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Bible Commentaries
Zechariah 1

Pett's Commentary on the BiblePett's Commentary

Verses 1-6

God’s Call to the People to Return to Him and Live in Obedience to His Demands - The Offer of a New Beginning (Zechariah 1:1-6 ).

Zechariah is the prophet of the new beginning, but as is always so with God, if there is to be a new beginning there must be repentance, and so his work commences with a call to repentance.

Zechariah 1:1-3

‘In the eight month, in the second year of Darius, the word of YHWH came to Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying “YHWH has been sore displeased with your fathers. Therefore you say to them, ‘Return to me’, says YHWH of Hosts, ‘and I will return to you’, says YHWH of Hosts”.’

The dating of the section in terms of Darius, king of Persia, indicates Jerusalem’s subservient position. She has no king by which the dating can be indicated. She is merely a small dot in a much larger Persian province.

Zechariah’s first charge is to call the people to repentance from past sin. This is, as ever, the first requirement when God is about to act. In the same way John the Baptiser would come preparing the way for the coming of Jesus (Matthew 3:1-2).

He is to remind the people of God’s displeasure with the sins of their ancestors which had resulted in the exile. And to warn them that they too are incurring God’s displeasure, because, in spite of a new beginning, they are neglecting the work of God and not listening to His voice. He warns them that they must return to God and His ways. If they do so they can be sure of one thing, that God will return to them and act on their behalf. Thus as ever the success of God’s people will depend from a human point of view on their response, and their attitude and obedience towards Him.

He wants them to recognise that God has begun His new work. That is why they are back in the land. But he warns them that He will not bring them success unless there is a true response of heart from them. His sovereign activity must be accompanied by obedience. The very fact that the Temple has not been properly built and established is a sign that all is not well with their devotion to God.

‘YHWH of Hosts’. It is the God of the covenant (YHWH) and Lord of all creation (of Hosts, the hosts of heaven and earth and of all within them) Who is speaking to them. He is keeping His part in the covenant by restoring them to the land. They must respond by obeying His laws and living to please Him in every way. Note the twofold stress on YHWH of Hosts. The twofold witness stresses the truth of what is said (Deuteronomy 19:15).

‘Of hosts’ is a reminder that, while they have no army, the hosts of Heaven and earth are at their disposal if they are true to Him. The term includes the angelic heavenly ‘hosts’ as well as the universe, the sun, moon and stars, and all that is in the earth (Genesis 2:1). Thus those who truly respond will not lack for resources.

Zechariah 1:4

“Do not be like your fathers to whom the former prophets cried, saying, ‘Thus says YHWH of Hosts, return you now from your evil ways and from your evil doings.’ But they did not hear or listen to me, says YHWH.”

They are to learn a lesson from what happened to those who were before them. God had in the past called on their fathers to repent, to leave behind their evil ways and their evil activities. He had sent prophets to them to plead with them and warn them. But they had refused to listen to those prophets and in so doing had refused to listen to God. That indeed was why disaster had befallen them. Now the restored people are in danger of doing the same. They are letting the cares of the world interfere with their allegiance to God. His hearers must now make sure that they do listen to God’s messengers and respond. In the end sin, of whatever kind, is direct disobedience to God.

‘The former prophets.’ This is the first use of the term. Here it refers to the pre-exilic prophets. Compare Jeremiah 35:17; and see Jeremiah 25:4-5; Jeremiah 18:11.

The lesson taught here is one that we must all learn, and that is not to be so wrapped up in earthly affairs that we neglect what is really important.

Zechariah 1:5-6

“Your fathers, where are they? And the prophets, do they live for ever? But my words and my statutes which I commanded my servants the prophets, did they not overtake your fathers?”

God reminds them that man’s life is temporary. Man is like the grass that quickly withers (Psalms 103:15). In a short while it is gone. On the other hand God’s purposes are permanent, indeed the only real permanence in a changing world. For their fathers this had meant only judgment because of their disobedience. Now they too must consider their ways. They cannot therefore afford to keep putting things off. They must choose between their fleeting ways or God’s permanent activity.

The fathers died. The prophets also died. For even those men of God had only a temporary existence. So man is as grass that flourishes, and then wilts and dies. And the consequences of the sins of their fathers overtook their fathers. Their brief, fleeting lives were spoiled because of their disobedience. The question is, Do they want the same thing to happen to them?

