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Bible Commentaries
Mark 16

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

THE RESURRECTION DAY ORDER OF EVENTS

1) Three women at dawn, while it was yet dark, appear to have left, either their residence in Bethany or the Southeast part of Jerusalem, about the time of dawn, to walk more than a mile to the garden tomb. They were Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, followed by other women bearing spices, Luke 24:1.

2) When the three women found the stone rolled away, Mary Magdalene left to tell the disciples, Luke 23:55; Luke 24:9; John 20:1-2.

3) Then Mary, the mother of James and Joses, went near the open tomb, and saw the angel of the Lord, Matthew 28:2.

4) She then left the tomb to meet other women who were also coming to the tomb with spices.

5) By this time Mary Magdalene had found Peter and John, who came immediately to the tomb, looked in, and left, John 20:3-10.

6) Mary Magdalene returned to the open tomb, weeping, saw two angels there, then met Jesus, and left again, as He instructed her, to go tell the disciples that He had risen, John 20:11-18.

7) Mary, the mother of James and Joses, had met the other women who were bringing spices, and upon returning to the open tomb with them, they too saw the two angels, Luke 24:4-5; Mark 16:5.

8) They, there and then, received the angelic message, and as they went to find and tell the disciples, Jesus met them, Matthew 28:8-10.

ORDER OF OUR LORD’S 13 APPEARANCES AFTER HIS RESURRECTION:

A) On the first day of His resurrection:

1) To Mary Magdalene, John 20:14-18.

2) To the women returning from the tomb with the angelic message, Matthew 28:8-10.

3)To Peter, probably after noon, Luke 24:24; 1 Corinthians 15:5.

4) To Emmaus Disciples, in the late afternoon, Luke 24:13-31.

5) To the apostles, except Thomas, Luke 24:36-43; John 20:19-24.

B) Eight days afterward:

6) To the apostles with Thomas present, John 20:24-29.

C) In Galilee:

7) To the seven by the Sea of Tiberius, John 21:1-23.

8) On an appointed mountain, to the apostles and above five hundred brethren, Matthew 28:16; 1 Corinthians 15:6.

D) At Jerusalem and in Bethany:

9) To James, 1 Corinthians 15:7.

10) To the eleven, Matthew 28:16-20; Mark 16:14-20; Luke 24:33-53; Acts 1:3-12.

11) To Stephen outside Jerusalem, Acts 7:55.

E) Near Damascus and in the Temple:

12) To Paul, Acts 9:3-6.

F) On Patmos:

13) To John, Revelation 1:10-19.

THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST AND EVENTS OF THE FIRST DAY V. 1-16

THE RESURRECTION ANNOUNCEMENT V. 1-8

Comments on Mark 16:1 :

1) "And when the sabbath was past," (kai diagenomenou tou sabbatou) "And when the sabbath was past," or gone, when they had rested through it, (Luke 23:56; Matthew 28:1; Lu 241; John 20:1) Three days after the crucifixion and burial.

2) "Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Salome," (he Maria he Magdalene kai Maria he to lakobou kai Salome) "The Mary of Magdalene and the Mary who was the mother of James the less, and Salome,"

3) "Had bought spices," (egorasan aromata) "Had bought and brought spices," at the end of the Sabbath, after the sun went down, when lively trading was done, because no purchase could be made on the Sabbath. This they did that they might do the anointing early the next morning, Mark 16:2.

4) "That they might come and anoint Him." (hina elthousai aleipsosin auton) "In order or (for the purpose) that they might come and anoint Him," very early in the morning, on the first day of the week. The spices were mixed with oil, for rubbing on the corpse, for the anointing for burial.

They may not have known of either the guards at the tomb or the spices and embalming work of Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea, Matthew 27:62-66; John 19:38-42.

Verse 2

1) "And very early in the morning, the first day of the week," (kai lian proi [te] mia ton sabbaton) "And very early on the first day of the sabbath week," on Sunday morning, leaving Bethany at barely dawn, while it was yet dark, to walk near two miles to the tomb, arriving at sunrise, Luke 24:1; John 20:1.

2) "They came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun." (erchontai epi to mnema anateilantos tou heliou) "They come of their own accord, will, choice, or volition, upon the tomb, as the sun rose," at sunrise, though it was dark when they left their homes earlier, John 20:1.

Verse 3

1) "And they said among themselves," (kai elegon pros heautas) "And they said among themselves," one to the other, the three women of Mark 16:1. They pondered, kept inquiring of each other, a problem that the Lord took care of, as in Exodus 14:13-16.

