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Bible Commentaries
Romans 16

Garner-Howes Baptist CommentaryGarner-Howes

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Verse 1

1) “I commend to you Phebe," (Sunistemi de humin Phoiben) "Now I commend Phebe to you all;- Paul exhorted the church at Rome to receive Phebe when she came with a desire to labor with them. Both individuals, like Paul, and churches commended and recommended fellow helpers, Acts 18:27.

2) "Our sister," (ten adelphen hemon) "Who is our sister," In the Lord and in labors with us; 2 Corinthians 3:1-3; Philippians 2:29-30. The name Phebe means "shining, as the moon", a light to help in time of darkness.

3) "Who is a servant," (ousan kai diakonon) "Who also is being (exists, functions as) a common servant or minister;" classified as Paul often classified himself, as an administrative servant-helper in the work of the Lord, 2 Corinthians 4:1; 2 Corinthians 6:3; 2 Corinthians 8:4; 2 Corinthians 9:1. The term rendered servant is the root word from which deacon is derived, used to signify spiritual service through handling and ministering physical things.

4) "Of the church which is at Cenchrea," (tes ekklesias tes en kegchreais) "Of the church in Cenchrea," or the congregation located in Cenchrea, a deaconess or minister of the church at Cenchrea, in many common-nature labors, a seaport in Corinth area where a church was located, where Paul once took a vow and shaved his head, Acts 18:18; Numbers 6:18; 1 Corinthians 1:14; Acts 19:22.

Verse 2

1) "That ye receive her in the Lord," (hina auten prosdkstesthe en kurio) "in order that you all may receive her in the Lord;" as a follower of Jesus Christ, not as an heathen woman.

2) "As becometh saints, (haksios ton hagion) "As it is worthy or as it becomes saints," or members of a sister church, such as you all are in Rome, as a moral, ethical, spiritual sister, Ephesians 5:3; Philippians 1:27.

3) "And that ye assist her in whatever business she hath need of you," (kai parastete aute en ho an humon chreze pragmati) "And that you all stand by her in whatever practical thing she may have need of you," 1 Corinthians 3:9; 1 Corinthians 4:2.

4) "For she hath been a succorer of many," (kai gar aute prostatis pollon egenethe) "Because she ’surely became an aid, helper, or protectoress of many;" of many needy saints, as a deaconess, perhaps in attending to them in times of physical, emotional, and spiritual afflictions, as a faithful deaconess (a minister-servant) in lowly matters.

5) "And of myself also," (kai emou autou) "And of myself as well;" This woman (sister in the Lord) had been a helper to Paul in difficult times while he had been in the Corinth-Cenchrea area. This was the greater reason she should now be assisted, Galatians 6:10.

Verse 3

1) "Greet Priscilla and Aquila," (aspasasthe Priskan kai Akulan) "You will salute Priscilla and Aquila;" Christians, the former born in Pontus and the latter in Italy, Paul’s hosts in Athens, tentmakers by trade to whom he often turned for help, Acts 18:2-3; Acts 18:18; Acts 18:26; They also had a church in their house in Ephesus, 1 Corinthians 16:19, 2 Timothy 4:19.

2) "My helpers in Christ Jesus," (tous sunergous mou en Christo Isou) "The colleague-workers of me in Jesus Christ," or "my helpers in colleague with me in Jesus Christ." These helpers were intimate friends, laborers with their own hands to assist Paul in his ministry, the kind of friendship and help so helpful to consecrated full time missionaries and ministers of the Gospel. They will be rewarded with the minister, in that day, John 4:36-38; Psalms 126:5-6; 1 Corinthians 3:8. Paul had not forgotten their help to him.

Verse 4

1 ) "Who have for my life," (oitines huper tes psuchus mou) "Who on behalf of my life," to save my life, or save me from danger of death, exposed their lives to protect him from physical harm.

2) "Laid down their own necks," (ton heauton trachelon jupethekan) "Laid down or risked their own necks," stuck out their neck"; This was perhaps during the tumult, insurrection in the time of Gallio, Acts 18:12; Ephesians 5:2; John 10:11. To lay down one’s life for another is to emulate the love of Christ for all men.

3) "Unto whom not only I give thanks," (ois ouk ego monos eucharisto) "To whom not only (do) I give thanks"; express gratitude for their care for and protection given to me, 1 John 3:16.