Thus his hearers must remember that it is God and His ways which alone are permanent, and respond accordingly. Let them note that what He had warned through His prophets took place. Their fathers did suffer the consequences of their refusal to listen and respond, and, indeed, they themselves are still suffering the consequences to this very day. So they would be wise to consider their ways.

This is ever the choice that faces the people of God. Will they live for what is passing and temporary, or will they concentrate on what is eternal and everlasting? (see 2 Corinthians 4:18).

Zechariah 1:6

‘And they turned and said, ‘Just as YHWH of Hosts thought to do to us, according to our ways and according to our doings, so has he dealt with us’.”

The people acknowledge that what the prophet says is true. They and their fathers have reaped the consequences of sin, and those consequences are their own fault for they have resulted from their own failure to follow God’s ways, choosing rather to walk in their own ways. They have not obeyed God but have chosen to do what they wanted rather than what He wanted. God has thus done to them what He determined to do in such circumstances.

‘They turned.’ His words have woken them up to their state and they declare that they have now learned their lesson and have resolved to change. The verb could equally well be translated ‘returned’. The turning leads to returning. Either way it indicates that they have responded to God’s word to them.

Note the double stress all the way through on ‘their ways’ and ‘their doings’. If our hearts are set on the right way then what we do will also be right. But if our hearts are set on the selfish ways then our doings will be similar. As a man thinks in his heart, so is he.

Verses 7-17

The First Vision. The Vision of the Horsemen Scouts - God Will Now Restore His People and the Temple Will Be Built (Zechariah 1:7-17 ).

Zechariah 1:7-10

‘On the twenty fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month Shebat, in the second year of Darius, the word of YHWH came to Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying, “I saw in the night and behold a man riding on a red horse and he stood among the myrtle trees that were in the bottom (the hollow), and behind him there were horses red, sorrel and white. Then I said, ‘Oh my Lord, what are these?’ And the angel who talked with me said to me, ‘I will show you what these are.’ And the man who stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, ‘These are they whom YHWH has sent to walk to and fro through the earth.’

The month Shebat is the Babylonian name for the eleventh month and only occurs here in the Old Testament. Previously books have used numbers for months, however the Chronicler also uses Babylonian names for months. This is three months after the first ‘word of YHWH’. Having called His people to return to Him, and having seen their response, God has now surveyed the world so that He can show Zechariah what is happening.

Note that God’s horsemen scouts are gathered outside Jerusalem, for to God Jerusalem is the centre from which all His activity proceeds. Persia may think that it rules its empire, but in the end it is YHWH Who is in charge.

There is no indication that the colours of the horses are significant. They simply indicate a variety, although the redness may be a symbol that God is aware of men’s warfare and its shedding of blood and keeps a constant eye on it. ‘Myrtle trees’ were evergreen flowering shrubs. Compare Isaiah 41:19; Isaiah 55:13 where with other shrubs they are symbols of the Messianic age. They are thus here a sign of God’s working.

‘The angel (messenger)’ The word for ‘angel’ also means messenger. This messenger has brought ‘the word of YHWH’ - the prophetic word of YHWH. And it was ‘in the night’. Possibly we are to see it as a dream-vision. Or it may indicate the darkness of the times, or that Zechariah is to be seen as the Lord’s night watchman (compare Isaiah 21:6-9; Isaiah 21:11-12; Ezekiel 3:17; Habakkuk 2:1-3).

We are not told whether there are only four horses (two red, one sorrel and one white) or whether there are a number of horses, reds, sorrels and whites. Probably the latter is intended. But we are almost certainly to see them as all mounted by horsemen messengers. These are scouts ready to go to find out what is happening. The colours are descriptive rather than obviously symbolic, although may indicate different missions of the horsemen. In Revelation 6:0 the white horse indicates false religion, the red horse indicates war, the black horse indicates famine and pestilence, and the pale horse widespread death, but that does not really fit here, unless we see it as simply indicating that all these things are under God’s observation. The man on the red (reddish-brown?) horse is clearly the leader, and would seem to be the Angel of YHWH (Zechariah 1:11). Horsemen were, of course, the means by which earthly generals scouted out the land. They were the fastest known means of transport. These are scouts sent out by YHWH.

