was pulling the cover off of the hypocrisy of those of Israel who worshipped God with lip-service but hated His Son and the church, Mark 7:1-7; John 5:43.

Verse 52

1) "Which of the prophets," (tina ton propheton) "Which (one) of the prophets," can you name one? 2 Chronicles 36:16.

2) "Have not your fathers persecuted?" (ouk edioksan hoi pateres humon) "Has your fathers not persecuted?" They had mocked, despised, and misused them, Jeremiah 5:12; Jeremiah 5:14.

3) "And they have slain them," (kai apekteinan tous) "And they even killed (slew or murdered) those," true prophets who told of the coming of Jesus, the last of which was John the Baptist, Matthew 14:10; Matthew 21:35-41.

4) "Which shewed before of the coming of the Just One;” (protakangeil antas peri tes eleuseos tou dikaiou) "Who were foretelling the matters concerning the coming of the Just or Righteous One," Acts 3:14; Jesus was that Holy or Just One, Mark 1:24.

5) "Of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:” (hou nun humeis prodotai kai phoneis egenesthe) "Of whom you all became for now and hereafter forever the betrayers and murders," Matthew 23:34; Acts 2:23; Acts 2:36. The spirit of their rebellious, despising fathers was still alive, flaming in the Christ rejecting Jews of the Sanhedrin, including Annas the high priest that day, Acts 7:1.

Verse 53

1) "Who have received the law," (oitines elabete ton nomon) "You all who received the law (of Moses)," Exodus 20:1-17; Deuteronomy 33:2.

2) "By the disposition of angels," (eis diatagas angelon) "By means of disposition of angels," Divinely appointed ministers, as servants, ordained or set in order by angels, Hebrews 2:2. The term angels (messengers) here used seems to refer to Divine prophetic messengers of the Law of the Lord, Psalms 68:17; Galatians 3:19.

3) "And have not kept it," (kai ouk ephulaksate) "And did not keep or guard it;" It was therefore Israel, not the Lord who kept not the law. He came to keep it, to fulfill it, to do what it required for His Father and a lost world, and He did it, Matthew 5:17-18; Luke 16:16; Luke 24:44; John 17:4; John 19:30.

Response of the Council to Stephen’s Defense

Verse 54

1) "When they heard these things," (akountes de tauta) "Then when they heard these things," these truthful charges, indicting them as morally and ethically unclean, as enemies, lawbreakers, and murderers of holy men of God, as they were, Acts 2:23; Acts 2:26; Acts 3:14-15; Acts 4:10.

2) "They were cut to the heart," (dieprionto tais kardiais auton) "They were cut to their hearts," their affections were grieved, as the heart when penetrated by a sharp instrument, or pricked with a needle; Their spiritual emotions were convicted by the word and spirit of God, Hebrews 4:12; Proverbs 1:22-23; as Saul on the Damascus road, Acts 9:5-6, of Felix, Acts 24:25.

3) "And they gnashed on him with their teeth," (kai ebruchon tous osontas ep auton) "And they gnashed the teeth at him," at Stephen who had delivered this message. Like snarling dogs that show their teeth, these guilty and convicted unbelieving Jews showed their hate for and rejection of the message of Stephen, with derision and scorn; They threw off their composure and restraint usually required in a judicial court. This characterized the attitude or tendency of Judaism toward Jesus and the early church, John 1:10-11; John 15:20; Jeremiah 5:12-14.

Verse 55

1) "But he, being fuII of the Holy Ghost," (huparchonde pleres pneumatos hagiou) "Then he, being filled of (controlled by) the Holy Spirit," so that he had an inner strength that raised him above fear, sustained by the grace and spirit of God, Romans 8:14-15

2) "Looked up steadfastly into heaven," (atenisas eis ton ouranon) "Was gazing into the highest heaven," where Jesus was surrounded by heavens glory, at the right hand of the Majesty (Majestic One) on high, Hebrews 1:1-3.

3) "And saw the glory of God," (eidon doksan theou) "And he saw(the) glory of God," beyond what the natural eye alone can see, 1 Corinthians 2:9; 2 Corinthians 5:1; John 17:1; John 17:5.

4) "And Jesus standing on the right hand of God," (omitted from Greek texts here though found in the next verse), as if to be greeted for his faithfulness unto death, even as his Lord, John 15:20; Revelation 2:10. At His right hand is always to be considered a place of honor.

Verse 56

1) "And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened," (kai eipen idou theeoro tous ouranous dienoigmenous) "And declared, behold, (look) I see (observe) the heavens as having been opened up," with a clear vision for him, as Peter did, Acts 10:11; as John did, Matthew 3:16, as David did, Daniel 7:13-14; and as Ezekiel did, Ezekiel 1:1.