4) "But also all the churches of the Gentiles," (alla kai hai ekklesiai ton ethon) "But also all the churches (assemblies or congregations) of the nations or Gentiles offer thanks;" The church, as a body should also express special gratitude for those of her fellowship who dare die on behalf of a brother or sister, John 13:34-35; John 15:13.

Verse 5

1 ) "Likewise greet the church that is in their house," (kai ten kat’ oikon auton ekklesian) "And the church that exists in their home," that is in their house. Send a letter of courage to the church that meets in their house, their home, 1 Corinthians 16:19; Acts 18:18; Acts 18:24-26. New Testament churches met often in private homes, or apartments, Colossians 4:15; Philemon 1:2.

2) "Salute my well beloved Epaenetus," (aspassasthe Epaineton ton agapeton mou) "Greet my well beloved brother Epaenetus," or be extending greetings for me to Epaenetus; After Aquila and Priscilla (of Romans 16:3-4) not one other person is prominently known or identifiable, Romans 16:5-16, to whom greetings are extended, yet this shows an affectionate, compassionate, caring side of Paul’s life, Romans 9:1-3; 1 Corinthians 9:21-23.

3) "Who is the first fruits of Achaia unto Christ," (hos estin aparche tes Asias eis Christon) "Who exists (as or like) a first fruit of Asia for Christ," a desirable Christian fruit, an early convert to Christ in Asia, and a devout man. Achaia was a province of Asia of which Ephesus was the capitol, Epenetus means "praised", and he was perhaps the first profession under Paul’s gospel preaching in the area.

Verse 6

1) "Greet Mary," (asposathe Marian) "Greet Mary," or "be extending my greetings to Mary," of whom nothing more is known. What or which of the Marys of the New Testament believers will be revealed only at the rewarding hour, 1 Corinthians 3:8.

2) "Who bestowed much labor on us," (hetis palla ekopiasen eis humas) "Who tediously labored for you all," labored much or in many things for you all; and it was not in vain, 1 Corinthians 15:58.

Verse 7

1) "Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen," (aspassathe Andronikon kai loudian tous sungeneis mou) "Greet also Adronicus and Julia, my near kinsmen," relatives of me.

2) "And my fellowprisoners," (kai sunaichmalotus mou) "And my fellow-captives;" for whom his heart had yearned until they found the Christ, Romans 9:1-3. These friends of Christ, relatives of Paul, were or had also been prisoners of war or "Salvation Army People;"

3) "Who are of note among the apostles," (oitines eisin episemoi en tois apostolois) "Who are notable or well-known and of good reputation among the apostles." Paul was not the only apostle or missionary laborer who spent hours in lonely prisons for the gospel’s sake, to wit; Peter, John., Silas, etc., Acts 5:1-42; Acts 16:1-40; John 15:20.

4) "Who also were in Christ before me," (hoi kai pro emou gegonan en Christo) "Who were in Christ, even before me," 1 Corinthians 15:8; Galatians 1:21-24. That one person may be "in Christ," in time, prior to another, is strong evidence that one is saved, receives eternal life in time, when he believes, not in eternity, before time began, before one ever even existed, as erroneously held by some. John 1:11-12; Galatians 3:26; Romans 6:23. The twelve apostles also were all "in Christ" before Paul was, see? 1 Corinthians 15:7-8.

Verse 8

1) "Greet Amplias," (aspasasthe Ampliaton) "Greet Ampliatus"; a common Roman slave name.

2) "My beloved in the Lord," (ton agapeton mou en kuriou) "Beloved of mine in (the) Master;" Paul had nothing but Christian relations to this man, 1 John 1:7.

Verse 9

1) "Salute Urbane, our helper in Christ," (aspasathe Ourbanon ton sunergon jemon en Christo) "Greet Urbanus the fellow-worker of us in Christ;" Urbane means "belonging to the city or polite;"

2) "And Stachys my beloved," (kai Stachun ton agapeton mou) "And Stachys my beloved," a dear brother in the Lord to Paul, as of so many other little known or of little fame as Christians, none like Stachys will be forgotten at the hour of just rewards, Revelation 22:12. The term Stachys means "an ear of corn."

Verse 10

1) "Salute Apelles, approved in Christ," (Aspasathe Apellen ton dokimon en Christon) "Greet Apelles (who is) approved in Christ," in what he is, says, and does. In some special way he had been tried and proved as, James 1:12; 2 Timothy 2:15.

2) "Salute them which are of Aristobulus’ household," (aspasasthe tous ek ton Aristoboulou) "Greet those of the family of Aristobulus," Christians of the household of Aristobulus, his family, relatives, and servants. It is believed that Aristobulus was the grandson of Herod the Great. The name means "excellent, counsellor, a person of distinction."

