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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

2 Timothy 4

Verse 1

I charge [διαμαρτυρομαι] . See on 1 Timothy 5:21.

At his appearing [και την επιφανειαν] . Rend. "and by his appearing," ejpifaneian thus depending on diamarturomai, and the accusative being the ordinary accusative of conjuration, with which by must be supplied. The A. V. follows the reading kata at. For ejpifaneia appearing, see on 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. For, basileia kingdom, see on Luke 6:20.

Verse 2

Be instant [επιστηθι] . Better, be ready. Once in Paul, 1 Thessalonians 5:3. Frequent in Luke and Acts. Lit. stand by, be at hand, be present. To come suddenly upon, Luke 2:38. Hence, be ready. Instant signifies urgent, importunate, persevering. Lat. instant to press upon. Thus Latimer, "I preached at the instant request of a curate." So N. T., Romans 12:12, "Continuing instant in prayer."

In season [ευκαιρως] . Only here and Mark 14:11. LXX once, Sir. 18

Verse 4

Shall be turned unto fables [επι τους μυθους εκτραπησονται] . More correctly, will turn aside. The passive has a middle sense. For fables see on 1 Timothy 1:4.

Verse 5

Watch thou [συ νηφε] . See on 1 Thessalonians 5:6, and on ajnanhywsin recover, 2 Timothy 2:26.

Endure afflictions [κακοπαθησον] . Or suffer hardship. See on chapter 2 Timothy 2:9, and comp. chapter 2 Timothy 4:5.

Of an evangelist [ευαγγελιστου] . Here, Acts 21:8 and Ephesians 4:11. In the last passage, a special function, with apostles, prophets, pastors, and teachers. A traveling, minister whose work was not confined to a particular church. So Philip, Acts 8:5-13, Acts 8:26-40. A helper of the apostles. An apostle, as such, was an evangelist (1 Corinthians 1:17), but every evangelist was not an apostle. In The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (about 100 A. D.) it is prescribed that an apostle shall not remain in one place longer than two days, and that when he departs he shall take nothing with him except enough bread to last until his next station (chapter. 11). Make full proof of thy ministry [την διακονιαν σου πληροφορησον] . Better, fulfill or fully perform. In Pastorals only here and verse 17 See on Luke 1:1. In LXX once, Ecclesiastes 8:11, is fully persuaded. Only in this passage in the active voice. Comp. plhrwsantev thn diakonian having fulfilled their ministration, Acts 12:25 : ejplhrou ton dromon was fulfilling his course, Acts 13:25, and ton dromon I have finished the course, verse 7. For diakonian ministry, see on 1 Timothy 1:12.

Verse 6

For I am now ready to be offered [εγω γαρ ηδη σπενδομαι] . I, emphatic contrast with su thou, verse 5. Already. What he is now suffering is the beginning of the end. Spendesqai to be poured out as a libation, only here and Philippians 2:17 (note). In the active voice quite often in LXX

Departure [αναλυσεως] . N. T. o. o LXX Comp. ajnalusai to depart, Philippians 1:23. The figure is explained by some of loosing a Ship from its moorings; by others of breaking camp. In Philippians the latter is the more probable explanation, because Paul 's situation in the Custody of the Praetorians at Rome would naturally suggest a military metaphor, and because he is habitually sparing of nautical metaphors. Comp. 2 Corinthians 5:1, and Clement of Rome, ad Corinth. 44 "Blessed are the presbyters who have gone before, seeing that their departure [αναλυσιν] was fruitful and ripe."

Verse 7

I have fought a good fight [τον καλον αγωνα ηγωνισμαι] . For a good fight rend. the good fight. For the phrase, see on 1 Timothy 6:12. Comp. Philippians 1:27, Philippians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 9:25; Colossians 2:1; 1 Thessalonians 2:2; Ephesians 6:11 ff.

Course [δρομον] . Metaphor from the race - course. Only here and Acts 13:25; xx. 24; comp. 1 Corinthians 9:24; Galatians 2:2; Galatians 5:7; Romans 9:16; Philippians 2:16; Philippians 3:12-14.

I have kept the faith [την πιστιν τετηρηκα] . The phrase N. T. o. For threin to keep, see on 1 Timothy 5:22; 1 Timothy 6:14.

