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Bible Commentaries

Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal and Homiletical

2 Timothy 4

Verses 1-8

VIII
Solemn concluding exhortation to Timothy to fidelity in his work, strengthened by the prophetic announcement of the approaching decease of the Apostle
4:1–8

1I charge thee therefore1 before God, and the Lord2 Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at3 [and I charge thee by]4 his appearing and his kingdom: [,] 2Preach the word; [,]5 be instant in season, out of season; [,] reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doctrine.6 3For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; [,] but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,7 having itching ears; [,] 4And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables.8 5But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry. 6For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. 7I have fought a [the] good fight, I have finished my [the] course, I have kept the faith: 8Henceforth there is laid up for me a [the] crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall [will] give me at that day: [,] and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL

2 Timothy 4:1. I charge (thee), &c. The Apostle evidently is hastening to the end, and recapitulates once more, in few words, all his previous admonitions. Διαμαρτύρομαι; the same solemn injunction occurs in 1 Timothy 5:21; 1 Timothy 6:13.—Before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, ἐνώπιον; so that both, as invisible witnesses, were considered personally present.—Who shall judge the quick and the dead, refers directly to Jesus Christ, who stands already prepared to appear as Judge. Nothing is more fitted to fill the mind with lofty fervor, than the thought of the accounting which shall be made once before His judgment-seat. The quick, are they who shall be alive at the Parousia; but then, suddenly, in the twinkling of an eye, shall be changed (1 Corinthians 15:51-52). The dead, on the other hand, are they who have fallen asleep before the return of the Lord, and then shall be awakened (comp. John 5:27-29).—And (declare) his appearing and his kingdom. Were the reading of the Recepta, κατὰ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν, correct, we should be compelled to consider these words as the fixing of the time for the κρίνειν; but external and internal grounds combine here to give the preference to the καί. [“This restoration of καί is a happy one. It indicates that the Apostle has a clear view of Christ’s coming and of His kingdom, and by a noble prosopopæia appeals to them as witnesses: ‘I conjure thee in the sight of God, and the future Judge of all, by His coming and His kingdom.’ This mode of speech had been suggested by the Hebrew Scriptures, especially in the LXX Version (Deuteronomy 4:26), where Moses calls heaven and earth to witness: Διαμαρτύρομαι ὑμῖν σήμερον τὸν τέ οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν. See also Deuteronomy 30:19; Deuteronomy 31:28, where this phrase introduces solemn appeals to the elements as God’s witnesses of His dealings with His people, and as remembrances of their duties to Him;” Wordsworth, in loco.—E. H.] (See Tischendorf on the place.) Διαμαρτύρ. must also be repeated once more, and the following accusative, τἠν ἐπιφάνειαν, not be regarded as the witness before whom the solemn “charging” takes place (De Wette), but as the object which is “charged” solemnly. [“I adjure thee before God, and Jesus Christ, who is about to judge the living and the dead; I adjure thee by His appearing and His kingdom,” &c.; Conybeare and Howson.—E. H.] Whilst the Apostle declares by it that he has also in view the return and the kingdom of Christ expressly, he imparts a lofty emphasis to his succeeding admonition. The appearing (ἐπιφάνεια) of Christ (comp. 1 Timothy 6:14) is His last coming in glory, in contrast with His first appearance on earth in the form of a servant, the kingdom, βασιλεία, which He will consequently reveal and set up.

2 Timothy 4:2. Preach the word, &c. Κηρύσσειν signifies a loud and open proclaiming, like that of the κῆρυξ who announces the approach of his king (for the contrast, see Isaiah 56:10). The word; viz., of the gospel, in its whole compass, without taking away or thrusting into the background any part of it.—Be instant [therewith] (Vulg.: insta), in season, out of season, εὐκαίρως, ἀκαίρως. Proverbial mode of expression, which means that Timothy should always declare the word of God where it was not made impossible for him, naturally or morally. For various examples of like juxtapositon, in Greek and Roman writers, see Bengel on this place. For the rest, what concerns the exhortation itself, it is obvious that it must be interpreted cum grano salis, and find its natural limitation in the Lord’s own command (Matthew 7:6). Timothy should fulfil his calling, not indeed when the time was so inopportune that they could receive no benefit, but when to himself it might be inconvenient. “For the truth, it is ever the fitting time; who waits until circumstances completely favor his undertaking, will never accomplish anything, but will remain in inactivity;” Huther. In the verbs here following, the separate parts of the public ministry thus enjoined are set forth: Reprove, ἔλεγξον; convince, set right, blame, not only what manifests an heretical character, but, in general, whatsoever is not according to the word and will of the Lord.—Rebuke, ἐπιτίμησον; somewhat stronger than the foregoing—blame, with expression of repugnance (comp. Judges 9:0).—Exhort, παρακάλεσον; speak to, so, however, that it be neither impatiently vehement, nor without proper insight, but rather ἐν πάση μακροθυμίᾳ, καὶ διδαχῇ, no hendiadys, but a reference to the frame of mind and form in which the admonition should be given. It must be imparted with the greatest gentleness, and at the same time so directed that it shall actually communicate instruction. For the rest, in the εὐκαίρως ἀκαίρως, the statement of Beza in particular deserves mention: “Nempe quod ad carnis prudentiam pertinet, nam alioqui requiritur sanctæ prudentiæ spiritus, captans occasiones ad ædificationem opportunas.”