2) "Who shall roll us away the stone," (tis apokulisei hemin ton lithon) "Who will roll away the stone for us; ­The angel did, Matthew 28:12. They had either been to the tomb previously, or had learned that the large stone was before the outer entrance, as the stone at Lazarus’ tomb was rolled away, John 11:39; John 11:41.

3) "From the door of the sepulchre?" (ek tes thuras tou mnemeiou) "Out of and away from the door of the tomb?" Out of and away from the outer entrance to the tomb? This was the question of their conversation as they neared the sepulchre, Matthew 28:1. They seem not to have known of the Roman watch guard and the seal, Matthew 27:62-66; Nor did they consider angelic helpers, in time of need, Hebrews 1:14.

Verse 4

1) "And when they looked," (kai anablepsasai theafousin) "And glancing up," as they came to or approached the tomb, lifting up, fixing their eyes in startled surprise.

2) "They saw that the stone was rolled away:" (hoti anakekulistai ho lithos) "That the stone already was rolled back," off of and away from the door entrance to the tomb, as a job done by the angels of the Lord, Matthew 28:2.

3) "For it was very great." (en gar megas sphodra) "Because it was exceedingly great," considered too large and heavy for women to remove or roll away.

Verse 5

1) "And entering into the sepulchre," (kai eiselthousai eis to mnemeion) "And the women upon entering into the tomb," through the open door entrance, into the preparation room, adjacent to the tomb proper, Luke 24:3.

2) "They saw a young man sitting on the right side," (eidon neaniskon kathemenon en tois deksiois) "They recognized a young man sitting on the right (side)," of the tomb, inside, or in the preparation room, adjacent to the tomb proper, in the appearance of a man, though an angel, Matthew 28:2; Matthew 28:5.

3) "Clothed in a long white garment;- (peribeblemenon stolen leuken) "Having been clothed and appearing there in a white robe," Luke 24:4.

4) "And they were affrighted.- (kai eksethambethesan) "And they who entered were greatly astonished," or startled. Matthew describes this person as "the angel" of the Lord, while Luke describes "two men," in shining apparel, or white robes, apparently witnesses from heaven’s retinue.

Verse 6

1) "And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted (ho de legei autais me ekthambeisthe) "Then he said to them, do not be startled or greatly astonished," or be not afraid, Matthew 28:5; Luke 24:5; You are not to have a spirit of fear, but assurance, hope, Romans 8:15; 2 Timothy 1:7.

2) "Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified;" (lesoun zeteite ton Nazarenon ton estauromenon) "You all seek Jesus, the Nazarene, the one who has been crucified," the Jesus of Nazareth, the crucified one, Matthew 28:5; and they were perplexed, Luke 24:3-4.

3) "He is risen; He is not here:”- (egerthe ouk estin hode) "He was raised, and He is not here," any longer, any more, Matthew 28:6; as He said He would, Matthew 20:19; Matthew 26:32; Mark 9:31; Mark 10:34; Luke 18:33; Luke 24:7.

4) "Behold the place where they laid Him." (ide hotopos hopou ethekan auton) "Behold the place, empty place where they (Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus) put Him," Matthew 28:6; The empty grave, formerly filled with the body of Jesus, and sealed by the Roman Seal, and guarded by Roman Sentinels, around the clock, was visible evidence of the resurrection of Jesus, Matthew 27:62­-66; 28:11-15; He had told them while living, even in Galilee, that He would rise after His death and burial. The angel of the Lord here certifies that what Jesus had foretold them was now fulfilled, Luke 24:6-8; Matthew 16:21; Matthew 17:23; Luke 9:22.

Verse 7

1) "But go your way," (alla hupagete) "But you all go," go on your way quickly and tell what has happened, Matthew 28:7. Standing, gazing into the empty tomb, would do no further good. There was good news to be spread, they were to arise and go, John 20:21; Acts 1:8.

2) "Tell His disciples and Peter," (eipate tois mathetais autou kai to Petro) "You all tell Peter and His disciples," Peter, the broken-hearted disciple who profanely denied his Lord, and tell all the other disciples, who had forsaken Him and fled, Mark 14:50; Mark 14:68; Mark 14:70-71.

3) "That He goeth before you into Galilee:” (hoti proagei humas eis ten Galilaian) "That He now goes before you into Galilee," Matthew 28:7; as He had said He would, Matthew 27:31-32; Mark 14:28.

