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Bible Commentaries
Romans 16

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - UnabridgedCommentary Critical Unabridged

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Verse 1

I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea: Recommendation of Phoebe to the Roman Church (Romans 16:1-2)

I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant, [ diakonon (G1249 ), or, 'deaconess,'] of the church which is at Cenchrea. The word is "Cenchree," the eastern port of Corinth (see the note at Acts 18:18). That in the earliest churches there were deaconesses, to attend to the wants of the female members, there is no good reason to doubt. So early at least as the reign of Trajan, we learn from Pliny's celebrated letter to that Emperor-1 AD-that they existed in the eastern churches. Indeed, from the relation in which the sexes then stood to each other, something of this sort would seem to have been a necessity. Modern attempts, however, to revive this office have seldom found favour; either from the altered state of society or the abuse of the office, or both. Yet in Protestant Prussia, and in the Lutheran missions of the East, they seem to be a real success.

Verse 2

That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.

That ye receive her in the Lord - that,is, as, a genuine disciple of the Lord Jesus,

As ('so as') becometh saints - so as saints should receive saints,

And that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath ('may have') need of you - some private business of her own:

For she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also (see Psalms 41:1-3; 2 Timothy 1:16-18).

Sundry salutations (Romans 16:3-16)

Verse 3

Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in Christ Jesus:

Greet (or, 'Salute') Priscilla. The true reading here, beyond all doubt, is 'Prisca;' but this is only a contracted form of "Priscilla" (as in 2 Timothy 4:19), as "Silas" of "Silvanus:"

And Aquila. It will be observed that the wife is here named before the husband, as also in Acts 18:18 (and Romans 16:26, according to what we take to be the true reading). From this we may infer that she was the more energetic of the two, of superior mind, and more helpful to the Church.

Verse 4

Who have for my life laid down their own necks: unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles.

Who have for my life laid down - `Who did for my life lay down'

Their own necks - that is, risked their own lives to save that of the apostle. The occasion referred to was either that of his first visit to Corinth (Acts 18:6; Acts 18:9-10), or more probably what took place at Ephesus, as recorded in Acts 19:30-31; and cf. 1 Corinthians 15:32). They must by this time have returned from Ephesus-where we last find them in the History of the Acts-to Rome, whence the edict of Claudius had banished them (Acts 18:2); and if they were not the leading members of that Christian community, they wore at least the most endeared to our apostle.

Unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles - whose special apostle this dear couple had rescued so heroically from imminent danger.

Verse 5

Likewise greet the church that is in their house. Salute my wellbeloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ.

Likewise greet the church that is in their house - no doubt, the Christian assembly that statedly met there for worship. And it is natural to suppose, from his occupation as a tent-maker (Acts 18:3), that his premises would accommodate larger gatherings than those of most others. Probably this devoted couple had written to the apostle such an account of the stated meetings at their house as made him feel at home with them, and include them in this salutation, which doubtless would be read at their meeting with special interest.

Salute my [well] beloved Epenetus, who is the first-fruits (i:e., the first convert)

Of Achaia unto Christ. But as this was not the fact, so neither is it what the apostle says. The true reading, beyond all question, is, 'the first-fruits of Asia unto Christ'-that is, Proconsular Asia, (See the note at Acts 16:6.) [ Achaias (G882) is found in only one Uncial manuscript, L, and in the two correctors of. Every other manuscript, and nearly all versions, have Asias (G773)]. In 1 Corinthians 16:15 it is said that "the household of Stephanas was the first-fruits of Achaia." And though, if Epaenetus was a member of that family, the two statements might be reconciled, according to the Received Text, there is no need to resort to that supposition, as we have seen that the true reading is otherwise. This Epaenetus, as the first believer in Roman Asia, was dear to the apostle (see Hosea 9:10; and Micah 7:1).