Verse 11

1) "Salute Herodian my kinsman," (apasathe Hrodiona ton sungena moui "Greet ye Herodian my kinsman among you," a relative of Paul, a Christian Jew, Romans 16:7; Romans 16:21.

2) "Greet them which be of the household of Narcissus," (aspasasthe tous ek ton Narkissou. tous) "Greet ye those of the family of Narcissus"; beyond which nothing is known in the New Testament.

3) "Which are in the Lord," (ontas en kurio) "Who are, or exist, in the Lord," who are new creatures in Christ Jesus, who belong to him, 2 Corinthians 5:17; Mark 9:41.

Verse 12

1) "Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa," (aspasasthe Truphainan kai Truphosan) "You all greet Tryphanena and Tryphosa", two Christian women in Rome, perhaps deaconesses in the church of good reputation, reports of whose labor had reached Paul. Tryphena means "delicate" and Tryphosa means "living Delicately."

2) "Who labour in the Lord," (tas kopiosas en kurio) "Those labouring in the Master"; in Christian service and whose names and good reports had come to Paul in reports from the church, Romans 1:8. These Christian women were also likely twin sisters.

3) "Salute the beloved Persis," (aspasasthe persida ten agapeten) "Greet Persis the beloved;" also perhaps a deaconess, a servant of the whole church, beloved by the church she primarily served.

4) "Which laboured much in the Lord," (hetis polla ekopiasen en kurio) "Who labored tediously, in many ways, in the Lord;" Ephesians 2:10; She was a "doer of the word," James 1:22.

Verse 13

1) "Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord," (aspasasthe Rouphon ton eklekton en kurio) "Greet ye (also) Rufus the called out, elected, or chosen in (the) Lord," called out to some special work, Ephesians 2:10; Matthew 5:15-16. He was a noble specimen or example of a Christian, Mark 15:21.

2) "And his mother and mine," (kai ten metera autou kai emou) "And his mother and mine, greet also," perhaps a spiritual mother of Israel. Where she had mothered Paul in his ministry is not known, but he acknowledges it with gratitude, Mark 10:30. Rufus was perhaps the Son of Simon the Cyrenian who was compelled to bear the cross of Jesus up to Calvary, Luke 23:26; Mark 15:21. And his Mother had once cared for Paul as her own son.

Verse 14

1 ) "Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon," (aspasasthe asugkriton, Phlegonta) "You all greet Asyncritus, Phlegon"; The former name means "incomparable," and the latter means "flaming."

2) "Hermas, Patrobas, Herme," (Hermen, Patroban, Herman) "Hermes, Patrobas, and Hermas"; Greet these five brethren; The name "Patrobas" means "one who treads or walks in his father’s steps".

3) "And the brethren which are with them," (kai tous sun autois adelphous) "As well as the brethren in colleague or close covenant with them"; the group it is indicated constituted a congregation or church in the area of Rome, from whom Paul had perhaps received special reports and support.

Verse 15

1) "Salute Philogus and Julia," (aspasasthe philologon kai loulian) "You all greet Philologus and Julia;" These were perhaps husband and wife or a brother and sister laboring in the same church. The name Philalogus means "lover of learning."

2) "Nereus, and his sister," (Nerea kai ten adelphen auton) "Nereus and his sister also;"

3) "And Olympus," (kai Olumpan) "And greet Olympus;- five named brothers and sisters in the Lord, all of whom may have been in the same family as well as in the church together.

4) "And all the saints which are with them," (kai tous sun autois pantas hagious) "And all the saints in close affinity or colleague with them"; This too appears to be another church or worshipping congregation in the area of Rome, to whom this letter is also addressed. Remember that the phrase "the saints" refers, not merely to children of God, but to a church, those who have engaged with others as baptized believers to carry on a program of worship and service for the Lord, among the Gentiles, Ephesians 4:10-12; Judges 1:3 or to devout Jewish believers committed to a program of Hebrew worship and service.

For if a saint or the saints were mere believers in Jesus Christ, and "the faith" was delivered to "the saints," then the believers universally would constitute the church, See? But it is not true! only saved baptised believers under covenant for fellowship, worship, and service to Christ, constitute the church. No sinner is made a saint by mere faith, trust or belief in Christ Jesus. It takes more to be a saint than merely being saved, Judges 1:3; Ephesians 4:10-16.

