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Bible Commentaries
Matthew 10

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

MATTHEW - CHAPTER 10

THE CALL AND COMMISSION OF THE TWELVE

DISCIPLES V. 1-42

1) "And when he had called unto him," (kai proskalesamenos) "And when he had called forward unto him," from among the congregation of His chosen disciples, John 15:16; John 15:27.

2) "His twelve disciples," (tous dodeka mathetas autou) "The twelve of his disciples," after He had spent the previous night in prayer, Luke 6:12. These twelve disciples had already been ordained and distinguished from the other disciples, Mr 3:13,14; 6:7; Luke 6:13; Luke 11:1.

3) "He gave them power against unclean spirits," (edoken autois eksousian pneumaton akatharton) "He gave to them administrative power over unclean spirits or demons," Mr 6:7-12; Luke 9:1-6, that possessed and caused mental imbalance, depression, and derange­ment in men, such power as Jesus Himself had exercised, Matthew 8:28-34.

4) "To cast them out," (hoste ekballein auta) "So that they could expel or cast them out of people," as also given to the seventy, when they were sent forth, Luke 10:17-20.

5) "And to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease." (kai therapeuein pasan noson kai pasan malakian) "And administrative power to heal every kind of disease and malady," those illnesses of a physical nature, Acts 9:34.

Verse 2

1) "Now the names of the twelve apostles are these," (ton de dodeka apostolon ta onomata estin tauta) "Now the names of the twelve apostles are (exist or consist as) these;" They were sent forth two by two, Mr 6:7. Those referred to as "twelve disciples," Matthew 10:2, are here referred to as "the twelve apostles," also listed Mr 3:16; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13; Acts 1:20.

2) "The first, Simon, who is called Peter," (protos Simon ho legomenos Petros) "First (in order) is Simon who is called Peter," a stone, Matthew 4:18; Mr 3:16; John 1:42. Four apostles had nick-names: 1) Peter, a stone ; 2) Matthew, the publican; 3) Judas, the traitor, and 4) Simon the zealot.

3) "And Andrew his brother" (kai andres ho adelphos autou) "And Andrew, the brother (of him), who was his own brother," John 1:40-42.

4) "James, the son of Zebedee," (kai lakobos ho tou Zebedaiou) "And James the heir-son of Zebedee," Matthew 4:21.

5) "And John his brother;" (kai loannes ho adelphos autou) "And John who was his brother;" The names of these twelve, their instructions, and their missions, are also recounted Mr 3:14-19; 6:7-13; Luke 9:1-6.

Verse 3

1) "Philip, and Bartholomew;" (Philippos kai Barthalomaios) "Philip and Bartholomew," the latter is also probably identical with Nathaniel of Cana of Galilee, John 1:45-46; John 21:2; Philip had brought Nathaniel to the Lord, John 1:45-51.

2) "Thomas and Matthew the publican;" (Thomas kai Mattaios ho telones) "Thomas and Matthew who was the tax-collector;" To the name Matthew is added the phrase "the publican," a title adopted by Matthew of himself, as if to emphasize his indebtedness to Jesus as his Lord, Matthew 9:9.

3) "James the son of Alphaeus," (lakobos ho tous Alphaiou kai thaddaios) "James the heir son of Alphaeus and Thaddaeus," who was the husband of Mary, the sister of Mary who was the mother of Jesus. This James was therefore a cousin of Jesus, Luke 24:18; John 19:25.

4) "And Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus," (not included in older manuscripts of Matthew) Lebbaeus is also known as Judas, brother of James, pastor of the church at Jerusalem. This is the Jude who was author of the book of Jude, Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13; John 4:22.

Verse 4

1) "Simon the Cannaanite," (Simon ho kanonaios) "Simon who was the Canaanite," also called "Simon the zealot," Luke 6:15. Cananaian is Aramaic for Zealot, the sect to which Simon belonged.

2) "And Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him." (kai loudas ho Iskariotes ho kai paradous auton) "And Judas Iscariot the one also who betrayed him." He was from the town of Kerioth in Judea. He was the only non-­Galileean apostle; Joshua 15:25. The term "betrayed" is one of infamy attached to the name Judas.

Verse 5

1) "These twelve Jesus sent forth," (toutous tous dodeka. apeseilen ho lesous) "These (are) the twelve (that) Jesus sent forth, commissioned or mandated;" These twelve had been formerly chosen and instructed and were now sent forth to bear the spirit and teachings of their Master.

2) "And commanded them, saying," (parageilas autois legon) "Giving them a charge, saying," directed them as follows: Chosen men are directed to help needy men in the Master’s mission. A few are specially called, to call the many, the masses. Is one of every twelve of the ordained a deceiver or demon possessed?

3) "Go not Into the way of the Gentiles," (eis hodon ethnon me apelthete) "You all go not into the way of the nations or Gentiles;" This restriction is recounted by Matthew only. One’s first priority for God is to know (negatively) where not to go, and second, positively, where to go.