None of the names mentioned from Romans 16:5; Romans 16:15 are otherwise known One wonders at the number of them None of the names mentioned from Romans 16:5-15 are otherwise known. One wonders at the number of them, considering that the writer had never been at Rome. But as Rome was then the center of the civilized world, to and from which journeys were continually taken to the remotest parts, there is no great difficulty in supposing that so active a traveling missionary as Paul would, in course of time, make the acquaintance of a considerable number of the Christians then residing at the capital.

Verse 6

Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us.

Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour on us - labour, no doubt, of, a womanly kind. [Lachmann and Tregelles have humas (G5209) - 'who bestowed much labour on you'-with 'Aleph (') A B C *, and several cursives, the Peshito Syriac, and other versions: then the similar reading, en (G1722) humin (G5213), is found in D E F G, the Old Latin, and Vulgate: while heemas (G2248) is only in L, and a corrector of C, the great majority of cursives, and the Philox. Syriac. But, with Tischendorf, we hold that not even this weighty external authority could justify the adoption of so entirely inappropriate a reading as 'you' here. The received reading here must be right.]

Verse 7

Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, and my fellowprisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me.

Salute Andronicus and Junia - or, as it might be, 'Junias,' a contracted form of 'Junianus:' in this case, it is a man's name. But if, as is more probable, the word be, as in our version, "Junia," the person meant was no doubt either the wife or the sister of Andronicus.

My kinsmen (or, 'relatives,') and my fellow-prisoners - on what occasion, it is impossible to say, as the apostle elsewhere, tells us that he was "in prisons more frequent" (2 Corinthians 11:23);

Who are of note (or 'distinguished') among the apostles, [ episeemoi (G1978) en (G1722) tois (G3588) apostolois (G652)]. Those who think the word "apostle" is used in an extended sense in the Acts and Epistles take this to mean, 'noted apostles,' and of course read Junias, as a man's name. (So Chrysostom-though he inconsistently reads 'Junia,' regarding it as a woman's name-Luther, Calvin, Estius, Bengel, Olshausen, Tholuck, Alford, Jowett). Those, on the other hand, who are not clear that the word "apostle" is applied, in the strictly official sense, beyond the circle of the twelve, and others besides these, understand, by the expression here used, 'persons esteemed among,' or 'by the apostles.' (So Beza, Grotius, DeWette, Fritzsche, Meyer, Stuart, Philippi, Hodge, Lange.) Of course, if "Junia," as a woman's name, is what the apostle wrote, this latter must be the meaning; and the use of the article - "among the apostles" - which would probably have been omitted if the former sense was meant, seems to us to decide in favour of the latter. Who also were in Christ before me. The apostle writes as if he envied them this priority in the faith. And, indeed, if to be "in Christ" be the most enviable human condition, the earlier the date of this blessed translation the greater the grace of it. This latter statement about Andronicus and Junia seems to throw some light on the preceding one. Very possibly they may have been among the first-fruits of Peter's labours, gained to Christ either on the day of Pentecost or on some of the succeeding days. In that case they may have attracted the special esteem of those apostles who for some time resided chiefly at Jerusalem and its neighbourhood; and our apostle, though he came late in contact with the other apostles, if he was aware of this fact, would have pleasure in alluding to it.

Verse 8

Greet Amplias my beloved in the Lord.

Greet Amplias - a contracted form of 'Ampliatus;'

My beloved in the Lord - an expression of dear Christian affection.

Verse 9

Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ, and Stachys my beloved.

Salute Urbane, [ Ourbanon (G3773)] - rather, 'Urbanus:' it is a man's name.

Our helper, [ sunergon (G4904)] - ' fellow-labourer,' in Christ.

Verse 10

Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute them which are of Aristobulus' household.

Salute Apelles approved, [ ton (G3588) dokimon (G1384)] - 'the approved one,'

In Christ - or, as we should say, 'that tried Christian'-a noble commendation.