2) "And the Son of man," (kai ton huion tou anthropou) "And the Son (heir) of humanity (mankind)," even Jesus Christ, the only time the term "Son of man" is used outside the gospels, except Revelation 1:13. He is the "heir of humanity," John 3:16; Luke 19:10.

3) "Standing on the right hand of God," (ek deksion hestota tou theou) "Standing out at (presenting Himself at) the right hand of God," awaiting the homecoming of His first obedient new testament church witnessing martyr, John 15:20; John 20:21; Matthew 5:11-12; 2 Timothy 4:7-8; Perhaps he received the first new covenant martyr’s crown of life," Revelation 2:10.

Verse 57

1) "Then they cried out with a loud voice," (kraksantes de phone megale) "Then they (the rebellious, convicted Jews) cried out with a great (loud) voice;" These were the pious, formal Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court members of Israel, all shook up until they screamed out like riotous loons, as if such would release them from their deeds of high treason against the King and His new covenant work and people, the church.

2) "And stopped their ears," (suneschon ta ota auton) "They closed their ears," against the message of Stephen and of God, as if such obstinacy would destroy or negate the truth, Proverbs 1:22-30; Proverbs 27:1; Proverbs 29:1. They said by their gestures "We will not hear or heed what you have to say," Romans 2:4-7.

3) "And ran upon him with one accord," (kai hormesan homothunadon ep’ auton) "And with one mind or attitude they rushed upon him," like a vicious dog upon a lamb, or like an hungry lion upon a calf. It was a tumultuous council session, with little judicial dignity. They hated, despised the truth Stephen told, because they had rejected and were rejecting Jesus Christ, demonstrating the words of Jesus, Matthew 12:30.

Verse 58

1) "And cast him out of the city," (kai ekbalontes ekso tes poleos) "And casting him out (out of the council) and out of the city of Jerusalem," as they had done the Lord, so that they might legally stone him to death, and that the temple and city be not defiled, Leviticus 24:14; Deuteronomy 13:6-10; Hebrews 13:2.

2) "And stoned him:" (elithoboloun) "They (the Jews) stoned him (Stephen)," as they once cast Jesus out of Nazareth for the purpose of killing Him, Luke 4:29. This was the general mode of execution among the Jews.

3) "And the witnesses laid down their clothes," (kai hoi martures apethento ta himatia auton) "And the witnesses put off (took off) their garments," that would hinder them from throwing stones, to perform their cruel task, as witnesses against him, Deuteronomy 17:7; John 8:7.

4) "At a young man’s feet," (para tous podas neaniou) "Alongside (at) the feet of a young man," for his care of their garments, as they later stoned Stephen until he was dead. The term "young man" (neaniou) was applied to males 24 to 40 years of age, Acts 26:10.

5) "Whose name was Saul," (kaloumenou Saulou) "Who was named (called) or known as Saul," of Tarsus.

Verse 59

1) "And they stoned Stephen," (kai elithoboloun ton Stephenon) "And they stoned Stephen," threw stones at Stephen - - The "they" who led the way were certain "false witnesses" set up by the synagogue rulers of the Hellenician Jews and the Sanhedrin council, led by Annas the high priest, Acts 6:9; Acts 6:12-15.

2) "Calling upon God, and saying," (epikaloumenon kai legonta) "As he was continually, repeatedly invoking God, saying," again and again, praying for his enemies, dying as his Lord had instructed and as his Lord had died, Matthew 5:44; Psalms 31:4-5.

3) "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit," (kurie lesou deksai to pneuma mou) "Lord Jesus receive or take thou my spirit, Luke 23:46; John 17:4; John 19:30; John 10:18.

This prayer was addressed directly to Jesus, High Priest and Intercessor of every believer at the right hand of the Father, Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1-2; Hebrews 1:3.

Verse 60

1) "And he kneeled down," (theis de ta gonta) "Then kneeling down," as Paul would later do, Acts 20:36; Acts 21:5, in humble submission to the will of the Father.

2) "And cried with a loud voice," (ekraksen phone megale) "He cried aloud with a great, megaphone-like voice," with an impassioned desire, strong love for his enemies, even in death, obedient to his Lord, Matthew 5:44.

3) "Lord, lay not this sin to their charge," (kurie me steses autois tauten ten hamartian) "Lord, put or place not this sin (lawless deed) to them." It is as if Stephen knew they already had all the sin against them that God could bear; He prayed as Jesus had done, Luke 23:34.

4) "And when he had said this, he fell asleep," (kai touto eipon ekoimenthe) "And repeatedly saying this he fell asleep," in death; or while saying this repeatedly, praying for his enemies, even as Lord had taught and done, he died, expired, faithful unto death, Matthew 5:11-12; 2 Timothy 4:7-8; Revelation 2:10; 1 Corinthians 15:58.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Acts 7". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/acts-7.html. 1985.
 
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