4) "And Into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not:" (kai eis polin Samariton me eiselthete) "And do not enter into a (any) city of the Samaritans;" For the time had not come to preach to the Gentiles or Samaritans, but restrictedly to the Jews, or Israel, only, Luke 10:1-11; 2 Kings 17-24; John 4:5; John 4:9; John 4:20.

Verse 6

1) "But go rather to the lost sheep," (poreusethe de mallon pros ta probata ta apololota) "But go rather (instead) to the lost sheep," to the unredeemed, John 1:11-12. Go to those of Israel astray in mind and life who have no faith, Acts 13:46.

2) "Of the house of Israel." (ollou Israel) "Of the house (family lineage) of Israel," to Israelites only, Romans 1:16; Romans 10:9-13; This was that He might fulfill the law in bearing His message, to the Jew first, Matthew 5:17; John 1:11-12; John 5:39.

Verse 7

1) "And as ye go, preach, saying," (proeuomenoi de kerussete legontes) "And wherever you go you are repeatedly to preach that;" As itinerant, missionary, witnessing workers they were to go continually or repeatedly preaching, telling their hearers that: Luke 9:2; Mr 4:17; Acts 17:3; Acts 20:21; Acts 20:25.

2) "The kingdom of heaven is at hand." (hoti engiken he basilela ton ouranon) "The kingdom of heaven has drawn near," has come to confront you, Matthew 3:2; Matthew 4:17. They were to prepare men to receive Jesus Christ as Savior and His New Covenant form of worship and service as a way of religious order to replace or supplant the Mosaic law order of rites and ceremonies.

The phrase "kingdom of heaven" used by Matthew only, is used restrictedly, exclusively, and definitively to refer, not to the sum total of the redeemed, as erroneously held by protestantism, but to the saved, baptized, and committed disciples of Jesus Christ, called His church, His bride and His house, Matthew 16:18; Acts 20:28; John 3:28-29; Mr 13:34,35; 1 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 3:1-6.

Verse 8

1) "Heal the sick," (asthenountas therapenete) "You all heal those who are ailing," those physically ill. They were given miraculous powers to attest their credibility as apostles of Jesus Christ, Hebrews 2:4; Acts 4:13-21.

2) "Cleanse the lepers," (leprous katharizete) "Cleanse those who are lepers," wherever you go, those with contagious flesh eating diseases.

3) "Raise the dead," (nekrous egeirete) "Raise the dead ones;" This phrase is omitted in many manuscripts. If they raised anyone no mention is given of it, Luke 10:17-20.

4) "Cast out devils:" (daimonia ekbailete) "Expel the demons," from those mentally deranged, mentally and emotionally imbalanced, irresponsible.

5) "Freely ye have received, freely give." (dorean elabete dorean dote) "Freely you all have received, freely give, Acts 8:18; Acts 8:20, of yourselves, to others, to meet their spiritual needs, as yours have been met, Luke 10:17; Matthew 18:19-20.

Verse 9

1) "Provide neither," (me ktesesthe) "Do not provide," Do not make available to, or furnish yourself with this kind of material:

a) "Gold," (chruson) "Gold," as a medium of exchange. This prohibition is against both possessing or acquiring these things.

b) "Nor silver," (mede arguron) "Neither silver," as a medium of exchange.

c) "Nor brass," (mede chalikon) "Nor even brass," as barter or exchange means of caring for your own needs.

2) "In your purses," (eis tas zonas humon) "in your girdles," This was a challenge of their faith and dependency upon God for support, from those to whom they were to preach, Mr 6:8; Luke 9:3; Luke 10:4; Luke 22:35.

Verse 10

1) "Nor script for your journey," (me peran eis hodon) "Nor a wallet for the road," your travel or journey where you go preaching and performing miracles. A script was a wallet or food container, a kind of thing with which they were not to burden themselves, 1 Samuel 17:40.

2) "Neither," (mede) "Nor," any of the following. These were normally things carried on a journey, but our Lord desired that the apostles go into their mission into homes, without a lot of extra baggage.

a) "two coats," (duo chitonas) "two tunics, outer coats," but worn under a mantle, no change of clothes.

b) "neither, shoes," (mede hupodemata) "nor sandals," no extra pair of sandals, Matthew 3:11.

c) "nor yet staves:" (mede hrabdon) "nor a staff," to lean on, for protection or defensive purposes; Don’t take an extra staff either, is the idea.

3) "For the workman is worthy of his meat." (aksios gar ho ergates tes trophes autou) "Because the workman is worthy of or merits his food," Luke 10:7, what he eats. They had a fair cause to expect and claim three things: 1) Shelter, 2) Clothing, and 3) Food from those to whom they preached and did spiritual service, 1 Corinthians 9:7-14; 1 Timothy 5:18; Luke 6:38. This is one of the few phrases of Jesus directly referred to by Paul, 1 Corinthians 9:14.

Verse 11

1) "And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter," (eis hen d’ an polin e komen eiselthete) "And into whatever city or village you may enter," to reside and to witness, where the masses of people are, Luke 10:8.