‘Oh my Lord, what are these?’ This question is asked of the interpreting angel about the man on the leading red horse, who turns out to be the Angel of YHWH, and his companions. As we go through the first part of his book we will find that Zechariah questions the interpreting angel again and again. It is clear that he wishes it to be apparent that what he writes has a heavenly source, and is given a heavenly explanation.

‘I will show you what these are.’ The angel is directing the vision and deals directly with Zechariah’s question.

‘These are they whom YHWH has sent to walk to and fro through the earth.’ The task of these scouts of YHWH is to travel round the surrounding nations to report on what they find. God is surveying the situation prior to acting. We can compare how the sons of God in Job also walked to and fro on the earth (Job 1:7)

Zechariah 1:11

‘And they answered the angel of YHWH who stood among the myrtle trees and said, “We have walked to and fro through the earth and behold, all the earth sits still and is at rest.”

‘The Angel of YHWH’. We discover that the leader on the red horse is ‘the Angel of YHWH’. This mysterious figure appears now and again throughout the Old Testament. Sometimes He is distinguished from YHWH and at others He appears to be synonymous with YHWH.

The scouts are reporting back to Him after they have scouted the lands round about (the known earth). Their report is that the earth ‘sits still and is at rest’. The current world leaders appear satisfied and content with things as they are even while God’s people languish. This is an affront to God. Some action is needed to change matters.

A further point being made may be that the fact that nothing is changing is not a good thing for it does not portend well for the return and establishment of the people of God back in their own land.

So Zechariah is being informed that God has already been at work in preparation for what He is about to do. The survey has already taken place. God had not forgotten His people. (Note on the Angel of YHWH.

In Genesis 16:7-13 the Angel of YHWH appeared to Hagar when she ran away from Abraham. It is clear that this Angel is God Himself, for in Zechariah 1:10 He promises ‘ I will greatly increase your seed so that it will not be numbered for multitude’, which compares with a similar promise given by God to Abraham (compare Genesis 13:16).

Yet in Zechariah 1:11 there is some distinction between the Angel and the Lord, for the Angel says ‘ YHWH has heard your affliction’, where we might have expected ‘ I have heard your affliction’, which suggests a distinction. But in Zechariah 1:13 we are told it was the YHWH Who ‘spoke with her’, and she calls Him ‘the God who sees’ (el roi).

Again at Hagar’s second expulsion we are told ‘God heard the voice of the lad’. Then the Angel of God calls to her from Heaven, saying, ‘God has heard the voice of the lad’ as though God were separate from the Angel. Yet from then on it is God Who opens her eyes and is with the lad (Genesis 21:17-20). So there is unity yet distinction.

In Genesis 22:11-12 ‘the Angel of YHWH’ calls to Abraham from Heaven saying ‘now I know that you fear God’, as though God was separate. But then He adds ‘you have not withheld your son, your only son from Me ’, which can only mean the Angel is referring to Himself as God.

Again in Genesis 31:11 it is ‘the Angel of God’ who is said to have spoken to Jacob in a dream, while in Zechariah 1:13 He says, ‘I am the God of Bethel’. In Exodus 3:2 it is the Angel of YHWH Who appears to Moses in the burning bush, but we soon learn it is YHWH Himself (Zechariah 1:4). But in 2 Samuel 24:16 ‘the Angel YHWH’ is clearly separate from ‘YHWH’, although closely connected in activity. So there are clear suggestions of dual activity.

In Judges 2:1-5 it is the Angel of YHWH Who rebukes Israel because they have been disobedient and have made covenants with the people of the land and have not driven them out and destroyed their pagan altars, but comparison of Judges 2:3 with Judges 2:21 indicates that reveals that He is YHWH Himself.

In Judges 13:0 the Angel of YHWH (also referred to in the passage as ‘the angel of God’) appears first to the wife of Manoah, and then to Manoah and his wife, and speaks of God (Judges 13:5) as though separate from Himself. He then adds ‘I will not eat of your bread and if you would make ready a burnt offering, you must offer it to YHWH’, giving the same impression (Judges 13:16). (The writer recognises the distinction and explains that Manoah was not yet aware that this was the Angel of YHWH, for he is puzzled by the distinction revealed). When the burnt offering is offered ‘the angel of YHWH ascended in the flame of the altar’ (Judges 13:20). He then refuses to divulge His name saying, ‘Why do you ask My name seeing it is wonderful (or secret)?’ (Judges 13:18). Basically the idea here is that the name is too holy to be revealed. Manoah later realises that he has been speaking to God (Judges 13:22). Again we receive the impression, as the writer did, that God is one and yet compound.