2 Timothy 4:3. For the time will come. The exhortation is strengthened here also by reference to a disturbed future, the more definite relations of which are fully designated in 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 3:1, and of which the germs are already existing. Bengel, in so far correctly: “Aderit et jam est.”—When they will not endure sound doctrine. To an idle and wicked minister, this would serve as an excuse for silence; to Timothy it would serve so much more as a reason for speaking in order to proclaim the truth. By this ὑγιαινούσης διδασκαλίας is to be understood, moreover, as in Titus 2:1, and elsewhere, the original apostolic doctrine which is founded upon the facts of redemption and tends to godliness, over against the abstract and unfruitful controversies of the false teachers. All who cannot endure this (οὐκ ), manifest thereby an inward disinclination, which results from the secret collision of their own sentiment with the substance and claims of sound doctrine. The natural sequence of this antipathy is stated immediately after: But after … Shall they heap.Ἑπισωρεύειν, ἅπαξ λεγόμ. To heap up, abundantly provide (Luther: “To load themselves with”). Although the idea of a load, which they thus burden themselves with, is not expressed precisely, yet the contemptible and objectionable trait of their whole striving and working is here plainly enough signified. Their own lusts (ἴδιαι emphatic), which direct them in this, stand in direct opposition to the demands of the word of God to which they were bound to submit. It is less, in itself considered, the large number of teachers chosen in this way, than the ceaseless change which pleases these men, and for which they crave. The innermost motive is expressed in the words: Having itching ears, κνηθόμενοι τὴν ; strictly, while they are tickled in hearing (κνηθ. passive); i.e., while they wish to hear what pleasantly tickles the ear. We find a striking parallel to the description of these men in the portraiture of the contemporaries of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 33:30-33). Paul brings to the notice of Timothy as well the reason why they heap up their own teachers, as also the standard which they apply in the choice of them.

2 Timothy 4:4. And they shall turn away, &c. It is the eternal punishment of him who departs from the apostolic witnesses, that he loses himself in the whirlpool of manifold errors. Whosoever will not listen to what is true, but only to what is pleasant, will, at last, wholly abandon himself to silly fantastic chimeras.—Shall be turned unto fables. The familiar μῦθοι of the false teachers (see upon 1 Timothy 4:7). In general opposition to the ἀλήθεια, we are to understand not only fables in the peculiar sense of the term, but all those expressions of their own wisdom, without the light of heavenly truth, which we have learned to recognize as without ground historically, untenable doctrinally, and without aim or uses practically.

2 Timothy 4:5. But watch thou, &c., νῆφε; i.e., not only watchful, in opposition to those who are sunken in spiritual death-sleep, but sober, in opposition to the condition of spiritual drunkenness in which they find themselves who are described in 2 Timothy 4:3-4. They can be overcome only when one, over against their exaggeration and self-will, keeps and well looks to the greatest possible caution and clearness of spirit, that one be not one’s self entrapped.—Endure afflictions, κακοπάθησον (comp. 2Ti 1:8; 2 Timothy 2:3; 2 Timothy 2:9).—Do the work of an evangelist. Here also ἔργον, to signify that Timothy had not merely to maintain a dignity, but to fulfil likewise a weighty task. Of evangelists generally, see Acts 21:8; Ephesians 4:11. When Paul exhorts Timothy to pursue zealously the work of an evangelist, we understand that to be fully against the thing in his apprehension (2 Timothy 4:4ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς μύθους ἐκτραπήσονται). Against myths, nothing is more effectual than the clear testimonies of history.—Make full proof of thy ministry, πληροφόρησον; i.e., so exercise it that thou duly give attention to all its parts. The full measure of an efficiency is signified to which not the least thing should be wanting. The Dutch translation less correct: Work that one may be fully assured of thy ministry. So also Beza: “Veris argumentis comproba, te germanum esse Dei ministrum.” Not upon the proof, but upon the perfectness of the ministry, does the Apostle here decidedly insist. In a certain respect, we can say that this one sentence is the summing up of all his exhortations in this and in the previous Epistle. In 2 Timothy 4:6-8, this exhortation is farther strengthened by the announcement of his own approaching end.

2 Timothy 4:6. For I am now ready to be offered, σπένδομαι (comp. Philippians 2:17). I am about to be poured out as a drink-offering; i.e., not (Heydenreich), I am about to be consecrated to a victim’s death, or (Wahl) sensu medio: I bring my blood for sacrifice; and much less still does it signify the ceasing of the apostolic work of Paul (Otto), but with unmistakable allusion to his death. I am about to be offered as a libation; my blood is to be shed as a drink-offering. So certainly is he convinced of the near approach of his death, that he beholds it in spirit as actually present, and in his affliction recognizes its beginning. In a most significant way he compares his own martyr-death not with a sacrifice proper or a burnt-offering, but with a drink-offering (Numbers 15:1-10), of a little wine and oil which is added like a supplement, and thus connects his dying for the truth with the sacrificial death of the one only μάρτυς (comp. 1 Timothy 6:13; Colossians 1:24). Like the Lord (John 12:24), so also he represents his violent death under a gentle, lovely figure; and the repose with which he speaks, shows sufficiently how little he feared the approach of the fatal hour.—And the time of my departure is at hand (not, “is present;” Luther); in other words, the time of my death, now long foreseen, is to be expected. Ἀνάλυσις = discessus (comp. Philippians 1:25). Not derived from banquets, where those who went away were called ἀναλύοντες (as some will, in order to bring this figure into connection with the preceding), which would be extremely forced, but rather from the loosing of anchor and rope, by which the ship is impeded in steering to the place of destination [“καιρὸς is the season of loosing the cable from this earthly shore, on a voyage to the eternal harbor of heavenly peace;” Wordsworth, in loco.—E. H.] Now, after the Apostle has reached this point, he looks back yet once more (2 Timothy 4:7), and then (2 Timothy 4:8) hopefully forward.

2 Timothy 4:7. I have fought the good fight. The one figure supplants the other. Yet once more the especially favorite comparison of his life with a battle comes into the foreground; a comparison which we have met before (1 Corinthians 9:24-27), and which occurs oftener in the Epistles to Timothy (1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 2:4). Now, in his own feeling, he stands at the end of the conflict (ἠγώνισμαι, perfect), and expresses his meaning in the following words, still more explicitly: I have finished my course, τὸν δρόμον τετέλεκα. He compares his agitated apostolic life with a race, which is completed only now, when, having arrived at the goal of his ministry, he sees death before his eyes (comp. Acts 20:24; Philippians 3:12-14).—I have kept the faith, τὴν πίστιν τετηρήκα; namely, the faith in Christ, in spite of all temptation to unfaithfulness. Of course, it is possible (Heydenreich) that even here the figurative mode of address is still continued, and that πίστις also signifies literally the fidelity in the fulfilment of the vow which, in the undertaking of a combat and race, was wont to be made to the judge, viz., that one would submit one’s self entirely to the rules of the strife. In the following verses, also, the figurative mode of address still continues. On the other hand, however, it is simpler and safer to preserve here also the unvarying signification of πίστις, and to consider the faith as a trust for which Paul had cared honestly, so that he had lost nothing out of his hands (comp. 2 Timothy 1:12). Bengel: “Res bis per metaphoram expressa nunc tertio loco exprimitur proprie.”