2) "Enquire who in it is worthy;" (eksetasate tis en aute aksios estin) "Enquire (to determine) who is worthy (of reputation) in it," who has a good name for piety, good will, and congeniality. Moral and ethical worth in character were qualities more sought than wealth.

3) "And there abide till ye go thence." (kakei meinate heos an ekselthete) "And then remain there (at that place) until you leave the area;" Their stay in each area was to be short, temporary, their time used judiciously, not in shifting or moving from house to house, Luke 10:7. They were not to offend their host by shifting around, as self-seeking men.

Verse 12

1) "And when ye come into an house," (eiserchomenoi de eis ten oikian) "And when you enter into a house or household," into a residence to reside, one of the kind described above, selected after proper inquiry or certification.

2) "Salute it," (aspasasthe auten) "Greet it," or the members of the household, identify yourself, to all members of the family and the servants. Greet them with good will; Among the Hebrews they said, 1) Prosperous be thou," or 2) "Blessed be thou of the Lord," or 3) "Peace be unto thee."

Verse 13

1) "And if the house be worthy," (kai ean men e he oikia aksia) "And if the house (house name or family) be truly worthy or reputable," an household of respectable character in morals and ethics.

2) "Let your peace come upon it:" (elthato he eirne humon ep’ auten) "Let your peace (good will) come upon it," your prayer that God’s peace and prosperity may be upon that home, and that this is your desire to contribute to such.

3) "But if it be not worthy," (ean de me e aksia) "Yet if it be not a reputable household," or morally and ethically reputable house, or if you find no good will or favorable acceptance there.

4) "Let your peace return to you." (he eirene humon pros humas epistrapneto) "Let your peace return to you," that is, do not pronounce a blessing or pray for prosperity upon that household that receives not the spirit of your message and labors, Jud 19:20; Ruth 2:4; 1 Samuel 25:6; 2 Samuel 20:9; Psalms 129:8.

Verse 14

1) "And whosoever shall not receive you," (kai hos an me deksetai humas) "And whoever may not receive you all," in a worthy, congenial manner of good will, Matthew 10:11-13.

2) "Nor hear your words," (mede akouse tous logous humon) "Nor give heed to your words," your testimony or message that I send you to preach, or the miracles you are given power to perform, Matthew 10:7-8; Exodus 4:15; Revelation 22:19.

3) "When ye depart out of that house or city," (ekserchomenoi ekso tes oikias e tes poleos ekeines) "As you go outside or leave that house or city," either or both of which, neither extend good will for your care nor your message and labors.

4) "Shake off the dust of your feet." (ektinaksate ton koniorton ton podon) "Shake off the dust of your feet." Luke 10:10-12; Acts 13:51. This was a symbolic gesture of renouncing those who had rejected them and their message. It said, "We shall not be further responsible or accountable for your destiny in rejecting Jesus Christ," Proverbs 27:1; Proverbs 29:1; Romans 14:11-12.

See also the dust references, Mr 6:11; Luke 9:5; Nehemiah 5:13; Acts 13:51; Luke 10:11; Acts 18:6.

Verse 15

1) "Verily I say unto you," (amen lego humin) "Truly I tell you all," or disclose to you the result of rejection of me through your message.

2) "It shall be more tolerable," (anektoteron estai) "That it will be more tolerable or bearable," or endurable. The sins of Sodom and Gomorrha shall be considered less criminal and loathsome before the Lord in the hour of judgment than those of this era who reject the gospel, Matthew 11:22.

3) "For the land of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment," (ge Sodom ksi Gomorron en hemera kriseos) "For the area of Sodom and Gomorrha in (the) day of judgment," Revelation 20:11, for that people who lived so morally depraved in those ancient cities, that were destroyed because of their wickedness, when the final day of their judgment comes, John 12:48; 2 Peter 3:7.

4) "Then for that city." (he te polei ekeine) "That for that city," that kind of city, that will not receive you, your message of me, and reject even the miracles you shall perform, as credentials to your true witness of me, Romans 2:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:8.

Symbol of four things - Dust shaking:

1. Calmness, trust, freedom, personal liberation, purity, Isaiah 55:11-12.

2. Innocence on the part of the apostles of judgment on unbelievers.

3. Cessation or end of fellowship with the unbelievers.

4. Their last sermon to such people before judgment.

Verse 16

1) "Behold, I send you forth," (idou ego apostello humas) "Behold, I send you all," commission or mandate you all, as apostles in going forth to bear my message to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 10:5-6; Luke 10:3.

2) "As sheep in the midst of wolves," (hos probata en meso lukon) "As sheep in the midst or in the middle of a pack of wolves," as innocent, harmless, and defenseless, without outward armor of warfare. As wolves are ferocious, savage, and prey on sheep, so will wicked men and false prophets prey on you all, Acts 20:28-32; Matthew 7:15; John 10:12.

