With (συν sun). See John 12:2 for another example of συν sun in John (common in Paul). The usual μετα meta reappears in John 18:2.Over (περαν peran). “Beyond,” preposition with the ablative as in John 6:22, John 6:25. Brook (χειμαρρου cheimarrou). Old word, flowing (ροοσ ρεω roos class="normal greek">χειμα reō) in winter (τον Κεδρων cheima), only here in N.T. Kidron (του Κεδρων ton Kedrōn). Literally, “of the Cedars,” “Brook of the Cedars.” Only here in N.T. So 2 Samuel 15:23. Textus Receptus like Josephus (Ant. VIII, 1, 5) has the singular κηπος tou Kedrōn (indeclinable). As a matter of fact it was always dry save after a heavy rain. A garden (kēpos). Old word, in N.T. only here, John 18:26; John 19:41 (Joseph‘s); Luke 13:19. John, like Luke, does not give the name Gethsemane (only in Mark 14:32; Matthew 26:36). The brook of the cedars had many unhallowed associations (1 Kings 2:37; 1 Kings 15:13; 2 Kings 23:4.; 2 Chronicles 29:16; Jeremiah 31:40).
Resorted thither (συνηχτη εκει sunēchthē ekei). First aorist passive indicative of συναγω sunagō old verb to gather together. A bit awkward here till you add “with his disciples.” Judas knew the place, and the habit of Jesus to come here at night for prayer (Luke 22:39). Hence his offer to catch Jesus while the feast was going on, catch him at night and alone in his usual place of prayer (the very spirit of the devil).
The band of soldiers (την σπειραν tēn speiran). No word for “of soldiers” in the Greek, but the Latin spira (roll or ball) was used for a military cohort (Polybius 11, 23, 1) as in Matthew 27:27; Acts 10:1, etc., here for a small band secured from the Tower of Antonia. The Synoptics do not mention the soldiers, but only the “officers” as here (υπηρετας hupēretas for which see Matthew 26:58; Mark 14:54, Mark 14:65) or temple police from the Sanhedrin.Cometh (ερχεται erchetai). Dramatic historical present middle indicative. With lanterns and torches (μετα πανων και λαμπαδων meta phanōn kai lampadōn). Both old words, πανος phanos only here in N.T., λαμπας lampas an oil lamp (Matthew 25:1). It was full moon, but Judas took no chances for it may have been cloudy and there were dark places by the walls and under the olive trees. Μετα Meta is accompanied with and weapons (και οπλων kai hoplōn). Mark (Mark 14:43) mentions “swords and staves.” Probably the temple guard had weapons as well as the soldiers.
Knowing all the things that were coming upon him (ειδως παντα τα ερχομενα επ αυτον eidōs panta ta erchomena ep' auton). Mentioned already in John 13:1. He was not taken by surprise. The surrender and death of Jesus were voluntary acts, though the guilt of Judas and the rest remains.
Was standing (ιστηκει histēkei). Second past perfect active of ιστημι histēmi used as imperfect, a vivid picture of Judas in the very act of betraying Jesus. John does not mention the kiss by Judas as a sign to the soldiers and police. Tatian suggests that it came before John 18:4. Then Jesus stepped forth and affirmed that he was the one whom they were seeking.
Fell to the ground (επεσαν χαμαι epesan chamai). Second aorist active indicative of πιπτω piptō with first aorist ending (-αν an). This recoil made them stumble. But why did they step back? Was it the former claim of Jesus (I am, εγω ειμι egō eimi) to be on an equality with God (John 8:58; John 13:19) or mere embarrassment and confusion or supernatural power exerted by Jesus? B adds Ιησους Iēsous which must mean simply: “I am Jesus.”
Again (παλιν palin). The repeated question receives the same answer. The soldiers and officers know who it is, but are still overawed.
Let these go their way (απετε τουτους υπαγειν aphete toutous hupagein). Second aorist active imperative of απιημι aphiēmi The verb υπαγειν hupagein means to withdraw (John 11:44). Jesus shows solicitude for the eleven as he had warned them and prayed for them (Luke 22:31.). He is trying to help them.
That might be fulfilled (ινα πληρωτηι hina plērōthēi). The regular formula (John 17:12) for Scripture, here applied to the prophecy of Jesus (John 17:12) as in John 18:32. John treats the saying of Jesus as on a par with the O.T.