Salute them which are of Aristobulus' [household]. It would seem, from what is said of Narcissus in the following verse, that this Aristobulus himself had not been a Christian, but that the Christians of his household simply were meant; very possibly some of his slaves.

Verse 11

Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them that be of the household of Narcissus, which are in the Lord.

Salute Herodion my kinsman - (see the note at Romans 16:7.)

Greet them that be of [the household of] Narcissus, which are in the Lord - which implies that others in his house, including probably himself, were not Christians.

Verse 12

Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, which laboured much in the Lord.

Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, who labour in the Lord - two active females.

Salute the beloved Persis (another female), which laboured much in the Lord - referring, probably, not to official services, such as would fall to the deaconesses, but to such higher Christian labours-yet within the sphere competent to woman-as Priscilla bestowed on Apollos and others (Acts 18:18).

Verse 13

Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.

Salute Rufus chosen ('the chosen') in the Lord - meaning, not 'who, is one of the elect,' as every believer is, but 'the choice,' or 'precious one,' in the Lord. (See 1 Peter 2:4; 2 John 1:13.) We read in Mark 15:21 that Simon of Cyrene, whom they compelled to bear our Lord's cross, was "the father of Alexander and Rufus." From this we naturally conclude that when Mark wrote his Gospel Alexander and Rufus must have been well known as Christians among those by whom he expected his Gospel to be first read; and, in all likelihood, this was that very "Rufus;" in which case our interest is deepened by what immediately follows about his mother.

And (salute) his mother and mine. The apostle calls her 'his own mother,' not so much as our Lord calls every elderly female believer His mother (Matthew 12:49-50), but in grateful acknowledgment of her motherly attentions to himself, bestowed no doubt for his Masters sake, and the love she bore to his honoured servants. To us it seems altogether likely that the conversion of Simon the Cyrenian dated from that memorable day when "passing (casually) by, as he came from the country" (Mark 15:21: for commentary on which, see p.

469), "they compelled him to bear the" Saviour's cross. Sweet compulsion, if what he thus beheld issued in his voluntarily taking up his own cross! Through him it is natural to suppose that his wife would be brought in, and that this believing couple, now "heirs together of the grace of life" (1 Peter 3:7), as they told their two sons Alexander and Rufus, what honour had unwittingly been put upon their father at that hour of deepest and dearest moment to all Christians, might be blessed to the inbringing of both of them to Christ. In this case, supposing the older of the two to have departed to he with Christ before this letter was written, or to have been residing in some other place, and Rufus left alone with his mother, how instructive and beautiful is the testimony here borne to her!

Verse 14

Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with them.

Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes - `Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas' is, beyond doubt, the right order of these names: "and the brethren which are with them."

Verse 15

Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them.

Salute Philologus, and Julia, Nereus, and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints which are with them. These have been thought to be the names of ten less notable Christians than those already named. But this will hardly be supposed if it be observed that they are divided into two pairs of five each, and that after the first of these pairs it is added, "and the brethren which are with them," while after the second pair we have the words, "and all the saints which are with them." This, perhaps, hardly means that each of the five in both pairs had 'a church at his house,' else probably this would have been more expressly said. But at least it would seem to indicate that they were each a center of some few Christians who met at his house-it may be for further instruction, for prayer, for missionary purposes, or for some other Christian objects. These little peeps into the rudimental forms which Christian fellowship first took in the great cities, though too indistinct for more than conjecture, are singularly interesting. Our apostle would seem to have been kept minutely informed as to the state of the Roman church, both as to its membership and its varied activities, probably by Priscilla and Aquila.

Verse 16

Salute one another with an holy kiss. The churches of Christ salute you.