3) "Be ye therefore wise as serpents," (ginesthe oun phronimoi hos hoi opheis) "You all be therefore as prudent as serpents," which seek their livelihood in an astute, smooth-gliding manner. A snake charms or glides smoothly to its food, never approaches in an uncoordinated manner, or jumping at it, see? Genesis 3:1; Luke 21:15; Romans 16:19; Ephesians 5:15.

4) "And harmless as doves." (kai akeraioi hos hai peristerai) "And as harmless as the doves," that do not inter-mingle with other birds indiscriminately. Though you are among wolves, 1 Corinthians 14:20; Philippians 2:15.

See also the ferocious, voracious, carnivorous, nature of your wolf-like adversaries, Ezekiel 22:27; Zephaniah 3:3; Jeremiah 5:6; Habakkuk 1:8; Isaiah 11:6; Isaiah 65:25.

Verse 17

1) "But beware of men:" (prosechete de apo ton anthropon) "And beware or be very cautious from men," 2 Peter 3:13-14, from both what they say and what they do, from designs of their minds and hearts, and of their actions. Be cautious and courageous, Acts 23:17.

2) "For they will deliver you up to the councils," (paradosou sin gar humas eis sunedria) "Because they will deliver you all up (apprehend you) to councils," seize you and turn you over to councils, civil courts, for judgement. These councils were both magistrates and rulers of Jewish Synagogues, Matthew 24:9; Mr 13:9; Luke 12:11; Luke 21:12.

3) "And they will scourge you in their synagogues;" (kai en tais sunagogais auton mastigosousin humas) "And in their synagogues they will scourge you all," that is whip you, to the point of lacerations on the body. Scourging was a common method of punishment in Jewish synagogues, to humiliate those who offended synagogue rulers in any matter relating to morals, ethics, and traditions of Jewish codes, as then interpreted by synagogue ecclesiastics and rulers, Acts 5:40; Acts 16:22; Acts 16:37; Acts 18:17; Acts 22:19; 2 Corinthians 11:25; Mr 12:5; 15:15; John 19:1.

Verse 18

1) "And ye shall be brought before governors," (kai epi hegemonas achthesesthe) "And you will be led up (apprehended) before leaders," to be questioned, examined, or tried, before provincial rulers like Felix and Festus.

2) "And kings for my sake," (de kai basileis eneken emou) "And also kings for my sake," such as Herod and Agrippa, and Nero, Acts 12:1; Acts 24:10; Acts 25:7; Acts 25:23; 2 Timothy 4:16. They were the highest civil tribunals.

3) "For a testimony against them and the Gentiles." (eis marturion autois kai tois ethnesin) "For a testimony both to them and to, the nations or races," and a testimony against them, it they receive you not with kindness or good will. To the Gentiles, nations, or races is an hint that the gospel message would not long be restricted to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.

Verse 19

1) "But when they deliver you up," (hotan de paradosin humas) "Then when they deliver you up or over," to the magistrates, councils, governors, or kings, for they will, Matthew 10:17-18; John 15:20; 1 Timothy 3:12. Caution against anxiety is here regarding persecution, not food, drink, etc., as in Matthew 6:25.

2) "Take no thought how or what ye shall speak:" (me merimnesete pos e ti lalesete) "Do not be anxious about what you may say," or do not be upset over what you may say to your accusers, Matthew 6:25; or do not be burdened with anxiety over either what you will say or how you will say it, Mr 13:11-13; Luke 12:11; Luke 21:14-15.

3) "For it shall be given you," (dothesetai gar humin) "Because it will be given to you," doled out to you, to each of the twelve of you whom I send on this "Lost sheep of the house of Israel witnessing tour," Matthew 10:5-6.

4) "In that same hour what ye shall speak." (en ekeine te hora ti lalesete) "In that hour (of trial) what you may say." You will be taught of God how to control yourselves, and what to say, in that critical hour, under the "gift of knowledge," Exodus 4:12; Jeremiah 1:7. In the former warning against anxiety over food, drink, and clothing it was restricted to the day, Matthew 6:34.

Verse 20

1) "For it is not ye that speak," (ou gar humeis este hoi lalountes) "Because you all are not the ones speaking" or to speak, except as mouthpieces or agencies for me and my Father, 2 Samuel 23:2; Acts 4:8; Acts 6:10. Apart from the Word, God does not longer speak directly to men, now, 2 Timothy 3:16-17.

2) "But the Spirit of your Father," (alla to pneuma tou patros humon) "But (it is) the Spirit of your Father," which is to empower, energize, or give you unction and understanding in hours of crisis, John 20:21. One is yet to be led by the Spirit to witness, in harmony with the Word.

3) "Which speaketh in you." (to laloun en humin) "Who continually speaks in and through you all," as promised John 16:7-11; Romans 8:14-16.

Verse 21

1) "And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death," (paradiosei de adelphon eis thanaton) "Then a brother will deliver up a brother to death," by giving official information or testimony against his own brother, to cause him to be executed; Micah 7:6. Bigotry will break through ties of family lines, Micah 5:7; Luke 21:16; Matthew 10:35-36.