4) "There ye shall see Him," (ekei auton opsesthe) "Up and out there you all will see Him," and they did, some days later, even at a specific mountain in Galilee, where He had appointed to meet them, Matthew 28:7; Matthew 28:10; Matthew 28:16-20.

5) "As He said unto you." (kathos eipen humin) "Just as, He told you," the night of His betrayal, Mark 14:28; Matthew 27:31-32.

Verse 8

1) "And they went out quickly," (kai ekselthousai) "And they went out of and away from the tomb," or going out quickly, in haste, overwhelmed with fear, hope, and joy, as they had been instructed to do, Matthew 28:7.

2) "And fled from the sepulchre;” (ephugon apo tou mnemeiou) "They (simply) fled from the tomb area," to tell the good news. The angel’s "fear not" had failed to calm them, Matthew 27:5; Matthew 27:8.

3) "For they trembled and were amazed:" (eichen gar autas tromos kat ekstasis) "Because they held (were gripped by) trembling and bewilderment," caused by fear that left them in a stupor, almost out of their wits, both they and the "keepers" of the tomb, the Roman Guard, Matthew 28:4; Luke 24:5.

4) "Neither said they any thing to any man;" (kai oudeni ouden eipan) "And they told no one any thing at all," along the way, for it was to the disciples, not the wayside people, they were to bear the resurrection news first.

5) "For they were afraid," (ephobounto gar) "For they were fearful," filled with, or overcome with fear, and ran to do specifically what the angel of the Lord had charged them to do, Matthew 28:7. And here abruptly ends the authentic Gospel of Mark according to the oldest manuscripts, and what appears to be the best of scholars. From Mark 16:9-20, is not-in either of the two oldest Greek manuscripts (Sinaiticus and Vaticanus), which are believed to have been added by some scribe as a matter of supplemental record.

Verse 9

FIRST DAY APPEARANCES OF JESUS V. 9-14

1) "Now when Jesus was risen," (anastas de) "Then after He was risen," had come forth as a basis of future hope and assurance to those who trust in Him, Romans 8:11; Romans 8:23. The name of Jesus is not in the original here in this verse or in the remainder of the chapter.

2) "Early the first day of the week,"(proi prote sabbatou) "Early on the first day of the week," directly as the day began, the first day of the week or on Sunday, also called the Lord’s Day, 1 Corinthians 16:1-2.

3) "He appeared first to Mary Magdalene," (ephane proton Maria te Magdalene) "He appeared first (in order of post- resurrection appearances) to Mary, the one of Magdalene," out of whom He had cast seven demon spirits, John 20:11-18. This appearance was after she had gone and told the disciples and returned to the tomb area weeping.

4) "Out of whom He had cast seven devils." (par hes ekbeblekei hepta daimonis) "From whom He had expelled (driven out) seven demons," seven deranged, unclean spirits," Luke 8:2. She was as one "snatched from destruction," by the miraculous power of Jesus, that men might believe as Nicodemus did, John 3:2; John 20:30-31.

Verse 10

1) "And she went and told them that had been with Him," (ekeine proeutheisa apengeilen tois met autou) "She then, while going from one to another, reported to those (disciples) who had been with Him," Matthew 28:8; Matthew 28:10-11; Luke 24:9-11.

2) "As they mourned and wept." (genomenois penthousi kai klaiousin) "Who had been mourning and weeping," the women who went with or accompanied Mary Magdalene to bear witness of the Lord’s resurrection, John 20:11-13.

Verse 11

1) "And they, when they had heard that He was alive,", (kakeinoi akousantes hoti ze) "And those disciples and

apostles who heard that He was alive," Luke 24:8-11.

2) "And had been seen of her," (kai etheathe hup’ autes) "And that He had been or was seen alive by her," John 20:18.

3) "Believed not." (epistesan) "They disbelieved," doubted, were skeptical, for to them her words were as "idle tales," "fantasies," Luke 24:11; Luke 24:25.

Verse 12

1) "After that He had appeared," (meta de tauta ephanerothe) "Then after these things He appeared," that same afternoon, the first day of the week, Luke 24:13­-15].

2) "Unto two of them, as they walked," (dusin eks auton en hetera morphe peripatousin) "Unto two of them, in a different form (body appearance), as they were walking," near the village of Emmaus, about six miles northeast of Jerusalem, Luke 24:13.

3) "And went into the country." (proeuomenois eis argon) "And going into the country," Luke 24:15.

Verse 13

1) "And they went and told it unto the residue:" (kakeinoi apelthontes apengeilan tois loipois) "And as they were going (they kept on walking) and reported it to the rest," the remaining disciples, along the way, Luke 24:13-35.