Verse 16

1) "Salute one another," (aspasathe allelous) "You all greet or salute one another, each other"; in the church at Rome, and sister churches of the area.

2) "With an holy kiss," (en philemati hagio) "in or with an holy, pure, or sanctified kiss"; a custom of Middle-East greeting of affections, even among unbelievers; and Christians should surely be no less affectionate or hospitable. The holy (sanctified) kiss was not to be a lingering kiss of lust. It was a Jewish sign of friendship, 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Samuel 20:9-10; Luke 7:45; 2 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 Peter 5:14.

3) "The churches of Christ salute you," (aspazontai humas hoi ekklesia pasai tou Christou) "All the churches (congregations or assemblies) of Christ greet you all;- The phrase "churches of Christ" denote congregations, assemblies, or covenant fellowships of baptized believers, saints who belonged to Christ. The phrase "churches of Christ", means the churches that belong to Christ, owned, by purchase of his own blood, Acts 20:28; Ephesians 5:25; Matthew 16:18.

Verse 17

1) "Now I beseech you all, brethren," (parakalo de humas, adelphoi) "Now I appeal to you all, brethren," call you alongside me for close council and fellowship.

2) "Mark them which cause divisions and offences," (skopein tous tas dichostasias kai ta skandola poiountas) "To watch those continually who cause or make divisions, parties, factions, and offences;" Wolves or jackals in sheep’s clothes, Matthew 7:15-20; 2 Peter 2:1. These are occasions of stumbling, an hindrance to any church. The Gk. term "skopein" means "keep your eye on" this kind of person as one to be avoided.

3) "Contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned," (para ten didochen hen humeis emathete) "Contrary to or in conflict with the teaching which you all learned;" Acts 20:29-30; 1 Timothy 1:19-20; 1 John 2:19. Such conduct if not disapproved, dis-fellowshipped, will cause the church and the name of Christ to be blasphemed, scandalized, or spoken against in a derogatory, hurtful manner, Romans 14:13; Romans 14:16.

4) "And avoid them," (kai ekklinete ap’ auton) "And turn away from them, avoid them, have no company or fellowship with them 2 John 1:9-11; Galatians 1:6-9; 1 Timothy 6:5; 2 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:14. Withdraw from their company or dismiss them from your congregation or fellowship number, 1 Corinthians 5:13.

Verse 18

1) "For they that are such," (hoi gar toioutoi) "Because those who are such persons," those who cause contention, divisions, factions, and offences contrary to the doctrines or teachings of Christ, which I delivered to you all; Luke 11:23; John 10:12.

2) "Serve not our Lord Jesus Christ," (to kurio hemon Christo ou douleuousin) "They do not serve our Lord Jesus Christ;" He that is not with (in harmony with) our Lord’s teachings, morally, ethically, doctrinally, is against them; There is no neutral ground with Divine sanction; 1 Corinthians 6:19-20; Ephesians 4:30-32; Matthew 12:30.

3) "But their own bellies," (alla te heauton kailia) "But, in contrast, they serve their own belly," their fleshly lusts for monetary physical pleasure, or as Judas Iscariot did, for monetary gain, Matthew 26:15.

4) "And by good words and fair speeches," (kai dia tes chrestologias kai eulogias) "And by means of fair and flattering speech;" misleading, deceptive smooth talk, pious talk, as Satan beguiled Eve; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 2 Peter 2:2-3; 2 Peter 2:15; Judges 1:4; Judges 1:11; Judges 1:16-19.

5) "Deceive the hearts of the simple," (eksapatosin tas kardias ton akakon) "They deceive the hearts of the guileless," those who are sincere and simple, they delude their listeners and followers who suspect no evil, Ephesians 4:14; Ephesians 5:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 John 3:7.

Verse 19

1) "For your obedience is come abroad unto all men," (he gar humon hupakoe eis pantas aphiketo) "For your obedience has or is come abroad to all men;" The reputation of the brethren of the church at Rome had spread throughout the Roman Empire, the then known World, Romans 1:8. Their obedience had been to Christ, not service to idolatry, as it was so widely practiced in that day, 1 Thessalonians 1:9.

2) “I am glad therefore on your behalf," (eph’ humin oun chairo) "I therefore rejoice over you," because of the good testimonies and reports of your obedience to Christ. He rejoiced with those who served God, Philippians 3:11; Philippians 4:4; Romans 12:15.

3) "But yet I would have you wise unto that which is good," (thelo de humas sophous einai eis to agathon) I sincerely desire that you all be wise with regards to the genuine, the morally and ethically good;" and doctrinally true and sound, 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Timothy 2:15; Ephesians 5:15.