2 Timothy 4:8. Henceforth there is laid up, &c. The Apostle had begun with a steadfast gaze upon his death; he now concludes, looking beyond death and the grave. Ἀπόκειταί μοι; the prize is laid up for me; it is there already for me, and cannot possibly escape me (comp. Colossians 1:5; 1 Peter 1:4).—The crown of righteousness; the crown of victory, as for the winner in the race. The crown of righteousness is not the crown deservedly merited, but entirely like that of life or of glory, which consists therein that one become actually full partaker of the δικαιοσύνη; i.e., of the righteousness which is by faith.—Which the Lord—Jesus Christ, the rewarder—the righteous judge—clearly a contrast with the unrighteous, worldly judge, by whose sentence he was about now to be put to death—shall give meἀποδώσει, shall present to me publicly—at that day. The Apostle refers to the day of the last personal Parousia of the Lord, whom now he no longer hoped to live to see on earth, while the interval between his death and that moment is rolled up into a minimum.—And not to me only (sc. will He give it), but unto all them also that love his appearing.Ἐπιφάνεια, here, as in Titus 2:13; 1 Timothy 6:14, of his second appearing, which is represented as the object of the longing desire of all the faithful (comp. Romans 8:23). A pregnant hint for Timothy, at the same time, that he too might obtain the crown, yet only when if, like Paul, he would persevere faithfully in his course; and likewise also an indirect encouragement to a strict following of all the admonitions which had been previously given to him. (Upon the perfect ἠγαπ. as a continuing condition, see Winer, p. 244.)

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL

1. “Tametsi nunc regnat Christus in cælo et in terra, nondum tamen constat clara regni ejus manifestatio, quia potius et sub cruce latet obscurum et violenter ab hostibus oppugnatur. Ergo tum vere stabilietur ejus regnum, quum, prostratis inimicis et omni adversaria potestate vel sublata vel in nihilum redacta, suam majestatem proferet;” Calvin.

2. Noticeable also in a psychological view is the stress which Paul, just towards the end of his life, lays upon the promoting of Christian gentleness. He himself, in these two Epistles, gives many examples of it, and stands before us here as a John the Baptist, who, gradually, is glorified entirely into a John the Evangelist. In the more recent history of the Church, also, men are not wanting who, without sacrificing any one essential principle, any one sacred conviction, have gradually become gentler and more tender-hearted; e.g., Adolphe Monod.

3. The obligation to fulfil, in all particulars, the office of an evangelist, in widely extended and large congregations especially, is so vast, that assuredly the question arises with many among us, in 2 Corinthians 2:16. Hence, the correctness generally of the non omnia possumus omnes must be recognized also in this sphere; and it is to be much deplored, that it be demanded of so many a clergyman to be at the game time preacher, pastor, and catechist, not to mention once the continued study of theology as science, or ecclesiastical administration. By a more equal distribution of the work, especially in a field where many colleagues co-operate, we might be able to remedy many evils, if attention only were directed especially to each particular character. But as matters now stand, that of every one strictly everything is required, it is best to ascertain, by conscientious self-examination, which is our strong and which our weak side, and then, while we neglect entirely no department of the ministry, to devote ourselves for the most part to that branch to which we feel ourselves, outwardly and inwardly, most strongly called.

4. The cry of victory with which Paul greets his approaching end, has always justly been considered one of the noblest proofs of his true apostolic greatness. It is marvellous criticism, to which the feeling effusion of his heart, in 2 Timothy 4:6-8, appears contradictory, either with the representation of his doctrine of grace elsewhere (De Wette), or with the humility which he displays in other places; e.g., 1 Corinthians 4:3; Philippians 3:12-14 (Baur). Whosoever is sufficiently unpartisan to wish to see, will readily perceive that Paul expects no other reward than that which is accorded to him of grace; and that the glory of his hope, far from ending in himself, pre supposes and requires the deepest humility; which, e.g., 1 Timothy 1:16 has expressed. In a comparison of this language with his earlier statements, we must not forget, moreover, that we have here his latest account of his hope for eternity, wherein all other tones of the symphony are blended in the loftiest and most beautiful, viz., in that of the assurance of hope. Here also the word, so often forgotten, applies: Distingue tempora, et concordabit scriptura.

5. The expectation which faith of and for the Parousia of the Lord must cherish, is, in so far as the chief subject-matter is concerned, unalterably the same as in the days of Paul, although the general expectation, in the apostolic age, of a speedy return, has not been realized in that form.

6. The affectionate longing for the appearing of the Lord in glory, presupposes a high degree of spiritual life; and, on the other side, is admirably fitted to nourish, to perfect, to purify that life.

HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL

The Christian fidelity of Timothy in his sacred calling strengthened by a glance: (1) At the advent of the Lord; (2) at the increasing corruption of the times; (3) at the approaching end of Paul.—The Saviour of the world is at the same time ordained to be its Judge.—The connection of the individual judgment, directly at and after death, with the universal world-judgment at the end of the ages.—The coming again of Jesus the complete manifestation of His kingly glory.—The union of earnestness and love in the right-minded servant of Christ.—To contend is sometimes, to be gentle is always necessary.—Ebb and flow in public sympathy for sound doctrine.—Church-going from idle curiosity over against that for true desire of good.—The opposition to evangelical truth (2 Timothy 4:3-4): (1) Its signs; (2) its sources; (3) its consequences.—The unworthy strife for human applause upon the part of the preacher of the gospel.—“Preach so that thou mayest please God.”—The true Christian sobriety in the minister of the gospel.—Suffering and striving heroism intimately united together.—The true Christian fidelity in office: (1) True, in the greatest matters as in the smallest; (2) true, in the consciousness of a holy calling.—Paul at the close of his life.—The retrospect glance and the look into the future of the great Apostle, at the end of his life.—The τετέληκα of Paul a fruit of the τετέλεσται of Jesus.—The dying strains of the departing ambassador of the cross.—The similarity and the diversity between the departure of Paul and the departure of Moses.—The greatness of Paul in his farewell to life. He stands here before us: (1) As a prisoner, who expects his release; (2) as a combatant, who surveys the strife; (3) as a victor, who awaits his crowning; (4) as an ally, who encourages his comrades.—The Christian according to the chief particulars: (1) Placed on the same battle-ground; (2) assured of the same victory; (3) called to the same crown; (4) filled with the same peace, as the great Apostle of the heathen.—The farewell of Paul a manifestation of the power of his faith, his hope, his love.—The death of the Christian a gentle release.—How much one can lose in case of necessity if one only keep the faith.—The connection between the doctrine of free grace and of just reward.—The crowning festival of eternity: (1) The judge; (2) those crowned; (3) the feast of joy.—The Christian longing after the advent of the Lord: (1) How high it rises; (2) how suitable it is; (3) how richly it pays.—Each true disciple of Christ has in his nature somewhat apocalyptic.—Even in heaven loneliness will be no blessedness.

Starke: Cramer: The office of correction must be guided by discretion.—Osiander: a preacher must transform himself in sundry ways, as it were, now to rebuke earnestly, again to admonish kindly and gently.—Cramer: The naughtiness of human nature is so great, that it will only hearken to what is new; therefore the old truth is crushed out, and falsehood established.—Starke: Preachers are placed by God as watchmen, therefore must they hold faithful watch of the congregations over which they are placed.—Langii Op.: Every upright preacher must be an evangelist.—God still yet grants to many souls the especial grace to see beforehand certainly and to speak of the time of their death, which contributes so much the more to a better preparation for it; yet no one must depend upon that, nor expect it, but hold himself in readiness at all times for a blessed departure.—Cramer: A Christian knight must (as the ancients have remarked) have three hearts: a Job’s heart, for patience in affliction (1 Peter 4:1); a Jacob’s heart, for perseverance in prayer (Gen. 32:37); a David’s heart, for joyful ness and trust in God (Psalms 18:30).—It is no sin to say, in simplicity, what is best of one’s self (2 Corinthians 11:18).—Langii Op.: Patience, pious cross-bearer! in a little while thou becomest a crown-bearer.—Here, comfort and joy!—God will crown and glorify not only the great saints, but all likewise, provided they do but continue in faith.

Heubner: The spirit of the time, the prevailing taste, should not be at all the rule for the preacher; he should rather resist the spirit of the time, which for the most part is perverse.—Preachers should take for themselves an example in the prophets of the Old Covenant, who spake the truth freely to high and low.—The choice of teachers, according to what is it to be regulated?—Gloria sequentem fugit, fugientem sequitur.—Rash and incautious ways bring about sore mortifications.—Preaching only can avail for a complete fulfilling of the evangelical ministry.—The life of a true minister of God is a perpetual sacrifice, a giving up of himself.—The joyful looking forth upon death is the effect of a godly life.—The worth of a life rich in deeds.—For the true champion, death is a victory.—The expectation at death should strengthen for the battle and the race.

Rieger (2 Timothy 4:7-8): How the end of Christianity is better than its beginning: (1) The beginning is good; (2) the continuation is better; (3) constancy to the last best of all.—Lisco: The retrospect of a faithful pastor over his course.—The prospect of the believer in eternity.—The true minister, and his reward.

N. B.

2 Timothy 4:6-8 appropriate especially for funerals, as also for funeral addresses, but not indeed for every one.

Footnotes:

2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 4:1.—The οὖν of the Recepta to be omitted. See Tischendorf on the place. [So, too, with ἐγώ.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 4:1.—τοῦ κυρίου of the Recepta. A. C. D.1 F. G., Cod. Sin. 31, 37, and others, are against it.

2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 4:1.—With Tischendorf, we read καί, instead of the κατά of the Recepta.

2 Timothy 4:2; 2 Timothy 4:2.—[Vulg.: Insta oportune importune.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:2; 2 Timothy 4:2.—[Cod. Sin., παρακ. ἐπιτίμη; so G., Orig.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:3; 2 Timothy 4:3.—[The reading of the Recepta, τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τὰς , is relinquished universally now. The true reading doubtless is, κατὰ τὰς ἰδίας ἐπιθυμίας; A. C. D.,1 and others; Griesbach, Tischendorf, Lachmann, Wordsworth, Cod. Sin.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:6; 2 Timothy 4:6.—[Lachmann reads τῆς , and so the Cod. Sin., instead of the τ. ἐμῆς ὰυαλ. of the Recepta, which is followed by Tischendorf.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:7; 2 Timothy 4:7.—[τὸν , Recepta. Lachmann, Cod. Sin., τ. καλὸν . Tischendorf and Wordsworth adhere to the Recepta.—E. H.]

Verses 9-22

IX
Last Wishes, Directions, and Salutations
4:9–22

9Do thy diligence to come shortly after me: 10For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; [,]Crescens to Galatia,9 Titus unto Dalmatia. 11Only Luke is with me. Take Mark , 12 and bring10 him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry. AndTychicus I have sent to Ephesus. 13The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee and the books, but especially the parchments.14Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil [laid many evil charges against15me]; the Lord reward11 [will reward?] him according to his12 works: Of whombe thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood13 our words. 16At my first answer no man stood with me,14 but all men forsook me: I pray God that itmay not be laid to their charge. 17Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear15 and I was delivered out of the mouth of the 18lion. And16 the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

19, 20Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick. 21Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren. 22The Lord Jesus17 Christ be with thy spirit Grace be with you. Amen.18

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL

2 Timothy 4:9. Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me. After the glance into future glory, the eye of the Apostle reverts once more to the present, with its comparatively petty cares and concerns. He has yet a great number of little commissions and wishes as a last testament, which meanwhile open to us a deep insight into the heart of the testator. First, he desires to see Timothy with him (comp. 2 Timothy 1:4; 2 Timothy 4:21). Perhaps Tychicus had already (2 Timothy 4:12) conveyed to him the same wish. The occasion of this was in the absence of so many who had been at Rome, but who had now gone away (2 Timothy 4:10). It is a genuine human feeling in the Apostle which awakens his desire to have near him, at the approach of the last conflict, his best-beloved friends. The Lord himself had likewise expressed the same need (Matthew 26:38).