2) "Neither believed they them." (oude ekenois episteusan) "Neither did those others believe them," that they, the two had seen Jesus.

Verse 14

1) "Afterward He appeared unto the eleven," (husteron [de] tois endeka ephonerothe) "Then later He was manifested to the eleven," in His risen, different-form body, with Thomas absent, John 20:19-24. The term "eleven" refers to the apostles, after Judas’ death, even when all were not present; It was a collective term, like the Sanhedrin."

2) "As they sat at meat," (anakeimenois autois) "While they were reclining at a meal," at which time He showed them His crucifixion scars, and they were glad, John 20:19-20.

3) "And upbraided them," (kai oneidisen) "And He chided, reproached, upbraided, or scolded them," John 20:24-29. Mark here appears to mix up the account of His first day and eighth day appearances to the eleven later when Thomas was present.

4) "With their unbelief and hardness of heart," (ten apistian auton kai sklerokardian) "Because of the unbelief (doubt or skepticism) of their heart," as they first considered the report as idle tales, Luke 24:11.

5) "Because they believed not them which had seen Him." (hoti tois theasamenois auton ouk episteusan) "And because that they did not believe (the testimony of) those who had seen and observed Him," since His resurrection body change, Luke 24:11.

6) "After He was risen." (egegermenon) "Since He had been raised," from among dead bodies, from the grave, .

Verse 15

JESUS GIVES THE GREAT COMMISSION V. 15-20

1) "And He said unto them," (kai eipen autois) "And He said directly to them," the assembled disciples, the eleven," with others present, referring to "the church," which He had established, as a witnessing body, John 15:16; John 15:27.

2) "Go ye into all the world," (poreuthentes eis ton kosmon hapanta) "You all go (as a church), and keep on going, on and on, continually, into all (all parts), of the world (created universe)," Matthew 28:18-20.

3) "And preach the gospel to every creature." (keruksateuangellion pasete ktisei) "And you all (as a church) proclaim or herald the gospel to all the creation," to every responsible person who can hear it; Tell the story of the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ (for our sins) according to the scriptures, to all the world, 1 Corinthians 15:1-4; Romans 1:14-16; John 20:21; Luke 24:46-48; Acts 1:8, as expressed in the song:

"Tell it today, in every nation,

Tell it today, to all creation

That Jesus is Lord of all!"

Verse 16

1) "He that believeth and is baptized," (ho pisteusas kai baptistheis) "The one who believes and the one who is baptized; This is a declarative statement of affirmation, concerning the believer in Jesus Christ, who not only has salvation from hell, and always will have it, but also his life is saved from any religious identity with the Jews, through baptism.

2) "Shall be saved;” (sothesetai) "He will be saved," eternally from hell, John 5:24; and he will "save his life," and life’s influence, from identity with religious, unregenerate Judaism, and heathenism, as Peter admonished, "Save yourselves from this untoward generation," Acts 2:40.

3) "But he that believeth not," (ho de apistesas) "Then the one disbelieving," continually, covetously, selfishly remaining in doubt, skepticism or unbelief, John 3:18; John 8:24.

4) "Shall be damned." (katakrithesetai) "Will be damned," condemned, and cast down to eternal suffering, separation, and isolation from God, where the cries of their conscious torments arise in the ears of the lost, like the crack of lightening, and the roll of thunder, forever and ever, Revelation 14:10-11; Luke 16:24-31.

To take this questionable passage and interpret it, as false prophets often do, to mean "if a sinner believes, number one, and if he is baptized, number two, he may be or has a chance of being saved, number three," is to pervert, distort, and do violence to both the passage and actual teaching of Jesus Christ on the subject of salvation.

Verse 17

1) "And these signs shall follow," (semea de tauta parakolouthesei) "Then these signs shall accompany and follow," the signs referred to were: 1) The accurate records of the miraculous ministry of Jesus, John 20:30-31; John 20:2) the gifts and miraculous signs He empowered His church with on Pentecost, till the New Testament was completed, Luke 24:48-49; Acts 2:1-4; Ephesians 4:8; Ephesians 4:11-16; 1 Corinthians 12:1; 1 Corinthians 12:4; 1 Corinthians 12:11; 1 Corinthians 12:28-31; 1 Corinthians 13:9-12; James 1:25.

2) "Them that believe;” (tois pisteusasin) "Those who believe," as these disciples had believed and been baptized, committing soul and life to do His bidding, John 15:16; John 15:27.