Verse 8

Henceforth [λοιπον] . Lit. as to what remains. Loipon or to loipon either finally, as 2 Corinthians 13:11; or henceforth as here, Mark 14:41; 1 Corinthians 7:29, Hebrews 10:13 : or for the rest, besides, as 1 Thessalonians 4:1 (note); 2 Thessalonians 3:1.

There is laid up [αποκειται] . Or laid away. In Pastorals only here. In Paul, see Colossians 1:5 (note). Luke 19:20 of the pound laid up in a napkin.

A crown of righteousness [ο της δικαιοσυνης στεφανος] . The phrase N. T. o. See on stefanoutai is crowned, chapter. 2 Timothy 2:5. Rend. the crown. Judge [κριτης] . Comp. verse 1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. o P. Only here in Pastorals. Applied to Christ, Acts 10:42 James 5:9; to God, Hebrews 12:28; James 4:12.

Shall give [αποδωσει] . Most frequent in Synoptic Gospels. It may mean to give over or away, as Matthew 27:58; Acts 5:8; Hebrews 12:16 : or to give back, recompose, as here, Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6, Matthew 6:18; Romans 2:6. At that day [εν εκεινη τη ημερα] . See on chapter 2 Timothy 1:12. That love his appearing [τοις ηγαπηκοσι την επιφανειαν αυτου] . For love rend. have loved. Appearing, Christ 's second coming : see on 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. The phrase N. T. o. Some have interpreted appearing as Christ 's first coming into the world, as chapter 2 Timothy 1:10; but the other sense is according to the analogy of 1 Corinthians 2:9; Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 9:28.

Verse 9

Do thy diligence [σπουδασον] . Earnestly endeavor. See on chapter 2 Timothy 2:15, and comp. chapter 2 Timothy 1:3. Do diligence and give diligence (2 Peter 1:10) are old English phrases. So Chaucer :

"And night and day dide ever his diligence Hir for to please." Manciple's T. 141.

"And ech of hem doth al his diligence To doon unto the feste reverence." Clerke's T. 195

Verse 10

Demas. A contraction of Demetrius or Demarchus. He is mentioned Colossians 4:13 and Philippians 1:24. It is supposed that he was a Thessalonian. On leaving Paul he went to Thessalonica; and in Philemon his name is mentioned next to that of Aristarchus the Thessalonian. That no epithet is attached to his name in Colossians 4:14 (comp. " Luke the beloved physician ") may be a shadow of Demas's behavior mentioned here, in case Colossians was written later than 2nd Timothy.

Hath forsaken [εγκατελειπεν] . In Pastorals here and verse 16. See on 2 Corinthians 4:9. The compounded preposition ejn indicates a condition or circumstances in which one has been left, as the common phrase left in the lurch. Comp. Germ. im Stiche.

Having loved [αγαπησας] . The participle is explanatory, because he loved.

This present world [τον νυν αιωνα] . See on 1 Timothy 6:17. Contrast love his appearing, verse 8.

Crescens [κρησκης] . N. T. o. Unknown.

Galatia [γαλατιαν] . Most probably Galatia. See Introd. to Galatians. Eusebius (H. E. 3 4) says : "Paul testifies that Crescens was sent to Gaul [γαλλιαν] ." Tischendorf adopts this reading.

Dalmatia [δαλματιαν] . Part of the country known generally as Illyricum, along the eastern coast of the Adriatic. See Romans 14:19.

Verse 11

Luke. See Intro. to Luke. His connection with Paul appears first in Acts 16:10. He remained at Philippi after Paul 's departure, and was there seven years later, when Paul revisited the city (Acts 20:5, Acts 20:6). He accompanied Paul to Jerusalem (Acts 21:15), after which we lose sight of him until he appears at Caesarea (Acts 27:2), whence he accompanies Paul to Rome. He is mentioned Colossians 4:14 and Philippians 1:24.

Take [αναλαβων] . In N. T. mostly in Acts. See on Acts 23:31, and comp. Acts 20:13, Acts 20:14.

Mark. Mentioned Colossians 4:10; Philippians 1:24; 1 Peter 5:13. Probably John Mark (Acts 12:12, Acts 12:25; Acts 14:37), called the cousin of Barnabas (Col 6:10). The first mention of him since the separation from Paul (Acts 14:39) occurs in Colossians and Philemon. He is commended to the church at Colossae. In 1st Peter he sends salutations to Asia. In both Colossians and Philemon his name appears along with that of Demas. In Colossians he is named shortly before Luke and along with Aristarchus who does not appear here. He (Mark) is about to come to Asia where 2nd Timothy finds him. The appearance in Colossians of Aristarchus with Mark and of Demas with Luke is probably the point of connection with the representation in 2nd Timothy.