2 Timothy 4:10. For Demas hath forsaken me. Literally, left in the lurch (comp. 2 Timothy 4:16 and 2 Corinthians 4:9). The aorist participle ἀγαπήσας gives the reason of the apparently strange conduct, but contains also, at the same time, an indirect warning to Timothy.—Having loved this present world, τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα; i.e., the earthly, visible world, with its good things, in opposition to the invisible, still future kingdom of Christ, which was the object of the highest love of Paul, and for the sake of which he endured willingly the heaviest affliction.—And is departed unto Thessalonica. According to some, to carry on trade there; according to others, because it was his native town. According to Colossians 4:14; Phil. 24, he was with the Apostle as colaborer at the time of his first imprisonment, and seems also to have accompanied him again just after his release. But now the prospect of the approaching death of Paul appears to have awakened in him again the desire of earthly comfort. According to the tradition (Dorotheus, Synopt.), he became an idol’s-priest in Thessalonica; which, however, is not very probable. The text, at least, gives no sort of occasion for supposing an immediate falling away from Christianity. It could not have been difficult, moreover, for men like Demas to hold on to their easy Christianity in such way that they ran no risk either of being troubled by persecution, or of being compelled to offer too great sacrifice.—Crescens—otherwise wholly unknown—to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia (comp. Romans 15:19), a province of Roman Illyricum, on the Adriatic, southerly of Liburnia (see Winer, Real Wört., on this place). It may be that these last journeys were made in consequence of an apostolic order, at least with Paul’s knowledge and approval. From the brevity of the expression, it is not possible to determine anything here with certainty.

2 Timothy 4:11. Only Luke is with me. Assuredly no other than the author of the gospel, and of the Acts of the Apostles (comp. Colossians 4:14; Phil. 24.). The question (De Wette) where Aristarchus was then, disappears when we distinguish correctly between the Apostle’s companions during his first and his second imprisonment. “The Apostle’s helpers did not come to him at Rome to remain with him, but to depart again from him, and execute his orders;” Otto.—Take Mark, and bring him with thee. He also, according to Colossians 4:10, had been with Paul at Rome during the first imprisonment: where he was then, is unknown; probably near Timothy. According to the almost generally received view, we have here John Mark, who formerly (Acts 13:13) had not shown enough constancy, and upon this account was thought by Paul to be unfit to accompany him upon his second journey, but afterwards, not only in the estimation of Barnabas, but of Paul also, had shown himself far more trustworthy, so that now his presence has become properly more desirable to the Apostle than that of others.—For he is profitable to me for the ministry, εἰς διακονίαν. The absence of the article must not be disregarded. The ministering of the gospel in general is not meant here, but service to be done personally to Paul (πρεσβύτης, Phil. 9); certainly in his high calling, in so far as he could carry this on in prison.

2 Timothy 4:12. And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus. Tychicus, co-worker with Paul (comp. Acts 20:5; Titus 3:12). According to Colossians 4:7; Ephesians 6:21, during Paul’s first imprisonment at Rome, a commission to Ephesus was entrusted to him, which must have been distinct from this. That Tychicus was the bearer of the Epistle before us (Wieseler), we consider not probable; rather, we might conjecture that he was sent by Paul to Ephesus in advance of the latter, to take the place of Timothy during his absence, so that the latter could leave his post for an indefinite time, all the more easily, according to the wish of the Apostle, and betake himself as soon as possible to Rome. Other conjectures see in De Wette.

2 Timothy 4:13. The cloke that I left … bring (with thee). Τὸν φελόνην (according to other MSS, (φαιλώνην, φαιλόνην, φελώνην), pænulam. According to some interpreters, a travelling cloak in the strict sense of the term; according to others, a portmanteau, portfolio, bookcase. The grammatical grounds for both views are about equal. Against the first, it is urged that it is not probable Paul would have left behind a travelling cloak at the outset, or during the progress of a missionary journey; against the second, that he means especially the βιβλία. Besides (Calvin): “Quæret hic quispiam, quid sibi velit Paulus vestem petendo, si mortem sibi instare sentiebat. Hæc quoque difficultas me movet, ut de arcana accipiam,” although he adds, by way of precaution: “Potuit tamen aliquis esse tunc usus vestis, qui hodie nos latet” If Paul hoped to live through the winter (2 Timothy 4:21), it could well be that such an article of clothing might be wished for. [Is it not true in fact, and psychologically worth noting, that even when men know they must die soon, and are entirely resigned to death, nevertheless they frequently speak of things, and of their affairs, as if they expected life to move on as usual? And is not this the true solution of St. Paul’s words in this passage, which have moved not only the great Calvin, but many lesser lights and plain people?—E. H.] Of more moment is the account that he had left the φελόνηνwith Carpus (beyond this not known), at Troas. It is very improbable that the same sojourn at Troas is here meant of which there is mention in Acts 20:6, since this happened years before, and the effects here named could readily have been conveyed upon the ship in which they were then carried from Troas to Assos (2 Timothy 4:13). Paul, consequently, must have been once again at Troas, later; and here, consequently, we have a new proof of the probability of a second imprisonment.—And the books; uncertain whether sacred or secular writings, which were written upon papyrus (but) especially the parchments, μάλιστα τὰς μεμβράνας; naturally, written parchments, the content of which was dear to him; since unwritten parchment was readily enough to be obtained in Rome.