Having a sword (εχων μαχαιραν echōn machairan). It was unlawful to carry a weapon on a feast-day, but Peter had become alarmed at Christ‘s words about his peril. They had two swords or knives in the possession of the eleven according to Luke (Luke 22:38). After the treacherous kiss of Judas (on the hand or the cheek?) the disciples asked: “Lord, shall we smite with the sword?” (Luke 22:49). Apparently before Jesus could answer Peter with his usual impulsiveness jerked out (ειλκυσεν heilkusen first aorist active indicative of ελκυω helkuō for which see John 6:44) his sword and cut off the right ear of Malchus (John 18:10), a servant of the high priest. Peter missed the man‘s head as he swerved to his left. Luke also (Luke 22:50) mentions the detail of the right ear, but John alone mentions the man‘s name and Peter‘s. There was peril to Peter in his rash act as comes out later (John 18:26), but he was dead long before John wrote his Gospel as was Lazarus of whom John could also safely write (John 12:9-11). For ωταριον ōtarion diminutive of ους ous see Mark 14:47 (only other N.T. example), another diminutive ωτιον ōtion in Matthew 26:51 (Mark 14:47; Luke 22:51).
Into the sheath (εις την τηκην eis tēn thēkēn). Old word from τιτημι tithēmi to put for box or sheath, only here in N.T. In Matthew 26:52 Christ‘s warning is given.The cup (το ποτηριον to potērion). Metaphor for Christ‘s death, used already in reply to request of James and John (Mark 10:39; Matthew 20:22) and in the agony in Gethsemane before Judas came (Mark 14:36; Matthew 26:39; Luke 22:42), which is not given by John. The case of το ποτηριον to potērion is the suspended nominative for note αυτο auto (it) referring to it. Shall I not drink? (ου μη πιω ou mē piō). Second aorist active subjunctive of πινω pinō with the double negative ου μη ou mē in a question expecting the affirmative answer. Abbott takes it as an exclamation and compares John 6:37; Mark 14:25.
The chief captain (ο χιλιαρχος ho chiliarchos). They actually had the Roman commander of the cohort along (cf. Acts 21:31), not mentioned before.Seized (συνελαβον sunelabon). Second aorist active of συλλαμβανω sullambanō old verb to grasp together, to arrest (technical word) in the Synoptics in this context (Mark 14:48; Matthew 26:55), here alone in John. Bound (εδησαν edēsan). First aorist active indicative of δεω deō to bind. As a matter of course, with the hands behind his back, but with no warrant in law and with no charge against him. To Annas first (προς Ανναν πρωτον pros Annan prōton). Ex-high priest and father-in-law (πεντερος pentheros old word, only here in N.T.) of Caiaphas the actual high priest. Then Jesus was subjected to a preliminary and superfluous inquiry by Annas (given only by John) while the Sanhedrin were gathering before Caiaphas. Bernard curiously thinks that the night trial actually took place here before Annas and only the early morning ratification was before Caiaphas. So he calmly says that “Matthew inserts the name Caiaphas at this point (the night trial) in which he seems to have been mistaken.” But why “mistaken”? That year (του ενιαυτου εκεινου tou eniautou ekeinou). Genitive of time.
He which gave command (ο συμβουλευσας ho sumbouleusas). First aorist active articular participle of συμβουλευω sumbouleuō old verb (Matthew 26:4). The reference is to John 11:50.It was expedient (συμπερει sumpherei). Present active indicative retained in indirect assertion after secondary tense (ην ēn was). Here we have the second aorist active infinitive αποτανειν apothanein as the subject of συμπερει sumpherei both good idioms in the Koiné.
Followed (ηκολουτει ēkolouthei). Imperfect active of ακολουτεω akoloutheō “was following,” picturesque and vivid tense, with associative instrumental case τωι Ιησου tōi IēsouAnother disciple (αλλος ματητης allos mathētēs). Correct text without article ο ho (genuine in John 18:16). Peter‘s companion was the Beloved Disciple, the author of the book (John 21:24). Was known unto the high priest (ην γνωστος τωι αρχιερει ēn gnōstos tōi archierei). Verbal adjective from γινωσκω ginōskō to know (Acts 1:19) with dative case. How well known the word does not say, not necessarily a personal friend, well enough known for the portress to admit John. “The account of what happened to Peter might well seem to be told from the point of view of the servants‘ hall” (Sanday, Criticism of the Fourth Gospel, p. 101). Entered in with Jesus (συνεισηλτεν τωι Ιησου suneisēlthen tōi Iēsou). Second aorist active indicative of the double compound συνεισερχομαι suneiserchomai old verb, in N.T. here and John 6:22. With associative instrumental case. Into the court (εις την αυλην eis tēn aulēn). It is not clear that this word ever means the palace itself instead of the courtyard (uncovered enclosure) as always in the papyri (very common). Clearly courtyard in Mark 14:66 (Matthew 26:69; Luke 22:55). Apparently Annas had rooms in the official residence of Caiaphas.