2) "And the father the child:" (kai pater teknon) "And a father a child," a father shall betray or give over his small child to these false prophets in sheep’s clothes, in official garb of Magistrates, Synagogue Rulers, Governors and Kings.

3) "And the children shall rise up against their parents," (kai epanastesontai: tekna eip goneis) "And children will stand up against parents," as witnesses of turncoat nature, that will betray, give over their own parents to execution, even thinking they are doing God’s service, John 16:2.

4) "And cause them to be put to death." (kai thanatosousin autos) "And will put them to death," or as primary witness will cause their parents to be put to death.

Verse 22

1) "And ye shall be hated of all men," (kai esesthe misoumenoi hupo panton) "And you all will be being hated (continually) by all men," all races and kinds of men, John 15:20.

2) "For my name’s sake:" (dis to onoma mou) "On account of my name," because you are identified with my name, are loyal in saying and doing what I have told you to do. To give testimony against sin and Satan incurs the hatred of the world, Luke 6:26; 1 John 3:13; John 15:18-19.

3) "But he that endureth to the end," (ho de huporneinas eis telos) "Yet the one who abides to the end," the one who perseveres, goes on witnessing and laboring to the end, faithfully, obediently, and loyally; Who never turns back from doing right and doing good. It is not easy, but it is possible, to endure faithful while barbarities and inhumanities go on toward you, 1 Corinthians 10:13; 1 Corinthians 10:31; Hebrews 13:5.

4) "Shall be saved." (houtos sothesetai) "This one (is the one) who will be delivered," at the coming of his Lord, with a Divine commendation and rewards, Revelation 2:10; Jonah 1:12; Isaiah 66:5; Romans 2:7; Daniel 12:12; Galatians 6:9.

This speaks of deliverance, salvation from: 1) The tribulation the great, 2) Salvation from shame at the coming of the Lord, for that servant who looks for and serves his Lord; Matthew 25:46. It does not teach that one will either acquire or retain salvation of his soul by outward acts of morality and deeds or religious service, Ephesians 2:8-9; Titus 3:5.

Verse 23

1) "But when they persecute you in the city," (hotan de diokosin humas en te polei taute) "Then when they persecute you in this city," city of rejection, where you have shaken off the dust of your feet against them, Matthew 10:14-15.

2) "Flee ye into another," (pheugete eis ten heteran) "You all flee to another kind of place," where people are more receptive to your testimony. The fleeing is not to be of fear, but because of rejection of your message, Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:1; Acts 14:6-7.

3) "For verily I say unto you," (amen gar lego humin) "For truly (for a fact I tell you)," disclose to you beforehand, that you may be forearmed, not shocked when it occurs. Do not throw away your life where your testimony is rejected.

4) "Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel," (ou me telesete tas poleis tou Israel) "You all will not by any means complete the cities of Israel," not have finished visiting all of them, as places where you witness.

5) "Till the Son of man be come." (heos elthe ho huios tou anthropou) "Until the heir-son of man comes." Or before He comes to be fully rejected by His own people; The ministry of you to Israel only is short, as certified by Daniel 7:13; 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16 further describes His rejection, even at the end of this age.

Verse 24

1) "The disciple is not above his master," (ouk estin mathetis huper ton didaskalon) "A disciple is not (does not exist) above the teacher," that is, a "learner," scholar, or follower, is not above, or ahead of, his master, teacher, or leader, John 15:20; Hebrews 12:1-3. Disciples must learn obedience, through the school of suffering, endurance, discipline, and perseverance, Hebrews 5:8.

2) "Nor the servant above his lord." (oude doulos huper ton kurion autou) "Nor does a slave exist (have a standing) above his master or lord." The term "servant" means an honorable worker, Romans 1:19; Yet Christians are friends, beyond mere servants, to Jesus Christ in His labors. They are to be servant-friends, John 15:14-15; John 8:35-36.

Verse 25

1) "It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master," (arketon to mathete hina ho didaskalos autou) "it is enough or sufficient for the disciple in order that he be as his teacher," in attitude, in character, in Divine attributes, and in obedient service, that he follow the example and pattern of life of his master, Luke 9:23.

2) "And the servant as his lord." (kai ho doulos hos ho kurios autou) "And that the slave servant be as his lord," in willingness to suffer and do his master’s will in his master’s way, John 15:14-15; John 13:34-35.

3) "If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub," (ei ton oikodespoten Beelzebub) "If they have called the housemaster (master over the church) Beelzebub," or a lord and "master of flies" that light on and fly around dung. This Beelzebub was the chief god of the Tyrians, 2 Kings 1:2. This is one of the most contemptuous slurs used against Jesus.

4) "How much more," (poso mollon) "How much more," more certain or surely, John 15:20; 1 Timothy 3:12.

5) "Shall they call them of his household?" (tous oikiakous autou) "Shall they call the members of the household," names or epithets! Matthew 5:11-12.