Profitable for the ministry [ευχρηστος εις διακονιαν] . Eucrhstov profitable, only here, chapter 2 Timothy 2:21, Philippians 1:11. For for the ministry rend. for ministering or for service, and see on 1 Timothy 1:12.

Verse 12

Tychicus. A comparatively uncommon name in N. T., but found in inscriptions of Asia Minor and on Asiatic coins. He is mentioned Acts 20:4, Acts 20:5; Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 4:7. In Acts 20:4 he is described as a native of proconsular Asia.

2 Timothy 4:18The cloak [φελονην] . 145 Hesychius, however, explains as a glwssokomon, originally a case for keeping the mouthpieces of wind - instruments; thence, generally, Glwssokomon is the word for the disciples ' treasury - chest (bag, Jas 12:6). Also a box for transporting or preserving parchments. Specimens have been found at Herculaneum. In LXX, 2 Samuel 6:11, the ark of the Lord (but the reading varies) : in 2 Chronicles 24:8, the chest placed by order of Joash at the gate of the temple, to receive contributions for its repair. Joseph. Ant 6:1, 2, of the coffer into which the jewels of gold were put for a trespass - offering when the ark was sent back (1 Samuel 6:8). Phrynicus 146 defines it as "a receptacle for books, clothes, silver, or anything else." Failonhv or fainolhv a wrapper of parchments, was translated figuratively in Latin by toga or paenula "a cloak," sometimes of leather; also the wrapping which a shopkeeper put round fish or olives; also the parchment cover for papyrus rolls. Accordingly it is claimed that Timothy is here bidden to bring, not a cloak, but a roll - case. So the Syriac Version. There seems to be no sufficient reason for abandoning the translation of A. V.

Carpus. Not mentioned elsewhere.

The books [βιβλια] . Biblov or, biblion was the term most widely used by the Greeks for book or volume. The usual derivation is from, bublov the Egyptian papyrus. Comp. Lat. liber "the inner bark of a tree," also "book." 147 Pliny (Nat. Hist. 13 11) says that the pith of the papyrus plant was cut in slices and laid in rows, over which other rows were laid crosswise, and the whole was massed by pressure. The name for the blank papyrus sheets was carthv [χηαρτα] paper. See on 2 John 1:12. Timothy is here requested to bring some papyrus documents which are distinguished from the vellum manuscripts.

Parchments [μεμβρανας] . N. T. o. Manuscripts written on parchment or vellum. Strictly speaking, veilum was made from the skins of young calves and the common parchment from those of sheep, goats, or antelopes. It was a more durable material than papyrus and more expensive. The Latin name was membrana, and also pergamena or pergamina, from Pergamum in Mysia where it was extensively manufactured, and from which it was introduced into Greece. As to the character and contents of these documents which Timothy is requested to bring, we are of course entirely ignorant. 148

Verse 14

Alexander the coppersmith. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:20, and Acts 19:33. The same person is probably meant in all three cases.

Did me much evil [πολλα μοι κακα ενεδειξατο] . Lit. shewed me much ill - treatment. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:16.

May the Lord reward [αποδωσει] . More correctly shall reward. A. V. follows the reading ajpodwh.

Verse 15

Greatly withstood [λιαν αντεστη] . Comp. chapter 2 Timothy 3:8, and Galatians 2:11. This may refer to the occurrences at Ephesus (Acts 19:33), or to Alexander 's attitude during Paul 's trial. The former is more probable. Lian greatly, not in Paul, except in the compound uJperlian, 2 Corinthians 11:5; 2 Corinthians 12:11. Only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels.

Verse 16

At my first answer [εν τη πρωτη μου απολογια] . Apologia defense in a judicial trial. Comp. Acts 25:16. Also against private persons, as 1 Corinthians 9:3; 2 Corinthians 7:11. Defense of the gospel against its adversaries, as Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:16; comp. 1 Peter 3:15 (note). It is impossible to decide to what this refers. On the assumption of a second imprisonment of Paul (see Introduction) it would probably refer to a preliminary hearing before the main trial. It is not improbable that the writer had before his mind the situation of Paul as described in Philippians since this Epistle shows at many points the influence of the Philippians letter. It should be noted, however, that ajpologia in Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:16, has no specific reference to Paul 's trial, but refers to the defense of the gospel under any and all circumstances. In any case, the first Romans imprisonment cannot be alluded to here. On that supposition, the omission of all reference to Timothy's presence and personal ministry at that time, and the words about his first defense, which must have taken place before Timothy left Rome (Philippians 2:19-23) and which is here related as a piece of news, are quite inexplicable.