Was standing (ιστηκει histēkei). Same form in John 18:5 which see. So also ιστηκεισαν histēkeisan in John 18:18. Picture of Peter standing outside by the door.Unto the high priest (του αρχιερεως tou archiereōs). Objective genitive here, but dative in John 18:15. Unto her that kept the door (τηι τυρωρωι tēi thurōrōi). Old word (τυρα thura door, ωρα ōra care), masculine in John 10:3, feminine here, door-keeper (male or female).
The maid (η παιδισκη hē paidiskē). Feminine form of παιδισκος paidiskos diminutive of παις pais See Matthew 26:69. When “the maid the portress” (apposition).Art thou also? (μη και συ ει mē kai su ei). Expecting the negative answer, though she really believed he was. This man‘s (του αντρωπου τουτου tou anthrōpou toutou). Contemptuous use of ουτος houtos with a gesture toward Jesus. She made it easy for Peter to say no.
A fire of coals (αντρακιαν anthrakian). Old word, in lxx, only here and John 21:9 in N.T. A heap of burning coals (αντραχ anthrax coal). Cf. our “anthracite.” It was cold (πσυχος ην psuchos ēn). “There was coldness.” The soldiers had apparently returned to their barracks.Were warming themselves (ετερμαινοντο ethermainonto). Direct middle imperfect indicative of τερμαινω thermainō (from τερμος thermos). So as to τερμαινομενος thermainomenos about Peter. “Peter, unabashed by his lie, joined himself to the group and stood in the light of the fire” (Dods).
Asked (ηρωτησεν ērōtēsen). First aorist active indicative of ερωταω erōtaō to question, usual meaning. This was Annas making a preliminary examination of Jesus probably to see on what terms Jesus made disciples whether as a mere rabbi or as Messiah.
Openly (παρρησιαι parrēsiāi). As already shown (John 7:4; John 8:26; John 10:24, John 10:39; John 16:25, John 16:29. See John 7:4 for same contrast between εν παρρησιαι en parrēsiāi and εν κρυπτωι en kruptōiI ever taught (εγω παντοτε εδιδαχα egō pantote edidaxa). Constative aorist active indicative. For the temple teaching see John 2:19; John 7:14, John 7:28; John 8:20, John 19:23; Mark 14:49 and John 6:59 for the synagogue teaching (often in the Synoptics). Examples of private teaching are Nicodemus (John 3) and the woman of Samaria (John 4). Jesus ignores the sneer at his disciples, but challenges the inquiry about his teaching as needless.
Ask them that have heard me (ερωτησον τους ακηκοοτας erōtēson tous akēkootas). First aorist (tense of urgent and instant action) active imperative of ερωταω erōtaō and the articular perfect active participle accusative masculine plural of ακουω akouō to hear. There were abundant witnesses to be had. Multitudes had heard Jesus in the great debate in the temple on Tuesday of this very week when the Sanhedrin were routed to the joy of the common people who heard Jesus gladly (Mark 12:37). They still know.
When he had said this (ταυτα αυτου ειποντος tauta autou eipontos). Genitive absolute of second aorist active participle of ειπον eipon to say.Standing by (παρεστηκως parestēkōs). Perfect active (intransitive) participle of παριστημι paristēmi (transitive), to place beside. One of the temple police who felt his importance as protector of Annas. Struck Jesus with his hand (εδωκεν ραπισμα τωι Ιησου edōken rapisma tōi Iēsou). Late word ραπισμα rapisma is from ραπιζω rapizō to smite with a rod or with the palm of the hand (Matthew 26:67). It occurs only three times in the N.T. (Mark 14:65; John 18:22; John 19:3), in each of which it is uncertain whether the blow is with a rod or with the palm of the hand (probably this, a most insulting act). The papyri throw no real light on it. “He gave Jesus a slap in the face.” Cf. 2 Corinthians 11:20. So (ουτως houtōs). As Jesus had done in John 18:21, a dignified protest in fact by Jesus.
If I have spoken evil (ει κακως ελαλησα ei kakōs elalēsa). Condition of first class (assumed to be true), with ει ei and aorist active indicative. Jesus had not spoken evilly towards Annas, though he did not here turn the other cheek, one may note. For the sake of argument, Jesus puts it as if he did speak evilly. Then prove it, that is all.Bear witness of the evil (μαρτυρησον περι του κακου marturēson peri tou kakou). First aorist active imperative of μαρτυρεω martureō to testify. This is the conclusion (apodosis). Jesus is clearly entitled to proof of such a charge if there is any. But if well (ει δε καλως ei de kalōs). Supply the same verb ελαλησα elalēsa The same condition, but with a challenging question as the apodosis. Smitest (δερεις dereis). Old verb δερω derō to flay, to skin, to beat, as in Matthew 21:35; Luke 22:63; 2 Corinthians 11:20 (of an insulting blow in the face as here).