Verse 26

1) "Fear them not therefore," (me oun phobethete autous) "Therefore you all are not to fear or be fearful (of) them," because the hour of judgement will vindicate and reward your faith, labor, and perseverance, and their overthrow.

2) "For there is nothing covered," (ouden gar estin Kekalumenon) "Because there is (exists) nothing that has been veiled or concealed," nothing hidden in life, in time, against eventual judgment, 1 Corinthians 4:5.

3) "That shall not be revealed," (ho ouk apokaluphthesetai) "Which will not be unveiled," one day-in the judgment, of the righteous, 2 Corinthians 5:10; and the wicked, Ecclesiastes 12:13-14; Matthew 12:36-37.

4) "And hid, that shall not be known." (kai krupton ho ou gnosthesetai) "And hidden or concealed which will not be disclosed or made known," Revelation 19:11-15. Even motives and intents of the heart, and idle words, are objects of accountability in that solemn hour, when each shall one-by-one give account of himself unto the Lord, 1 Corinthians 4:5; Mr 4:22; Luke 8:17; Luke 12:2-3.

Verse 27

1) "What I tell you in darkness," (he lego humin en te skotia) "Whatever I say to you all in the darkness," or in privacy, in person, apart from the other disciples and the mixed multitudes or by my word and spirit, is for your profit and those to whom I send you, Luke 10:23.

2) "That speak ye in light:" (eipate en to phote) "You tell it, or speak it forth in the light, publicly," Acts 5:20; Colossians 1:23. Bear the message, my word, my seed, my bread of life to the hungry, starving, and dying. Speak, tell the message that I give to you, John 8:12; Matthew 28:18-20.

3) "And what ye hear in the ear," (kai ho eis to ous akouete) "And what you hear in the ear or by ear from me," privately, even whispered to you for the moment.

4) "That preach ye upon the housetops." (keruksate epi ton domaton) "Preach or proclaim it from the housetops," from the domes of houses, that the message may go out as far, and be heard by as many as possible. Tell it as publicly, as widely, and as fearlessly as you can, Matthew 5:15-16; Acts 1:8; 2 Corinthians 5:14-21.

Verse 28

1) "And fear not them which kill the body," (kai me phobeisthe apo ton apoktennonton to soma) "And do not be fear-obsessed from those who kill the body," Isaiah 8:12; 1 Peter 3:14. Do not hold back from doing my bidding out of fear of man-killers, murderers. Your true life is beyond their reach, Mr 8:36-38.

2) "But are not able to kill the soul:" (ten de psuchen me dunamenon apokteinai) "Yet, they are not able (strong enough) to kill the soul," to annihilate your immortality, your indestructible soul, Colossians 3:3; Revelation 2:10; Luke 12:4.

3) "But rather fear him which is able," (phobeisthe de maloon ton dunamenon) "But be ye rather fearful of the one who is able," have reverential awe, fear of displeasing your Savior, Protector, and Master, the one who has promised to be with you always, Matthew 28:20; Hebrews 13:5.

4) "To destroy both soul and body in hell." (kai psuchen kai soma apolesai en geenne) "To destroy (bring to great suffering) both soul and body in Gehenna hell," the place of obnoxious refuse burning, where the fires never went out, in the valley of Hinnom at the SE side of Jerusalem, an image of the place of eternal final punishment of both soul and body for all who reject God’s call to salvation, Proverbs 14:26-27; Proverbs 29:25; Hebrews 10:31; Hebrews 12:28-29; 1 Peter 1:17; Acts 4:19; James 4:12.

Verse 29

1) "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing?" (ouchi duo strouthia assariou polleitai) "Are not two (a pair) of sparrows sold for the price of a farthing?" or half penny. This small, vivacious, impertinent bird of Syria is also found all through the western world; There are numerous varieties of it, Psalms 84:3; Matthew 18:28.

2) "And one of them shall not fall on the ground," (kai hen eks auton ou peseitai epi ten gen) "And not even one of them will fall upon the earth," either exhausted or killed. Nor will He leave your body, which belongs to Him, which is His property, 1 Corinthians 6:19-20; Luke 12:6 indicates five sparrows were sold for two farthings.

3) "Without your Father." (aneou tou patros humon) "Without your Father’s notice," or apart from His care and concern, Hebrews 13:5.

Verse 30

1) "But the very hairs of your head," (humon de kai hai triches tes kephales) "Yet, of you all, even the hairs of the head;" To a great mind nothing is little, 1 Samuel 14:45; Luke 21:18; Acts 27:34.

2) "Are all numbered." (pasai erithmemenai eisin) "All have been and are numbered." Luke 21:18. They are identified as a part of your being, and God is concerned with all of your being, since you belong to Him (soul and body), 1Co 6:19,26.

Verse 31

1) "Fear ye not therefore," (me oun phobeisthe) "Therefore you all be not afraid," based on assurance of His care for you, more than for sparrows.