3) "In my name shall they cast out devils;” (en to onomati mou daimonia ekbalousin) "in my name (by my authority) they will expel or cast out demons, unclean or mentally deranged spirits, as Jesus had done, and as Philip did Acts 8:5-8; and as Paul did, Acts 16:18; Acts 19:11-12.

4) "They shall speak with new tongues;” (glossais lalesousin kainais) "They will speak with new tongues, or new languages," and they did, as attested, Acts 2:4-18. They were enabled to witness of Jesus in new languages on the following Pentecost, as here recounted in some seventeen different languages and dialects. These gifts were given, for the furtherance of the gospel, and the edification of the Saints, for a restricted time, "till" the New Testament was completed, the Bible was finished, and became man’s perfect rule, compass, and guide, for his faith and practice, 1 Corinthians 13:9-13; 1 Corinthians 14:27-33; 1 Corinthians 14:39-40; Ephesians 4:13-17; 2 Timothy 3:16-17.

Verse 18

1) "They shall take up serpents;” (opheis arousin) "They will take up or carry away serpents," the poison viper, as Paul did at Malta, Acts 28:1-6.

2) "And if they drink any deadly thing," (kan thanasimon ti poisin) "And if they should drink any deadly thing," as Eusebius, the historian relates that both John and Barnabas, surnamed Justus, drank the hemlock meant to kill them, and they were not harmed.

3) "It shall not hurt them;”(ou meautousblapse) –It will not harm them at all," as the angel of the Lord encamped around about and delivered them, Psalms 34:7.

4) "And they shall lay hands on the sick,"(epi arrostous cheiras epithesousin) "And they will lay (their) hands upon sick ones," as signs of their Divine witness and work; Peter did, at the Beautiful Gate of the temple, Acts 3:7; Acts 5:12; and as Paul did, Acts 28; Acts 8; James 4:14.

5) "And they shall recover." (kai kalos eksousin) "And they will recover," will become well, even as they did by the laying on of the hands of the Lord, Mark 7:32-35; Mark 8:22 -­25; John 9:10. This power of healing, by laying on of the hands, by those granted this gift continued until the New Testament was completed, since which only three spiritual gifts, and no humanly bestowed miraculous deeds are done, for they are no longer given - - only three gifts remain, 1 Corinthians 13:13; Ephesians 4:11-16.

Verse 19

THE ASCENSION OF JESUS V. 19, 20

1) "So then after the Lord had spoken unto them," (ho men oun hurios [lesous] meta to lalesai autois) "Therefore, after the Lord had spoken to them," (as a body, a chosen church body) He led them out to Bethany, John 15:16; John 15:27; Matthew 28:18-20; Luke 24:46-50.

2) "He was received up into heaven," (anelemphthe eis ton ouranon) "He was taken (transported, carried) up into the heaven," the third heaven, the dwelling place of God, while He blessed His church brethren from Galilee, for the last time, Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1:10-11.

3) "And sat on the right hand of God." (kai eka thisen ek deksion tou theou) "And sat out at the right hand of God," when He reached heaven, where He now sits, making intercession for His own children, and church, Romans 8:34; Ephesians 1:20, Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 7:25; 1 John 2:1.

Verse 20

1) "And they went forth," (ekeinoi de ekselthontes) "Then those (of His chosen fellowship, the church) went out," as He mandated they should do, John 20:21; Acts 1:8.

2) "And preached every where," (ekeruksan pantachou) "And proclaimed, announced, or heralded (the gospel) everywhere," wherever they went, on and on, as a spirit empowered company, after Pentecost, John 14:16; Acts 1:8; Acts 8:4; Acts 13:3-5; Romans 1:4-16.

3) "The Lord working with them," (tou kuriou sun ergountos) "While the Lord was working with them," continually helping and blessing them, through the empowering of the Spirit, Acts 10:43-44; Acts 11:15; Acts 13:4; Acts 19:11-12.

4) ’’And confirming the word," (kai ton logon bebaiountos) "And He was confirming the word repeatedly," Acts 28:2-7; Acts 28:9.

5) "With signs following. Amen." (dia ton epakolouthounton semeion) "Through the accompanying (confirming) signs." The signs that followed the miraculous testimonies and deeds of the early disciples and apostles were: 1) the diseased in body and spirit were healed, and 2) the poisonous viper did not harm Paul when it bit him, so that, both those who observed and those who heard of the incident on the Island, accepted that he was sent from God in power, with a message, Acts 2:45; Hebrews 2:4.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Mark 16". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/mark-16.html. 1985.
 
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