Therefore sent him (απεστειλεν ουν αυτον apesteilen oun auton). First aorist active of αποστελλω apostellō not past perfect (had sent). The preliminary examination by Annas was over.Bound (δεδεμενον dedemenon). Perfect passive participle of δεω deō to bind. Jesus was bound on his arrest (John 18:12) and apparently unbound during the preliminary examination by Annas.
Was standing and warming himself (ην εστως και τερμαινομενος ēn hestōs kai thermainomenos). Two periphrastic imperfects precisely as in John 18:18, vivid renewal of the picture drawn there. John alone gives the examination of Jesus by Annas (John 18:19-24) which he places between the first and the second denials by Peter. Each of the Four Gospels gives three denials, but it is not possible to make a clear parallel as probably several people joined in each time. This time there was an hour‘s interval (Luke 22:59). The question and answer are almost identical with John 18:17 and “put in a form which almost suggested that Peter should say ‹No‘” (Bernard), a favourite device of the devil in making temptation attractive.
Did not I see thee in the garden with him? (ουκ εγω σε ειδον εν τωι κηπωι μετ αυτου ouk egō se eidon en tōi kēpōi met' autou). This staggering and sudden thrust expects an affirmative answer by the use of ουκ ouk not μη mē as in John 18:17, John 18:25, but Peter‘s previous denials with the knowledge that he was observed by a kinsman of Malchus whom he had tried to kill (John 18:10) drove him to the third flat denial that he knew Jesus, this time with cursing and swearing (Mark 14:71; Matthew 26:73). Peter was in dire peril now of arrest himself for attempt to kill.Straightway (ευτεως eutheōs). As in Matthew 26:74 while Luke has παραχρημα parachrēma (Luke 22:60). Mark (Mark 14:68, Mark 14:72) speaks of two crowings as often happens when one cock crows. See Matthew 26:34 for αλεκτωρ alektōr (cock). That was usually the close of the third watch of the night (Mark 13:35), about 3 a.m. Luke 22:61 notes that Jesus turned and looked on Peter probably as he passed from the rooms of Annas to the trial before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin (the ecclesiastical court). See Mrs. Browning‘s beautiful sonnets on “The Look”.
They lead (αγουσιν agousin). Dramatic historical present of αγω agō plural “they” for the Sanhedrists (Luke 23:1). John gives no details of the trial before the Sanhedrin (only the fact, John 18:24, John 18:28) when Caiaphas presided, either the informal meeting at night (Mark 14:53, Mark 14:55-65; Matthew 26:57, Matthew 26:59-68; Luke 22:54, Luke 22:63-65) or the formal ratification meeting after dawn (Mark 15:1; Matthew 27:1; Luke 22:66-71), but he gives much new material of the trial before Pilate (John 18:28-38).Into the palace (εις το πραιτωριον eis to praitōrion). For the history and meaning of this interesting Latin word, praetorium, see note on Matthew 27:27; note on Acts 23:35; and note on Philemon 1:13. Here it is probably the magnificent palace in Jerusalem built by Herod the Great for himself and occupied by the Roman Procurator (governor) when in the city. There was also one in Caesarea (Acts 23:35). Herod‘s palace in Jerusalem was on the Hill of Zion in the western part of the upper city. There is something to be said for the Castle of Antonia, north of the temple area, as the location of Pilate‘s residence in Jerusalem. Early (πρωι prōi). Technically the fourth watch (3 a.m. to 6 a.m.). There were two violations of Jewish legal procedure (holding the trial for a capital case at night, passing condemnation on the same day of the trial). Besides, the Sanhedrin no longer had the power of death. A Roman court could meet any time after sunrise. John (John 19:14) says it was “about the sixth hour” when Pilate condemned Jesus. That they might not be defiled (ινα μη μιαντωσιν hina mē mianthōsin). Purpose clause with ινα μη hina mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of μιαινω miainō to stain, to defile. For Jewish scruples about entering the house of a Gentile see Acts 10:28; Acts 11:3. But might eat the passover (αλλα παγωσιν το πασχα alla phagōsin to pascha). Second aorist active subjunctive of the defective verb εστιω esthiō to eat. This phrase may mean to eat the passover meal as in Matthew 27:17 (Mark 14:12, Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11, Luke 22:15), but it does not have to mean that. In 2 Chronicles 30:22 we read: “And they did eat the festival seven days” when the paschal festival is meant, not the paschal lamb or the paschal supper. There are eight other examples of πασχα pascha in John‘s Gospel and in all of them the feast is meant, not the supper. If we follow John‘s use of the word, it is the feast here, not the meal of John 13:2 which was the regular passover meal. This interpretation keeps John in harmony with the Synoptics.