4) "And simple concerning evil," (akeraious de eis to kakon) "Yet that you be simple (without guile) with reference to the morally and-ethically bad," and even the doctrinally deceitful, Ephesians 4:13-14; Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 14:20; Matthew 10:16.

Verse 20

1) "And the God of peace," (ho de theos tes eirenes) "Moreover the God of peace," the author of peace, from whom true and abiding peace emanates, the fountainhead of peace, 1 Corinthians 14:33; John 14:27. This is the God who loves and gives peace.

2) "Shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly," (suntripsei ton satanan hupo tous podas humon en tachei) "He will crush Satan under your feet (reign) soon"; 1 Corinthians 5:5; Revelation 20:10. He shall bring peace; may he bring peace, by crushing Satan himself under your feet, as you join your Master in the Holy War to victory over sin, 1 John 5:4; Genesis 3:15; Revelation 12:9-10; 2 Corinthians 11:14-15.

3) "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen," (he charis tou kuriou hemon lesou meth humon) "The grace of our Lord Jesus (be) with you all;" "So may it eternally be, or exist;" in company of or with all of you. May the favor and love and protection of Jesus Christ be with you all of the church at Rome, and to whom this letter comes beyond them, Romans 1:7-8; Romans 1:13-16.

Verse 21

1) "Timotheus my work fellow," (Timotheus ho sunergos) "Timothy who is my colleague-worker," an affinity-worker, one in intimate church mission labors with me; to him the books of 1, 2 Timothy were written, Acts 16:1; 1 Timothy 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 3:2.

a) "And Lucius," (kai Loukias) "And Lucius,"

b) "And Jason," (kai lason) "And Jason;" meaning "one who will heal," in whose home in Thessalonica Paul and Silas found refuge, Acts 17:5; Acts 17:9.

C) "And Sosipater," (kai Sosipatros) "And Sosipater," meaning "preservation of a father", perhaps the same as Sopater in Berea, Acts 20:4.

d) "My kinsmen," (hoi sungeneis mou) "Who are my family relatives," near family tie kinsmen. All converted Jews in company with Paul at Corinth.

2) "Salute you," (aspazomai humas) "greet you all;"

Verse 22

1 ) "I Tertius who wrote this epistle," (ego teritos ho graphas ten epistolen) "I Tertius, the one writing the (this letter)," or epistle, the penman for Paul in preparing the epistle sent to the Roman brethren, from Paul in Corinth; The name Teritus means "third"; nothing is known of him beyond that he penned this letter for Paul.

2) "Salute you in the Lord," (aspazomai humas en kurio) "Greet all of you in the Lord," who are in the Lord, on a common Christian experience ground with you all.

Verse 23

1) "Gaius mine host saluteth you," (gaios ho ksenos moui "Gaius who is my host greets you;" perhaps a church brother in whose home Paul stayed in Corinth on his second visit, while he wrote the book of Romans, and whom he baptized, 1 Corinthians 1:14; He may have been the same Gaius addressed by John, 3 John 1:1; 3 John 1:5-6. The name also appears Acts 19:29; Acts 20:4.

2) "And of the whole church," (kai holes tes ekklesias) "And the whole assembly, all the church," also sends greetings; as well as all the church send greetings. He had stayed in Aquilla’s home on his first visit, Acts 18:3.

3) "Erastus the chamberlain of the city saluteth you," (Erastos ho oikonomos tes poleos) "Erastus who is the treasurer of the city (of Corinth) greets you all;" he too had heard of their faith, Romans 1:8; Acts 19:22; 2 Timothy 4:20. The term Erastus means "amiable".

4) "And Quartus a brother," (kai kouartos ho adelphos) "And Quartus who is his brother," salutes you all as well. The name Quartus means "fourth."


A man characterized by a single virtue. It is noteworthy that most of the saints immortalized in this chapter have just one distinguishing mark. Doubtless they were not wanting in other qualities necessary to the symmetry of Christian character, but one excellence seems to be prominent. It is better to use one talent well than to neglect or imperfectly employ five talents. One ripe apple on a bough is worth more than twenty green ones. Many Christians richly endowed are far less useful than those more poorly furnished, but who do what they can with all their might. Gaius may have been no eloquent preacher, no sagacious administrator, no zealous evangelist; but his means enabled him to dispense hospitality and he did this well.