Salute one another with an holy kiss. (So 1 Corinthians 16:20; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 Peter 5:14.) The custom prevailed among the Jews, and doubtless came from the East, where it still obtains. Its adoption into the Christian churches, as the symbol of a higher fellowship than it had ever expressed before, was probably as immediate as it was natural. In this case the apostle's desire seems to be, that on receipt of his letter, with its greetings, they should in this manner expressly testify their Christian affection. It afterward came to have a fixed place in the Church service, immediately after the celebration of the Supper, and continued long in use. In such matters, however, the state of society and the peculiarities of different places require to be studied.

The churches of Christ salute you. 'All the churches' is the reading of every Uncial manuscript; the word "all" gradually falling out, as seeming probably to express more than the apostle would venture to affirm. But no more seems meant than to assure the Romans in what affectionate esteem they were bold by the churches generally; all that knew he was writing to Rome having expressly asked their own salutations to be sent to them. (See Romans 16:19.)

Cautions (Romans 16:17-19)

Verse 17

Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them.

Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned - `which ye learned;'

And avoid them. The fomenters of "divisions" who are here meant are probably those who were unfriendly to the truths taught in this letter; while those who caused "offences" were probably those referred to in Romans 14:15, as haughtily disregarding the prejudices of the weak. The direction as to both is, first, to "mark" such, lest the evil should be done before it was fully discovered; and next, to "avoid" them (cf. 2 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:14), so as neither to bear any responsibility for their procedure nor seem to give them the least countenance.

Verse 18

For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple.

For they that are such serve not our Lord [Jesus] Christ - `our Lord Christ' appears to be the true reading. But their own belly - not in the grosset sense, but in the sense of 'living for low ends of their own' (compare Philippians 3:19);

And by good words and fair speeches, [ dia (G1223) eulogias (G2129)]. These words are wanting in D* E F G, several cursives, and the Old Latin. But besides the good evidence in their layout, the omission of them is easily accounted for, as Meyer says, by homeoteleuton - [ eulogias (G2129) ... kardias (G2588)]

Deceive the hearts of the simple - the unwary, the unsuspecting (see Proverbs 14:15).

Verse 19

For your obedience is come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil.

For your obedience - your tractableness, or readiness to be led (as the close of the verse seems to show is the meaning here),

Is come abroad unto all. (The supplement "men" had better have been left out.)

I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple - `harmless,' as in Matthew 10:16, from which the warning is taken,

Concerning evil, [ eis (G1519)] - rather, 'unto evil' (as in the former clause): q.d., 'Your reputation among the churches for subjection to the teaching ye have received is to me sufficient ground of confidence in you; but ye need the serpent's wisdom to discriminate between transparent truth and plausible error, with that guileless simplicity which instinctively cleaves to the one and rejects the other.'

Encouragement and Benediction (Romans 16:20)

Verse 20

And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The apostle encourages the Romans to persevere in resisting the wiles of the devil, with the assurance that, as good soldiers of Jesus Christ, they are "shortly" to receive their discharge, and have the satisfaction of 'putting their feet upon the neck' of that formidable Enemy-a symbol familiar, probably in all languages, to express not only the completeness of the defeat, but the abject humiliation of the conquered foe (see Joshua 10:24; 2 Samuel 22:41; Ezekiel 21:29; Psalms 91:13). Though the apostle here styles Him who is thus to bruise Satan, "the God of peace," with special reference to the "divisions" (Romans 16:17) by which the Roman Church was in danger of being disturbed, this sublime appellation of God has here a wider sense, pointing to the whole 'purpose for which the Son of God was manifested, to destroy the works of the devil' (1 John 3:8); and indeed this assurance is but a reproduction of the first great promise, that the Seed of the woman should bruise the Serpent's head (Genesis 3:15).

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. [Amen.] The "Amen" here has no manuscript authority. What comes after this, where one would have expected the letter to close, has its parallel in Philippians 4:20, etc., and, being in fact common in epistolatory writings, is simply a mark of genuineness.

The Salutations of the Apostle's Friends at Corinth (Romans 16:21-23)

Verse 21

Timotheus my workfellow, and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater, my kinsmen, salute you.