More significantly, here in Zechariah 1:12 the Angel of YHWH speaks with YHWH, and YHWH answers Him. This stresses a separate and inter-personal relationship. But when in Zechariah 3:0 Joshua the High Priest is standing before the Angel of YHWH (Zechariah 3:1), we are told in Zechariah 1:2 it is ‘YHWH’ Who speaks to him, and this looks back to Zechariah 1:1 in such a way as to suggest that the Angel of YHWH is identifiable with YHWH. Yet in Zechariah 1:6-7 the Angel of YHWH speaks as though He is speaking on YHWH’s behalf.

Then in Zechariah 12:8 ‘the house of David will be as God, as the Angel of YHWH’, suggesting that God and the Angel of YHWH are one. So in Zechariah the Angel of YHWH is both identified with the Lord, and separated from Him in such a way as to converse with Him.

In a similar way Malachi can say, ‘behold I send My messenger (angel), and he shall prepare the way before Me, and the Lord Whom you seek will suddenly come to His temple, and the Angel of the covenant whom you delight in’. Here ‘the Lord’ and ‘the angel of the covenant’ are in parallel as one.

So God is seen as One in thought and action and yet in that unity there is a suggestion of plurality.

Furthermore, while there is no mention of the Angel of YHWH in it, there is an interesting passage where the One Who is ‘the first and the last’ (Isaiah 48:12 compare Revelation 1:17) is speaking through Isaiah and says, ‘From the beginning I have not spoken in secret, from the time that it was, there am I. And now the Lord God has sent me, and His Spirit’ (Isaiah 48:16). The way that this is usually explained is to say that we have here words interjected by Isaiah himself, but the remainder of the passage is certainly from the mouth of God and the wording is suggestive of God’s revelation of Himself.

Compare with this Isaiah 63:9-10 where Isaiah says, ‘in all their affliction He was afflicted, and the Angel of His Presence saved them. In His love and in His pity He redeemed them, and He bore them and carried them all the days of old, but they rebelled and grieved His holy Spirit’, where again we have the YHWH, the Angel and the Holy Spirit.

Finally, in the case of Gideon (Judges 6:0) the ‘Angel of YHWH’ speaks with Gideon as though He was separate from ‘YHWH’, speaking of Him in the third person (v. 12) and Gideon speaks with Him as though He were different from ‘YHWH’ (v. 13), yet immediately we have ‘YHWH’ there, and speaking in the first person (v. 14-16). Then ‘the Spirit of YHWH’ comes on Gideon (Judges 6:34). So Gideon experiences YHWH, the Angel of YHWH and the Spirit of YHWH.

(End of note).

Zechariah 1:12

‘And the angel of YHWH answered and said, “Oh YHWH of Hosts, how long will you not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah against which you have had indignation these seventy years?”

The Angel of YHWH recognises that history seems to have come to a standstill and that this means that God’s mercy is not yet being shown to Jerusalem and Judah. He cries to God to act on Jerusalem and Judah’s behalf, interceding on their behalf. Note the distinction between YHWH and the Angel of YHWH. The Angel of YHWH is YHWH, but YHWH as revealed in distinct inter-personal activity. The idea prepares the way for the coming of Jesus.

Note also the distinction here between Jerusalem and Judah. Throughout its history Jerusalem is always seen as separate from Judah. It was the city of David, who captured it and to whom it therefore separately belonged, and it was ever proud of its uniqueness.

‘These seventy years.’ The time of their exile as prophesied by Jeremiah 25:11-12; Jeremiah 29:10, was ‘until seventy years should be accomplished’. This has now all but passed since the fall of Jerusalem. By this point in time God had promised to punish the king of Babylon and that whole nation and to cause His people to return to their land. Well, Babylon had indeed fallen, and its co-ruler ‘Belshazzar the king’ had been slain in 539 BC (Daniel 5:30) while its king Nabonidus, not in the city at the time, had been taken captive by the Medo-Persians. Some of God’s people had also returned to Judah, but Jerusalem still languished.