2 Timothy 4:14. Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil. [“ἐνεδείξατο=fecit publicè;” Wordsworth. The same writer thinks the Apostle is speaking here not of the first law-suit at Rome, “but of some more recent peril in Asia.”—E. H.] Wherefore, we cannot believe this to have been the same Alexander mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:20 (see upon this place). Were he the same mentioned in Acts 19:33, we might conjecture that he had been summoned to Rome in the matter of Paul’s law-suit, that in his first apology (2 Timothy 4:15) had appeared against him, and now had returned again to Ephesus, in the immediate neighborhood of Timothy (Wieseler). Other opinions see in De Wette upon this place. In any event, the bitter mortification experienced by Paul at his hands must have been of formidable, serious sort, and consisted in a withstanding (contradiction) of his words (2 Timothy 4:16).—The Lord reward him according to his works, ἀποδώ. The effort to free the Apostle here from the appearance of excessive harshness, has given occasion to an alteration of the reading. A. C. D.1 E. P. G., as well as many translators and church-fathers, read ἀποδώσει, the Lord will requite him according to his works. How weighty soever this number of witnesses be, observation has justly called forth some complaint nevertheless that there has been here designedly a softening of the sense of the word, so that the Recepta in the end, has more inner probability. The Apostle utters here no vindictive judgment, but an imprecation which springs from his Christian feeling for right and righteousness, where, under no circumstances, must it be forgotten that he has to deal, not with a personal enemy, but with an opponent of his word (2 Timothy 4:15), and of the cause of the gospel, as in Acts 13:9-10.

2 Timothy 4:15. Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our words. The soberness of this advice and the resoluteness of this accusation is the best evidence that Paul, in the foregoing words, had been in no degree blinded by personal revenge. The connection with the statements in 2 Timothy 4:15-16 strengthens the conjecture that Alexander withstood (ἀνθέστηκε) the words of the Apostle, not during any previous ministerial activity, but on the occasion of his recently delivered defence, when Paul was defending not only his personal cause, but assuredly, for the most part, the cause of the gospel.

2 Timothy 4:16. At my first answer no man stood with me, Οὐδείς μοι συμπαραγένετο. Wolf: “Συμπαραγίνεσθαιindicat patronos et amicos, qui alios, ad causam dicendam, vocatos, nunc præsentia sua, nunc etiam oratione adjuvare solebant” (comp. Schömann, Att. Recht, p. 708). According to Roman law, such assistance was perfectly legal, and allowed the accused. Even Roman emperors were accustomed not to shun their friends when arraigned. Lucian (De Morte Peregrini, § 13) derided the zeal of the early Christians who availed themselves of this right. If any one, surely Paul might have expected that, upon the bench of the advocate, friends would not have been wanting who would freely have raised their voices in his behalf. To be sure, some had gone away (2 Timothy 4:11); but he was at Rome then for the second time, and he had various, and, amongst them, distinguished friends (see Philippians 1:13; Philippians 4:22), consequently others could not have been wanting to him. But here, likewise, human weakness, and fear of becoming involved in the probably unfavorable issue of his suit, had prevailed in full force. It is hence likewise clear that his condition now was entirely different from that during his former imprisonment.—(I pray God) that it may not be laid to their charge, adds the Apostle, in the consciousness, on the one hand, that an actual sin had been committed, which certainly needed forgiveness; and, on the other side, that here no deliberate wickedness, like that of Alexander (2 Timothy 4:14-15), had been at work, but only weakness of the flesh. In this his gentle judgment, moreover, he exhibits likeness of the Master (Matthew 26:41), whom he resembles in this, that, upon his entrance at the path of death, he found himself forsaken of his dearest friends, and yet was not alone (comp. John 16:32).

2 Timothy 4:17. Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me and strengthened me. After the mention of the dark side, the Apostle exhibits the bright side of his situation in that critical moment The Lord—viz., Christ—stood by me (παρέστη)—with the help of the Holy Ghost (comp. Matthew 10:19-20)—and (this the result of the assistance) strengthened me (ἐνεδυνάμωσε με, comp. Philippians 4:13; 1 Timothy 1:12), in that he endued me with courage and παῤῥησια. The Lord has not only done what the Apostle might have expected from his friends, but more yet.—The immediately following states the object of this benefit: That by me the preaching might be fully known (sc. of the gospel), πληροφορηθῇ, comp. 2 Timothy 4:5 (without adequate grounds, some Cod. read πληρωθῇ), not only, that the preaching of the gospel through me should gain fuller confirmation and recognition, but that it should thereby reach, as it were, its culmination, since upon this occasion it was rung forth impressively in the capital of the world, in the ears of the corona populi, and (that) all the Gentiles might hear. The Apostle regards the witness delivered upon this occasion as the keystone of his apostolic message, and all within its reach as the core and representation of all heathen peoples (comp. Romans 10:18; Colossians 1:6).—And I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.Multi sub nomine Leonis Nerorum intelligunt. Ego hac locutione potius generaliter periculam designari existimo, ac si diceret: ex præsenti incendio, vel ex faucibus mortis;” Calvin. The explanation, that there is reference here to the punishment of being thrown to raging lions, is insipid (Mosheim). Whether, again, Alexander the coppersmith, or a certain Æilus Cæsareanus, a deputy of the Emperor, or also the chief accuser in the lawsuit, is here designated, is a matter wholly undecided. It must not be overlooked that here the statement is not of the lion himself, but of the mouth of the lion, and that hereby, in a figurative manner, the sum total of the dangers which, at the moment, surrounded the Apostle, can be expressed (comp. Psalms 22:22).

2 Timothy 4:18. And the Lord shall deliver me, &c. The Apostle foresees that the issue of the decisive final hearing, now imminent, might not be comparatively as favorable as that of the first hearing, from which he had gone forth unharmed; but he does not lose courage upon that account. He who has delivered him thus far out of all dangers, will do it yet again. ̔Ο κύριος ῥύσεταί με . In and by itself, it were possible that he here refers to ἔργα πονηρά which he himself might perhaps do, in reference to which he now, nevertheless, hopes in the Lord to be graciously delivered from (Grotius: “Liberabit me, ne quid agam, Christiano, ne quid Apostolo indignum”). At this high level of his spiritual development, and with death immediately before him, it is not probable that the Apostle could have felt and expressed fear in this respect, and hence the view is far more acceptable that Paul was thinking here of the ἔργα πονηρά of his enemies (so to say, further openings of the lion’s mouth). That he nevertheless, as would appear from the tone of the words, expected no deliverance from the real danger of death, or a restoration of his former freedom, is evident from what follows immediately: and will preserve (me) unto his heavenly kingdom; in that kingdom which, although it be founded upon earth, and will, at the Parousia, be revealed in all its glory, is, nevertheless, here considered decidedly as in the beyond: σώσει εἰς = σώζων ἄξει με εἰς (Heydenreich). The heavenly kingdom is the receptaculum in which Paul will find complete deliverance, after, through death naturally, he shall have been transported thither. We have here consequently no other idea than in Philippians 1:23.—To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. Here, too, as in Romans 9:5, the doxology is dedicated to Christ, through whom he enjoys this deliverance. A worthy conclusion of this entire passus of the whole Epistle, to which, moreover, only a few more particulars of less importance will be further added. “Doxologiam parit spes, quanto majorem res;” Bengel.