Stood with me [παρεγενετο] . As a patron or an advocate. The verb mostly in Luke and Acts : once in Paul, 1 Corinthians 16:3 : only here in Pastorals. It means to place one's self beside; hence, to come to, and this latter sense is almost universal in N. T. In the sense of coming to or standing by one as a friend, only here.

Be laid to their charge [αυτοις λογισθειη] . Mostly in Paul : only here in Pastorals. See on Romans 4:3, Romans 4:5; 1 Corinthians 13:5.

Verse 17

Strengthened [ενεδυναμωσεν] . See on 1 Timothy 1:12.

The preaching [το κηρυγμα] . Better, the message (par excellence), the gospel message. Usually with a defining word, as of Jonah; of Jesus Christ; my preaching; our preaching. Absolutely, as here, 1 Corinthians 1:21; Titus 1:3.

Might be fully known [πληροφορηθη] . See on verse 5. Lit. might be fulfilled; fully carried out by being proclaimed before rulers in the capital of the world. Comp. Romans 14:19; Acts 23:11; Acts 28:31; Philippians 1:12-14.

Out of the mouth of the lion [εκ στοματος λεοντος] . Figurative expression for danger of death. Comp. 1 Corinthians 14:32. As usual, all manner of special references have been imagined : the lions of the amphitheatre; Nero; the chief accuser; the Jews; the Devil.

Verse 18

Every evil work [εκ εργου πονηρου] . Every design and attempt against him and his work. Ponhrov evil cannot be limited to evil on its active side. See on 1 Corinthians 5:13. The word is connected at the root with penesqai to be needy, and ponein to toil; and this connection opens a glimpse of that sentiment which associated badness with a poor and toiling condition. The word means originally full of or oppressed by labors; thence, that which brings annoyance or toil. Comp. hJmera ponhra evil day, Ephesians 5:16; Ephesians 6:13 : elkov ponhron a grievous sore, Revelation 16:2.

Heavenly kingdom [την βασιλειαν την επουρανιον] . The phrase N. T. o. Epouraniov heavenly only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Heavenly kingdom, here the future, glorified life, as 1 Corinthians 6:9, 1 Corinthians 6:10; 1 Corinthians 14:50; Luke 13:29. In the same sense, kingdom of Christ and of God, Ephesians 5:5; kingdom of their Father, Matthew 13:43; my Father 's kingdom, Matthew 26:29; kingdom prepared for you, Matthew 25:34; eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, 2 Peter 1:11.

Verse 19

Salute [ασπασαι] . Very often in Paul. The singular only here and Titus 3:15.

Prisca and Aquila. They appear in Corinth, Acts 18:2, Acts 18:3; in Ephesus, Acts 18:18, Acts 18:26; 1 Corinthians 16:19.

Onesiphorus. Profit - bringer. Comp. chapter 2 Timothy 1:16. One of the punning names so common among slaves. Comp. Chresimus, Chrestus, Onesimus, Symphorus, all of which signify useful or helpful.

Verse 20

Erastus. In Acts 19:22, sent by Paul with Timothy to Macedonia from Ephesus. Romans 16:23, the city - treasurer who sends salutations. He cannot be certainly identified with the one mentioned here. The writer merely selects names of well - known companions of Paul.

Trophimus. See Acts 22:4; Acts 21:9.

Sick [ασθενουντα] . By Paul mostly in a moral sense, as weak in the faith, Romans 4:19; the law was weak, Romans 8:3; the weak brother, 1 Corinthians 8:11. Of bodily sickness, Philippians 2:26, Philippians 2:27.

Verse 21

Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia. N. T. o.

Verse 22

Comp. ajkaireisqai to have leisure or opportunity, Mark 6:31; 1 Corinthians 16:12 : eujkairia opportunity, Matthew 26:16 : eukairov seasonable, convenient, Mark 6:21; Hebrews 4:16.