2) "Ye are of more value than many sparrows." (pollon strouthion diapherete humeis) "You all excel many sparrows in value," don’t you? Matthew 6:26. Man is of more value than God’s other creatures, either angelic creatures or physical creatures, see? God’s children are even more valuable to Him than those who are not His children, Matthew 12:12; Psalms 104:27; Matthew 6:30.

Verse 32

1) "Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men," (pas oun hostis homologesei en hemoi emprosthen ton anthropon). "Therefore everyone who shall confess me, in the presence of men," before men. Luke 12:8; Romans 10:9-10; Revelation 2:13; Revelation 3:5; Psalms 119:46; 1 Timothy 4:12-13.

2) "Him will I confess also," (homologeso kago en auto) "I will also confess him," or in him "that one," literally "I will confess," as if abiding in and speaking forth from and for him, John 17:23, at the hour of judgment.

3) "Before my Father which is in heaven." (emprosthen tou patros mou en tois ouranois) "In the presence of my Father in the heavens," publicly, in the last days, or in the throne-heaven, where He abides, Hebrews 1:1-3.

Verse 33

1) "But whosoever shall deny me before men," (hostis d’ an arnesetai me emprostehn ton anthropon) "Then whoever denies me in the presence of men," as one of the world rejecting Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord, Luke 12:9; Mr 8:38.

2) "Him will I also deny," (arnesomai kago auton) "I will also deny him," or refuse to defend him. In a secondary sense, our Lord will deny sanction of rewards to those timid disciples who hesitate to confess Him by word and deed of service, so that they are saved, as if by fire, 1 Corinthians 3:14-15.

3) "Before my Father which is in heaven." (emprosthen tou patros mou tou en tois ouranois) "In the presence of my Father who is in the heavens," to whom His children are daily to pray, Matthew 6:1-14.

Verse 34

1) "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth," (me nomisete hoti elthon balein eirenen epi ten gen) "Do not suppose that I came to bring peace upon the earth," at that time, like that promised by an earthly ruler. No false peace is allowed by the gospel, Jeremiah 6:14; James 3:17.

2) “I came not to send peace," (ouk elthon balein eirenen) "I came not to bring peace," at this time among the governments of men. The peace He came to bring the first time was wrought for the souls of men on Calvary, Luke 2:14; Isaiah 9:6-7; Haggai 2:9; Ephesians 2:17.

3) "But a sword." (alla machairan) "But (in contrast) a sword," a division, strife and conflict, that delineated between good and bad, right and wrong, sin and righteousness, expressed in my person, my testimony and my word, John 14:3; John 8:24; Hebrews 4:12. Acts 4:12.

Verse 35

1) "For I am come to set a man at variance against his father," (elthon gar dichasai anthropon kata toy patros autou) "Because I came to make men (a man) hostile against his father," regarding right and wrong, moral and ethical standards, Micah 7:6; Luke 21:16; 1 John 3:11-12.

2) "And the daughter against her mother," (kai thugatera kata tes metros autes) "And a daughter against her mother," differences of opinion that are sharp and tense, that bring strife of words and clash of emotions, John 9:18.

3) "And the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law." (kai numphen kata tes pentheras autes) "And a bride (daughter-in-law) hostile against her mother-in-law," where one knows Christ and the other does not know or try to obey Him, Luke 12:51-53.

Verse 36

1) "And a man’s foes shall be," (kai echthroi tou anthropou) "And (the) enemies of a man," who follows me will be, or come to be, to exist as foretold also Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12-14.

2) "They of his own household.” (hoi oikiakoi autou) "Shall be those of his own household," those members of his own household. The nearer the kinship, the sharper the pain that results from the stand of the righteous for righteousness, and against known unrighteousness, Micah 7:6; This is apparent in the treason of Judas, John 13:18; Matthew 26:48-50.

Verse 37

1) "He that loveth father or mother more than me," (ho philon patera he metera huper eme) "The one who loves father or mother beyond (more than) he loves me," The one who observes the worldly standards above the Lord’s rules and principles for the sake of peace or temporary tranquillity.

2) "Is not worthy of me:" (ouk estin mou aksios) "Is not worthy of (reputable enough for) me:" He can not have my sanctions, holding divided affections, Deuteronomy 33:9; Matthew 22:37; John 5:23; Philippians 3:8; Luke 14:26.

3) "And he that loveth son or daughter more than me," (kai ho philon huion e thugatera huper eme) "And the one who loves a son or a daughter beyond his love for me," or more than he loves me, allowing them to indulge in sins and follies, rather than requiring them to obey the teachings of Jesus, Ephesians 6:1-4.

4) "Is not worthy of me." (ouk estin mou aksios) "is not worthy of me," does not merit having me or my commendation, Luke 14:26; 2 Corinthians 5:16. Giving assent to a pursuit of sin in the lives of one’s children renders a disciple unworthy of the name Christian, Luke 9:23; Mr 8:34-37.

Verse 38

1) "And he that taketh not his cross," (kai hos ou lambanes ton stauron autou) "And he who does not take or receive his own cross," or voluntarily assume trials when adversities come, to be a consistent professor, Matthew 16:24; Luke 14:27.