2 Timothy 4:19. Salute Prisca and Aquila (see Acts 18:2; Romans 16:3; 1 Corinthians 16:19). Here also, as it often occurs, Prisca is named before her husband. It may perhaps be considered a proof that she was his superior, either as regards character or in respect of the development of her spiritual life.—And the household of Onesiphorus (see 2 Timothy 1:16-18).

2 Timothy 4:20. Erastus abode at Corinth, &c.—Besides here, Erastus is also mentioned in Acts 19:22 and in Romans 16:23, as chamberlain of the city of Corinth (arcarius civitatis, or financial administrator). Yet it is a question whether the person here alluded to is the same as the one last mentioned. The very saying that he abode at Corinth speaks against it, since from οἰκονόμος this would surely have been self-evident, unless, indeed, he had already resigned his office, or, perhaps, had been deposed for his avowal of Christianity.—But Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick. From Acts 20:4; Acts 21:29, we are acquainted with Trophimus as a Christian from among the heathen, also an occasional travelling companion of Paul, and the innocent cause of that storm which then arose against the Apostle. This time, also, he had wished to accompany Paul on his journey, but had been left by him sick at Miletus, a city on the seacoast of Caria (not the Miletus in Crete). A statement again, which remains inexplicable if we assume that this Epistle was written during the Apostle’s first imprisonment at Rome, since it is surely impossible to place this incident in that last journey to Jerusalem mentioned in Acts 20:21. (see Acts 21:29). Well says De Wette: “The idea of leaving refers to a prior companionship.”

2 Timothy 4:21. Do thy diligence to come before winter (see 2 Timothy 4:9). “Ipsa hieme navigatio olim fere nulla, et imminebat martyrium Pauli;” Bengel.—Eubulus greeteth thee … and all thy brethren. Names of certain Christians of Rome, of whom we know nothing.—Linus, according to some writers, is the same person whom Eusebius and Irenæus name the first Bishop of Rome. [The tradition was generally received.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:22. The Lord … be with thy spirit. A blessing differing somewhat in form from the conclusion usual to the Apostle. In the knowledge that it is his last Epistle, he has purposely so divided the blessing that the former part concerns Timothy alone (μετὰ τοῦ πνεύματός σου), but the latter, all the believers with him who would read it (μεθ̓ ὑμῶν). See 1 Timothy 6:21.

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL

1. We are now at the end of the last Epistle which the Apostle Paul wrote, and are therefore of necessity urged to cast a glance upon his end. It is uncertain whether his last wish was fulfilled, and whether Timothy did come to him before the winter. Nero died in the June of 68 A. D.; so that, if we assume, with the tradition, that Paul suffered martyrdom under his reign, we have then in this date the extremest terminus ad quem. His rank as Roman citizen saved him from crucifixion, which, according to the prophecy (John 21:18), fell to Peter’s lot. By the testimony of Clem. Rom., Tertullian, Eusebius, and others, Paul was beheaded with the sword. Jerome (Catal. Script.) relates: “Hic ergo decimo quarto Neronis anno, eodem die, quo Petrus, Romæ pro Christo capite truncatus sepultusque est in via Ostiensi.” [Comp. Conybeare and Howson on St. Paul’s death, vol. 2. pp. 486–490.—E. H.] The sentence last added is by no means improbable, if we reflect that death-warrants were often executed without the city when extensive popular tumults arising from them were feared, although, otherwise, execution without the city was thought especially shameful. Those legends need in this place no criticism, which report that milk instead of blood flowed from the neck of the Apostle; nor those others, that from the spot where the head, in falling, touched three times the ground, there leaped up springs of water.

2. The last wishes, regulations, and blessings of the Apostle before his death are of double importance. In the first place, they show that we do not stand here upon the soil of abstract ideas, but of the soberest historical reality; and, secondly, they contain, just in the seeming unimportance of many of the notices, one indirect proof more of the genuineness of the Epistle. How could a forger have devised an order like the one concerning, for instance, the cloak, the books, and the parchments? But he who wishes in any case to find straightway, in the innocent name “Linus”—only mentioned here by the way—a sign of the second century, and makes this salutation a basis for groundless hypotheses and hypercritical combinations (Baur), must certainly cling very closely to his once-assumed fixed idea. It is to be hoped, too, that the opinion (Wieseler, Chron. Syn., p. 428) will find no general support, that in deciding upon the composition and arrangement of the apostolic Epistles, the personal references are of no importance.

3. Just that genuinely human trait which appears in Paul’s longing for his friends before death, and is expressed in his sorrow for the faithlessness of certain ones, shows us that the state of his mind (2 Timothy 4:6-8) can in no way be called a fruit of enthusiasm and exaggeration.

4. The little we know of Demas gives us no right to use him, as he already has been, as evidence against the evangelical precept of the perseverantia sanctorum. The word of the Apostle, 1 John 2:19, is rather of weight in this case. The use Bunyan has made of this character in his “Christian Pilgrim,” is ingenious. We may say, in fine, that when in us, or in others, only feeble germs even of spiritual activity are found, the consideration of Demas stimulates our vigilance; while a glance at Mark (2 Timothy 4:11; compare with this his earlier history) quickens our courage. The former reminds us of the saying: “Many who are first shall be last;” and the latter: “and the last shall be first.”

5. Upon the difficulty which has been found in 2 Timothy 4:13, against the Theopneusty of the Apostle, compare what has been said on 1 Timothy 5:23, in “Doctrinal and Ethical.”