Out of season [ακαιρως] . N. T. o. LXX once, Sir. 35 4. Comp. ajkaireisqai to lack opportunity, Philippians 4:10. Timothy is not advised to disregard opportuneness, but to discharge his duty to those with whom he deals, whether it be welcome or not.

Reprove [ελεγξον] . Rather, convict of their errors. See on 1 Timothy 5:20 and John 3:20. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:24; Ephesians 5:11, Ephesians 5:13. Comp. ejlegmon conviction, chapter 2 Timothy 3:16.

Rebuke [επιτιμησον] . In Pastorals only here. o P. Mostly in the Synoptic Gospels, where it is frequent. It has two meanings : rebuke, as Matthew 8:26; Luke 17:3, and charge, as Matthew 12:16; Matthew 16:20, commonly followed by ina that or legwn saying (Matthew 20:31; Mark 1:25; Mark 3:12; Mark 8:30; Luke 4:35), but see Luke 9:21. The word implies a sharp, severe rebuke, with, possibly, a suggestion in some cases of impending penalty [τιμη] ; charge on pain of. This might go to justify the rendering of Holtzmann and von Soden, threaten. To charge on pain of penalty for disobedience implies a menace, in this case of future judgment.

Exhort [παρακαλεσον] . See on consolation, Luke 6:24; comfort, Acts 931. Tischendorf changes the order of the three imperatives, reading elegxon, parakaleson, ejpitimhson. In that case there is a climax : first convict of error, then, exhort to forsake error, finally threaten with the penalty of persistence in error.

With all long - suffering and doctrine [εν παση μακροθυμια] . Pash, every possible exhibition of long, suffering, etc. For doctrine Rend. teaching. The combination is Suggestive. Long - suffering is to be maintained against the temptations to anger presented by the obstinacy and perverseness of certain hearers; and such are to be met, not merely with rebuke, but also with sound and reasonable instruction in the truth. So Calvin : "Those who are strong only in fervor and sharpness, but are not fortified with solid doctrine, weary themselves in their vigorous efforts, make a great noise, rave,... make no headway because they build without foundation." Men will not be won to the truth by scolding's. They should understand what they hear, and learn by perceive why they are rebuked " (Bahnsen). Didach teaching, only here and Titus 1:9 in Pastorals. The usual sword is didaskalia. Paul uses both.

2 Timothy 4:0:8For [γαρ] . Ground for the preceding exhortations in the future opposition to sound teaching.

Endure [ανεξονται] . Only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Paul. Comp. Acts 18:14; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Hebrews 13:22.

Sound doctrine [της υγιαινουσης διδασκαλιας] . Or healthful teaching. The A. V. overlooks the article which is important. The teaching plays a prominent part in these Epistles, and signifies more than teaching in general. See on 1 Timothy 1:10.

Shall they heap to themselves teachers [εαυτοις επισωρευ σουσιν διδασκαλους] . A vigorous and graphic statement. Episwreuein to heap up, N. T. o. Comp. seswreumena laden, chapter 2 Timothy 3:6. The word is ironical; shall invite teachers enmasse. 144 In periods of unsettled faith, skepticism, and mere curious speculation in matters of religion, teachers of all kinds swarm like the flies in Egypt. The demand creates the supply. The hearers invite and shape their own preachers. If the people desire a calf to worship, a ministerial calf - maker is readily found. "The master of superstition is the people, and in all superstition wise men follow fools" (Bacon, Ess. 17).

Having itching ears [κνηθομενοι την ακοην] . Or, being tickled in their hearing. Knhqein to tickle, N. T. o. o LXX Knhqomenoi itching. Hesychius explains, "hearing for mere gratification." Clement of Alexandria describes certain teachers as "scratching and tickling, in no human way, the ears of those who eagerly desire to be scratched" (Strom. 5). Seneca says : "Some come to hear, not to learn, just as we go to the theater, for pleasure, to delight our ears with the speaking or the voice or the plays" (Ep. 108). Akoh, A. verse ears, in N. T. a report, as Matthew 4:24; Matthew 14:1; Matthew 24:0. xxiv. 6 : in the plural, ears (never ear in singular), as Mark 7:35; Luke 7:1 : hearing, either the act, as Acts 28:26; Romans 10:17, or the sense, 1 Corinthians 12:17, here, and verse 4.

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Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on 2 Timothy 4". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/vnt/2-timothy-4.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.