It is interesting to note that on the black stone of Esarhaddon of Assyria we find the statement that the god Marduk would be angry ‘until seventy years should be accomplished’. In the event he was restored after eleven years. ‘Seventy years’ would therefore appear to be recognised period for divine anger, not to be taken too literally (compare Isaiah 23:15-17; 2 Chronicles 36:21).

On the other hand if we date the restoration from exile in terms of the first departure of exiles (including Daniel) into Babylonia in 605 BC, then the initial return of the exiles in 537 BC is 68 years afterwards. It may, however, be that in this context Zecghariah is thinking in terms of the period between the destruction of the Temple in 586/5 BC and its restoration and completion in 515 BC.

Zechariah 1:13

‘And YHWH answered the angel who talked with me with good words, even comfortable words.’

These words are not spoken to ‘the Angel of YHWH’ but to the angel who is speaking with Zechariah. They are meant for Zechariah. The reply of YHWH is positive, satisfactory and comforting. He is ready to act if His people will respond. (Here in fact YHWH may be indicating ‘the Angel of YHWH’).

Zechariah 1:14-15

‘So the angel who talked with me said to me, “Cry, you, saying, ‘Thus says YHWH of Hosts. I am jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with a great jealousy. And I am very sore displeased with the nations who are at ease. For I was but a little displeased and they helped forward the affliction’.” ’

God has not forgotten His people although it must have seemed like it. Although they are downtrodden He has watched over them with great jealousy (strong desire for their good) and concern. And He has noted with anger that the nations have taken advantage of the fact that He has used them as instruments of chastisement against His people and have taken things too far. They have done more than they should. Thus His anger is now aroused against them.

Note the distinction between Jerusalem and Zion. In Zechariah 2:7 ‘Zion’ is the description of the exiles in Babylon. Yet elsewhere Zion is Jerusalem. The terms are both used sometimes to speak of the city and sometimes to speak of the people of God.

These descriptions of God’s emotions as He surveys the situation are, of course, to be seen as anthropomorphic. They are intended to show His deep concern without being taken too literally. They are not irrational responses as so often with men.

‘I was but a little displeased but they helped forward the affliction.’ God describes His displeasure at the past behaviour of His people as ‘little’. He had intended to chastise them but He had not intended to destroy them. However, the nations are now taking advantage of it and treating them very badly. They are multiplying the disaster.

Considering the total destruction of Jerusalem and the carrying into distant exile of the people the ‘little displeasure’ of God has had great consequences. This reminds us that we are dealing with One Who is all-powerful and holy, whose chastisement cannot be treated lightly, and that it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. This is something we always need to remember. But we are also reminded that His faithfulness does not fail. He will yet do great things on His people’s behalf. When things are at their worst God is at His best.

Zechariah 1:16

“Therefore thus says YHWH, ‘I am returned to Jerusalem with mercies. My house will be built in it,’ says YHWH of Hosts, ‘and a line will be stretched forth over Jerusalem’.”

God promises that His time has now come. He will now have mercy on Jerusalem and will step in on their behalf. He will first ensure the building of a new Temple, so that they may be joined in worship, and then He will bring about the rebuilding of Jerusalem.

For YHWH’s house compare Zechariah 4:9, ‘the hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundations of this house’; Zechariah 7:3, where the men of Bethel entreat the favour of the Lord and speak to the priests of the house of YHWH of hosts; Zechariah 8:9 which refers back to the days when the foundation of the house of YHWH of hosts was laid; Zechariah 11:13 where Zechariah casts his thirty pieces of silver to the potter in the house YHWH.

‘A line will be stretched forth.’ A measuring line preparatory to rebuilding (see Zechariah 2:2).

Zechariah 1:17

“Cry yet again saying, ‘Thus says YHWH of Hosts, “My cities through prosperity will yet be spread abroad”, and YHWH will yet comfort Zion and will yet choose Jerusalem.’ ”

His promises continue. His people may look around at the poverty of circumstances surrounding them, but if they are obedient they will again become prosperous and make their impact in the world. Their cities, which are languishing, will grow and spread. And all this will be due to the activity of YHWH as He restores His people and confirms that they are the ‘chosen’ of YHWH to be His ministers to the world.