Timotheus my work-fellow - `my fellow-labourer' (see Acts 16:1-5). The apostle (as Bengel says) mentions him here rather than in the opening address to this church, as he had not been at Rome.

And Lucius - not Luke; for the fuller form of Lucas is not "Lucius," but 'Lucanus.' The person meant seems to be "Lucius of Cyrene," who was among the "prophets and teachers" at Antioch with our apostle before he was summoned into the missionary field (Acts 13:1).

And Jason (see Acts 17:5). He had probably accompanied or followed the apostle from Thessalonica to Corinth;

And Sosipater (see Acts 20:4 ) my kinsmen, salute you - [ aspazetai (G782) is much better supported than - aspazontai (G782), of the Received Text.]

Verse 22

I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.

I Tertius, who wrote this ('the') letter - as the apostle's amanuensis or penman,

Salute you in the Lord. So usual was it with the apostle to dictate instead of writing his letters, that he calls the attention of the Galatians to the fact that to them he wrote with his own hand (Galatians 6:11). But this Tertius would have the Romans to know that, far from being a mere scribe, his heart went out to them in Christian affection; and the apostle, by giving his salutation a place here, would show what sort of assistants he affection; and the apostle, by giving his salutation a place here, would show what sort of assistants he employed.

Verse 23

Gaius mine host, and of the whole church, saluteth you. Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a brother.

Gaius mine host, and (the host) of the whole church, saluteth you - (see Acts 20:4.) It would appear that this Gaius was one of only two persons whom Paul baptized with his own hand (cf. 3 John). His Christian hospitality appears to have been something uncommon.

Erastus the chamberlain (or, 'treasurer') of the city - doubtless the city of Corinth (see Acts 19:22; 2 Timothy 4:20),

Saluteth you, and Quartus a brother, [ ho (G3588) adelfos (G80)] - 'the,' or 'our brother,' as Sosthenes and Timothy are called, 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1 (Greek). Nothing more is known of this Quartus.

Benediction Repeated (Romans 16:24)

Verse 24

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen - a repetition of the benediction precisely as in Romans 16:20 except that it is here invoked on them "all," and that the "Amen" here is undoubted.

Concluding Doxology (Romans 16:25-27)

The genuineness of this whole Doxology has been questioned, but on wholly insufficient grounds. [It is omitted only in F G and its Latin version; but even in each of these a blank space is left after Romans 16:24, implying that something was lacking; but it is found in all other extant manuscripts, Uncial and Cursive. It is misplaced, however, in a number of manuscripts and several versions, which introduce it at the dose of Romans 14:1-23: for which some not unnatural reasons may be assigned; but this is manifestly the right place for it].

Verse 25

Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began,

Now to him that is of power, [ dunamenoo (G1410)] - or, as in Jude 1:24, "Now unto Him that is able"

To stablish (confirm or uphold you) according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ - in conformity with the truths of that Gospel which I preach, and not I only, but all to whom has been committed "the preaching of Jesus Christ,"

According to the revelation of the mystery (see the note at Romans 11:25 ), which was kept secret since the world began - literally, 'which had been kept in silence during eternal ages.'

Verse 26

But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith:

But now is made manifest. The reference here is to that special feature of the Gospel economy which Paul himself was specially employed to carry into practical effect, and to unfold by his teaching-the introduction of the Gentile believers to an equality with their Jewish brethren, and the new, and, to the Jews, quite unexpected form which this gave to the whole Kingdom of God, (cf. Ephesians 3:1-10, etc.) This the apostle calls here a mystery hitherto undisclosed (in what sense the next verse will show), but now fully unfolded; and his prayer for the Roman Christians, in the form of a doxology to Him who was able to do what he asked, is that they might be established in the truth of the Gospel, not only in its essential character, but specially in that feature of it which gave themselves, as Gentile believers, their whole standing among the people of God.