6. The account that Paul left Trophimus sick at Miletus, is, in the first place, an internal proof of the genuineness of the Epistle; for no wonder-loving forger would ever have written thus, in the Apostle’s name; but secondly, also, it is a remarkable aid to a true judgment of the Apostle’s power to perform miracles, which was just as little unlimited on the one hand as wholly arbitrary on the other. “We may herein also notice the wonder-working power of the Apostles, namely, that its use lay not in their own will, but in that of God; and that when miracles were to occur, they were especially urged thereto by God; and that they were used, too, only as introductory to the preaching of the gospel, and as confirmatory of it, but, for the rest, not in rivalry with the mystery of the Cross and its passion, so that this might be dispensed with at will, by means of miracles wrought upon our enemies;” Starke.

HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL

Demas, in the New Testament, is like Lot’s wife in the Old.—Even when beginning to give ourselves up to Christ, return to the present world is (1) possible; (2) criminal; (3) disastrous.—The faithlessness of earthly friends compared with the fidelity of the heavenly friend.—Moreover, timely regulations at the approach of death are by no means unworthy of the Christian, of whom the greatest things are demanded.—Paul was as far removed from a spiritless materialism as from a sickly spiritualism.—The spirit of order should animate the Christian even in little things.—The thought of an approaching end should not weaken, but, on the contrary, strengthen our zeal to “work while it is yet day.”—“The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up” (John 2:17).—How a Christian can be angry, and yet not sin (Ephesians 4:26).—The consolation arising from belief in God’s justice notwithstanding every wrong man does us.—Alone, and yet not alone. At our last account also, no one will stand by us except the Lord.—The Lord can redeem His children through death, if he does not redeem them from death.—The last closing note of the Christian life a doxology always.—The association of the saints should be more intimate the shorter the lifetime becomes.—Aquila and Priscilla the model of Christian wedlock: (1) Closely bound together; (2) zealous in labor; (3) richly blessed (Traurede).—The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ in its all-surpassing value.

“How joyous am I here below!
My treasure is the A and O,
Beginning and conclusion.”

Starke: Hedinger: How many brothers Demas has, who love the world better than God (Luke 8:13)!—Cramer: Not he who has begun well, but he that shall endure to the end, shall be saved (Matthew 24:13).—Osiander: Many a one is at first weak in his charge, but afterwards zealous in the work of the Lord. Hence we should not straightway despise the weak, but hope for improvement (Romans 14:1).—Preachers must have books and paper; reading and writing is their labor. Without these they can hardly exist (1 Timothy 4:13).—Hedinger: A coppersmith withstands Paul, God, Christ’s kingdom and word. Thus the enemy can work by means of insignificant people. One fly defiles much ointment, one mangy sheep many others (Ecclesiastes 9:18; Ecclesiastes 10:1). One bad man, when subject to the devil, can prevent much good by word and deed. May God reprove Satan, that he hold his peace!—Imperfections and faults occur even among saints; wherefore we should edify and improve each other in common (Galatians 6:1; Matthew 26:56).—When all our friends, when father and mother forsake us, our God will not forsake us (Psalms 27:10).—Experience brings hope with it; he who has been so often in peril, and has been saved—who feels, too, every day the saving help, can surely be of good hope that the Lord will always save him.—A blessed death shuts the door on every suffering.—Remember your benefactor, and, if you can do no more, wish him a thousand different benefits forever and ever.—To be blessed by the holy, is honor and benefit.—Jesus Christ all in all. Where He is not, we can accomplish no good.

Heubner: If even a Paul experienced bad faith from his friends, how much easier for us to find consolation!—Hints on the value and use of books, on lectures, and scientific occupations.—There is a holy longing to see evil punished for the sake of good.—It is often wise to turn aside from your path.—Let us be considerate and gentle with human weaknesses.—The aid of God is assured to the witnesses of truth.—The godly need not fear even the cruelest violence.—The final redemption of the godly is not here, but will be there.—Even with the dignity of an apostle, intimate friendship is compatible.—“Not to strange means, but to yield to God’s law” (see 20 b).

Lisco: Paul’s trust in God in his last extremity.—The Lord our guard and aid: (1) He stays when men leave us; (2) He protects us; (3) He redeems us in the end.—Want of love, and love in its origin and action.

Footnotes: 

2 Timothy 4:10; 2 Timothy 4:10.—[Cod. Sin. is peculiar here—γαλλίαν; so, too, C—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:11; 2 Timothy 4:11.—[Tischendorf reads ἄγαγε, after A. Lachmann, ἄγε; so Cod. Sin.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:14.—[See our Author’s exposition. He adheres, with Tischendorf, to the Recepta, ἀποδῷη. Lachmann, after weighty authorities and Greek Fathers, reads ἀποδώσει; so the Cod. Sin. and Wordsworth.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:14.—[αὐτοῦ; left out of the Cod. Sin.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:15; 2 Timothy 4:15.—[ἀνθέστηκε. Lachmann, after A. C., and others, ἀντἐστη; so Cod. Sin., Wordsworth, and is adopted by Huther.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:16; 2 Timothy 4:16.—[συμπαρεγένετο. The weight of testimony is in favor of παρεγένετο; so Lachmann and Cod. Sin.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:17; 2 Timothy 4:17.—[Modem critical editors have adopted the plural form, ἀκούσωσιν, instead of the singular, as in the Recepta.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:18; 2 Timothy 4:18.—[καί in this place to he omitted.]

2 Timothy 4:22; 2 Timothy 4:22.—[Instead of the reading of the Recepta, ὁ κύρ. ̓Ιησ. Χριστός, Lachmann has, ὁ κύρ. ̓Ιησοῦς, which Huther defends. Tischendorf, ὁ κυριος simply; so, too, the Cod. Sin. Wordsworth retains the reading of the Recepta.—E. H.]

2 Timothy 4:22; 2 Timothy 4:22.—[ἀμήν not genuine.—E. H.]

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Bibliographical Information
Lange, Johann Peter. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 4". "Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, and Homiletical". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/lcc/2-timothy-4.html. 1857-84.