2) "And followeth after me," (kai akolouthei opiso mou) "And follow after me continually;" Christian duty, under trial, is painful, involves suffering and sacrifice of personal feelings, of selfishness and covetousness, 2 Timothy 3:10; 2 Timothy 3:12.

3) "Is not worthy of me." (ouk estin mou aksios) "Is not worthy of me," to wear my name, or be called a disciple, Luke 9:23; 1 Corinthians 9:26-27; Galatians 6:14.

Verse 39

1) "He that findeth his life shall lose it:" (ho heuron ten psuchen autou apolesei auten) "The one who continually finds his life, for himself, selfishly, will lose it;" If he saves it or in priority uses it for himself, Romans 4:4.

2) "And he that loseth his life for my sake," (kai ho apolesas ten psuchen autou eneken emou) "And the one continually losing his life for my sake," unselfishly witnessing and laboring in the vineyard of life, Luke 16:25; Luke 17:33.

3) "Shall find it." (heuresei auten) "He will find it," in the hour of rewarding, 1 Corinthians 3:8; 1 Corinthians 15:58.

No one bears a velvet cross. The cross of Jesus Christ is still rough and rugged to bear, but blessed are those who bear it, Galatians 6:14; Matthew 5:11-12. Every wise person understands and lives the principle of "dying to live," 2 Corinthians 5:1.

Verse 40

1) "He that receiveth you receiveth me," (ho dechomenos himas eme dechetai) "The one who receives you receives me;" One who receives or entertains you personally, in kindness, and your message of me, by faith, receives me at that moment, becomes my child, John 1:12; Luke 1:12; Luke 10:16; John 5:23; John 12:44; John 13:20.

2) "And he that receiveth me," (kai ho eme dechomenos) "And the one who receives me," Acts 9:4, through your words or testimony, John 20:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:8; 2 Corinthians 5:20; Galatians 6:14.

3) "Receiveth him that sent me." (dechetai ton aposteilanta me), "He receives the one who has sent me," Matthew 25:40; Matthew 25:45, God the Father, John 17:1-3; John 20:21.

Verse 41

1) "He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet," (ho dechoneos propheten eis onoma prophetou) "And the one who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet;" A prophet is one who, 1) Speaks in the name of another, and 2) One who foretells matters or events, 1 Kings 17:10-17; 1 Kings 18:4; 2 Timothy 1:16; 3 John 1:8; Matthew 16:27; Matthew 25:35; Matthew 25:40.

2) "Shall receive a prophet’s reward;" (misthon prophetou lempsetai) "He will receive the reward of a prophet;" First, what the prophet may be able to impart to him and, Second, what God may bestow on him for his receiving a prophet, Acts 3:6; Philippians 4:10-19; 2 Timothy 1:16-18.

3) "And he that receiveth a righteous man," (kai ho echomenos dikaion) "And he who receives a righteous person," in his proper character, to treat him as a righteous man, Matthew 16:27; Daniel 12:3; 1 Corinthians 3:14.

4) "in the name of a righteous man," (eis onoma dikaiou) "in the name of a righteous person," as Abraham did, Genesis 18:1-22; Hebrews 13:1-2.

5) "Shall receive a righteous man’s reward." (misthon dikaiou lempsetai) "He will receive the reward of a righteous person," which is sometimes bestowed in this life, Genesis 39:5; Acts 27:7; Acts 8:24; and again he shall be rewarded in glory, Luke 14:14.

Verse 42

1) "And whosoever shall give to drink," (kai hos ean potise) "And whoever gives to drink," to quench or satisfy the thirst, to relieve an immediate physical need, Matthew 25:45; Zechariah 13:7.

2) "Unto one of these little ones," (hena ton mikron touton) "To one of these little ones," either in age or position of service, Matthew 18:5-6; Matthew 18:10; Hebrews 5:13; Matthew 25:40; 1 Corinthians 3:11; Because they "are Christ’s," Mr 9:41.

3) "A cup of cold water only," (poterion psuchrou monon) "Only a cup of cold water," so small a matter, yet so vital to ones continued life and health. Small things, well timed and well done to meet a need, out of right motives, have great value.

4) "In the name of a disciple," (eis onoma mathetou) "In (the) name of a disciple," or for the sake of the Lord, in caring for one of His disciple servants, Mr 9:41.

5) “Verily I say unto you," (amen lego humin) "I tell you all (that) certainly," or surely, without fail, Pr 1:24:14; Luke 6:35.

6) "He shall in no wise lose his reward." (ou me apolese ton misthon autou) "He will under no circumstance lose his reward;" That one shall not go without reward from the Lord, one day, Hebrews 6:10; Philippians 4:18-19; 2 John 1:8; John 4:10; as the workman is paid when work is done, so the saved is paid at the end of harvest day, when Jesus returns in the air, Revelation 22:12.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Matthew 10". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/matthew-10.html. 1985.
 
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