And by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for (in order to) the obedience of faith. Lest they should think, from what he had just said, that God had brought in upon his people so vast a change on their condition without giving them any previous notice, the apostle here adds that, on the contrary, "the scriptures of the prophets" contain all that he and other preachers of the Gospel had to declare on these topics, and, indeed, that the same "everlasting God" who "from eternal ages" had kept these things hid had given "commandment" that they should now, according to the tenor of those prophetic Scriptures, be imparted to every nation for their believing, acceptance.

Verse 27

To God only wise, [be] glory - `to the only wise God.'

Through Jesus Christ - `to whom [be]'-q.d., 'To Him, I say, be the glory' Forever. Amen. At the outset of this doxology, it will be observed that it is an ascription of glory to the power that could do all this. At its close it ascribes glory to the wisdom that planned and that presides over the gathering of a redeemed people out of all nations. The apostle adds his devout "Amen," which the reader-if he has followed him with the astonishment and delight of him who pens these words-will fervently echo.


(1) In the minute and delicate manifestations of Christian feeling, and lively interest in the smallest movements of Christian life, love, and zeal, which are here exemplified, combined with the grasp of thought and elevation of soul which this whole letter displays, as indeed all the writings of our apostle, we have the secret of much of that grandeur of character which has made the name of Paul stand on an elevation of its own in the estimation of enlightened Christendom in every age and of that influence which, under God, beyond all the other apostles, he has already exercised, and is yet destined to exert, ever the religious thinking and feeling of men. Nor can any approach him in these peculiarities without exercising corresponding influence on all with whom they come in contact.

(2) "The wisdom of the serpent and the harmlessness of the dove" - in enjoining which our apostle here only echoes the teaching of his Lord (Matthew 10:16) - is a combination of properties the rarity of which among Christians is only equalled by its vast importance. In every age of the Church there have been real Christians whose excessive study of the serpent's wisdom has so sadly trenched upon their guileless simplicity, as at times to excite the distressing apprehension that they were no better than wolves in sheep's clothing: nor is it to be denied, on the other hand, that, either from inaptitude or indisposition to judge with manly discrimination of character and of measures, many eminently simple, spiritual, devoted Christians, have throughout life exercised little or no influence on any section of society around them. Let the apostle's counsel on this head (Romans 16:19) be taken as a study, especially by young Christians, whose character has yet to be formed, and whose permanent sphere in life is but partially fixed; and let them prayerfully set themselves to the combined exercise of both those qualities. So will their Christian character acquire solidity and elevation, and their influence for good be proportionably extended.

(3) Christians should cheer their own and each other's hearts amidst the toils and trials of their protracted warfare, with the assurance that it will have a speedy and glorious end. They should accustom themselves to regard all opposition to the progress and prosperity of Christ's cause-whether in their own souls, in the churches with which they are connected, or in the world at large-as just "Satan" in conflict, as ever, with Christ their Lord; and they should never allow themselves to doubt that "the God of peace" will "shortly" give them the neck of their Enemy, and make them to bruise the Serpent's head (Romans 16:20).

(4) As Christians are held up and carried through solely by divine power, working through the glorious Gospel, so to that power, and to the wisdom that brought that Gospel nigh to them, they should ascribe all the glory of their stability now, as they certainly will of their victory at last.

(5) Has "the everlasting God" "commanded" that the Gospel "mystery," so long kept hid, but now fully disclosed, shall be "made known to all nations for the obedience faith"? (Romans 16:26.) Then, what "necessity is laid upon" all the churches, and every Christian, to send the Gospel "to every creature!" we may rest well assured that the prosperity or decline of churches, and of individual Christians, will have not a little to do with their faithfulness or indifference to this imperative duty.

The ancient Subscription at the end of this letter-though of course of no authority-appears to be in this case quite correct.

Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Romans 16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jfu/romans-16.html. 1871-8.
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