Note again how Zechariah distinguishes Zion from Jerusalem. Jerusalem is the city but Zion is the people of God (Zechariah 2:7). Thus the people of God will be strengthened and encouraged and Jerusalem is chosen to be the source of God’s deliverance to man. But the distinction must not be over-pressed. In the end the city is its people. It is man who exalts places, God exalts people. The choosing of Jerusalem will culminate in the glorious vision of chapter 14.

So the plea of the angel of YHWH has been heard. God will now act on behalf of His people. Notice how God’s sovereignty comes out in all this. It is He Who arranges for a successful intercessor because His people are not themselves worthy, and then it is He Who responds to His cry.

(We must not overlook, however, that elsewhere there are those who are interceding effectively on earth, including Daniel - Daniel 9:3 onwards. God always has His intercessors. But without the heavenly intercession their prayers would be in vain).

Verses 7-21

The Eight Night Visions And Accompanying Oracles (Zechariah 1:7 to Zechariah 6:8 ).

Zechariah now goes on to describe eight night visions, which he appears to have had in one night, which are in the main accompanied by oracles. These portray the commencement of the new beginning and are as follows:

· The Horsemen Scouts go through the whole earth and find it at rest - Jerusalem will be restored (Zechariah 1:7-17).

· The Four Horns and the Four Smiths - the opposing nations will be pared back (Zechariah 1:18-21).

· The Man With The Measuring Line to Measure Jerusalem - Jerusalem will be reoccupied and God will dwell among His people (Zechariah 2:1-13).

· The Accusation and Cleansing Of Joshua the High Priest - the High Priesthood is restored and the promise is made of the coming Branch (Zechariah 3:1-10).

· The Golden Lampstand and the Two Olive Trees - Zerubbabel, with Joshua, (the two anointed ones), will rebuild the Temple (Zechariah 4:1-14).

· The Flying Scroll - a curse will go out that will rid the land of sin (Zechariah 5:1-4).

· The Woman in the Ephah - wickedness is to be despatched to Shinar/Babylon (Zechariah 5:5-11).

· The Chariots, which are the Four Winds from the Lord, will travel through the whole earth and especially bring quietness in the north (Zechariah 6:1-8), the source of past invasion. Jerusalem will dwell securely.

Thus the process of restoring and ensuring the security of Jerusalem, is to be accompanied by the restoration of the High Priesthood, the rebuilding of the Temple against all odds, the purification of the whole land, the removal of wickedness, and the ensuring of peace in the north (Mesopotamia).

Verses 18-21

The Second Vision. The Vision of the Horns and the Smiths (Zechariah 1:18-21 ).

God will now pare back the horns that have been directed at Jerusalem. The message is that although Israel and Judah have both been scattered, together with the men and women of Jerusalem, by a number of kings, now those nations themselves will be pared back.

Zechariah 1:18-19

‘And I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold four horns. And I said to the angel who talked with me, “What are these?”. And he answered me, “These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel and Jerusalem”.’

The prophet sees four horns. The horn is the means by which the wild beast exercises its authority. Thus the horns indicate the nations who are seen as powerful wild beasts in violent activity. Four denotes universality, the nations seen as a whole. They are world aggressors, exacting their authority.

‘Judah, Israel and Jerusalem.’ By this he depicts the whole people of God. The threeness denotes completeness before God. No part of His people have been finally rejected. Note again that the terms refer to the people. God is not concerned with places except in so far as they benefit His people.

Zechariah 1:20-21

‘And YHWH showed me four smiths. Then I said, “What have these come to do?” And he spoke saying, “These are the horns which scattered Judah so that no man lifted up his head. But these are come to fray (or terrify) them, to cast down the horns of the nations who lifted up their horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.” ’

With powerful use of their horns the nations have scattered Judah into exile, but now God’s divine instruments will act against the horns, like workmen fraying horns, so that they are rendered powerless. Then it is the nations who will be terrified because God has acted against them on behalf of His people. The smiths thus represent whatever resources God brings against the nations, including angelic ones.

‘No man lifted up his head.’ Every head was bowed down. They had been miserable times for His people. But God now wants them to know that He had not overlooked it, He has not forgotten them.

Bibliographical Information
Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Zechariah 1". "Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/pet/zechariah-1.html. 2013.
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