-J. W. Burn

Verse 24

1 ) "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ," This verse is omitted from the R.V., Nestle and many of the older manuscripts. Yet it is the nature of salutation so frequently used by Paul.

2) "Be with you all. Amen," With all the church that was located in Rome, and other congregations in that area as well.

Verse 25

1) "Now to him that is of power to stablish you," (to de dunameno humas steriksai) "Now to the one who is dynamic (well able) to establish you all;" Judges 1:24; Hebrews 7:25; Psalms 40:1-3; 1 Corinthians 3:10-15; 2 Thessalonians 3:3.

2) "According to my gospel” (kata to evangellion mou) "In harmony with my gospel," my good news or the gospel message I bear, 1 Corinthians 1:17; 1 Corinthians 15:1-4, as I have taught it, 1 Thessalonians 2:16-17; 1 Thessalonians 3:13.

3) "And the preaching of Jesus Christ," (kai to kerugma lesou Christou) "and the proclamations, heralding, or preaching of Jesus Christ;" 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 2:1-2; Romans 1:14-16.

4) "According to the revelation of the mystery," (kata apokalupsin musteriou) "And the unveiling, uncovering, revealing, or disclosing of the mystery;- The mystery is the Revelation that the church, called from among the Gentiles as a people for his name’s sake should be custodian of his redemption message and center of acceptable worship always, Matthew 13:1-58; Ephesians 1:8-11; Ephesians 3:3-11; Ephesians 3:21.

5) "Which was kept secret since the World began," (chronois aioniois sesigemenou) "Which in times eternal -was kept silent," or in times back into eternity was not clearly disclosed, or understood, even by the prophets who prophesied regarding it, Daniel 2:44; Zechariah 13:7; Matthew 26:31-32; Luke 12:32; Luke 22:28-30.

Verse 26

1) "But now is made manifest," (phanerothentes de nun) "Yet now and forever hereafter, it has been disclosed or made manifest;" Matthew 16:18; John 15:16; Matthew 28:18-20; John 20:21; Acts 1:8; 2 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:2-3; Acts 3:18.

2) "And by the scriptures of the prophets," (dia te graphon prophetikon) "Even through writings of prophetic disclosures"; 1 Corinthians 2:7-16; Matthew 13:52; 1 Corinthians 10:32.

3) "According to the commandment of the everlasting God," (kat’ epita - on tou aionou theou) "According to or in harmony with a command or order of the eternal God," for its manifestation or disclosure; no more are Jews and Gentiles separated in Divine worship and service by a middle wall of partition. All responsible people of all races have free access to the Father in worship and service, thru the church, Ephesians 2:14; Ephesians 2:19-22; Ephesians 3:3-11; Ephesians 3:21.

4) "Made known to all nations," (eis papta ta ethne gnoristhentos) "Having been now and hereafter made known to or toward (disclosed for) all the nations," of the world, Jews as well as Gentiles, Ephesians 3:9-10; Mark 16:15; Acts 1:8; Luke 24:46-52.

5) "For the obedience of faith," (eis hupakoen pisteos) "With view to obedience of faith," of faith nature, an obedience of service befitting a grace beneficiary of the gospel of Jesus Christ and God’s Grace. The saved, all who trust in Christ, have access by baptism into the church body, fellowship of worship, and service; after baptism one is to walk and worship in the spirit in the newness of life, unto Christ, in his church; Ephesians 2:10; Ephesians 3:21; Romans 6:4-5; Galatians 5:25.

Verse 27

1) "To God only wise " (mono sopho theo) "To or toward (the) only wise God;" All others are deaf, dumb, blind, insensitive, helpless, Psalms 115:1-8; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 3:8-12; 1 Timothy 1:17; Judges 1:25.

2) "Be glory forever," (ho he doksa eis tous aionas ton aionon. Amen). "To or toward him (is) the glory into the ages of the ages, without end or cessation"; Let it be in and thru the church, Matthew 16:18; Ephesians 3:21; Revelation 5:9-13. Let eternal praise be ascribed to him for everlasting salvation by Grace and the establishment of his church as a media of worship service, and praise forever, Ephesians 3:21; Revelation 19:5-9.

3) "Through Jesus Christ," (dia lesou Christou) "Thru the person, instrument, media, and agency of Jesus Christ," and his church, Galatians 6:14; Ephesians 3:21; John 8:12; Colossians 3:17; 1 Corinthians 8:6. See similar doxologies by Paul. Galatians 1:15; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21.

Bibliographical Information
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Romans 16". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/ghb/romans-16.html. 1985.
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