Went out (εχηλτεν εχω exēlthen exō). Note both εχ ex and εχω exō (went out outside), since the Sanhedrin would not come into Pilate‘s palace. Apparently on a gallery over the pavement in front of the palace (John 19:13).Accusation (κατηγοριαν katēgorian). Old word for formal charge, in N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 5:19; Titus 1:6. Against this man (του αντρωπου τουτου tou anthrōpou toutou). Objective genitive after κατηγοριαν katēgorian A proper legal inquiry.
If this man were not an evil-doer (ει μη ην ουτος κακον ποιων ei mē ēn houtos kakon poiōn). Condition (negative) of second class (periphrastic imperfect indicative), assumed to be untrue, with the usual apodosis (αν an and aorist indicative, first aorist plural with κ k). This is a pious pose of infallibility not in the Synoptics. They then proceeded to make the charges (Luke 23:2) as indeed John implies (John 18:31, John 18:33). Some MSS. here read κακοποιος kakopoios (malefactor) as in 1 Peter 2:12, 1 Peter 2:14, with which compare Luke‘s κακουργος kakourgos (Luke 23:32.; so also 2 Timothy 2:9), both meaning evil-doer. Here the periphrastic present participle ποιων poiōn with κακον kakon emphasizes the idea that Jesus was a habitual evil-doer (Abbott). It was an insolent reply to Pilate (Bernard).
Yourselves (υμεις humeis). Emphatic. Pilate shrewdly turns the case over to the Sanhedrin in reply to their insolence, who have said nothing whatever about their previous trial and condemnation of Jesus. He drew out at once the admission that they wanted the death of Jesus, not a fair trial for him, but Pilate‘s approval of their purpose to kill him (John 7:1, John 7:25).
By what manner of death (ποιωι τανατωι poiōi thanatōi). Instrumental case of the qualitative interrogative ποιος poios in an indirect question, the very idiom used in John 12:32 concerning the Cross and here treated as prophecy (Scripture) with ινα πληρωτηι hina plērōthēi like the saying of Jesus in John 18:9 which see.
Again (παλιν palin). Back into the palace where Pilate was before.Called (επωνησεν ephōnēsen). First aorist active indicative of πωνεω phōneō Jesus was already inside the court (John 18:28). Pilate now summoned him to his presence since he saw that he had to handle the case. The charge that Jesus claimed to be a king compelled him to do so (Luke 23:2). Art thou the King of the Jews? (συ ει ο βασιλευς των Ιουδαιων su ei ho basileus tōn Ioudaiōn). This was the vital problem and each of the Gospels has the question (Mark 15:2; Matthew 27:1; Luke 23:3; John 18:33), though Luke alone (Luke 23:2) gives the specific accusation. Thou (συ su). Emphatic. Jesus did claim to be the spiritual king of Israel as Nathanael said (John 1:49) and as the ecstatic crowd hailed him on the Triumphal Entry (John 12:13), but the Sanhedrin wish Pilate to understand this in a civil sense as a rival of Caesar as some of the Jews wanted Jesus to be (John 6:15) and as the Pharisees expected the Messiah to be.
Of thyself (απο σεαυτου apo seautou). Whether a sincere inquiry on Pilate‘s part or a trap from the Sanhedrin.
Am I a Jew? (μητι εγω Ιουδαιος ειμι mēti egō Ioudaios eimi). Proud and fine scorn on Pilate‘s part at the idea that he had a personal interest in the question. Vehement negation implied. Cf. John 4:29 for μητι mēti in a question. The gulf between Jew and Gentile yawns wide here.Nation (ετνος ethnos as in John 11:48-52, rather than λαος laos while both in John 11:50). For παρεδωκαν paredōkan see John 18:30. What hast thou done? (τι εποιησασ ti epoiēsas). First aorist active indicative of ποιεω poieō Blunt and curt question. “What didst thou do?” “What is thy real crime?” John‘s picture of this private interview between Pilate and Jesus is told with graphic power.
My kingdom (η βασιλεια η εμη hē basileia hē emē). Christ claims to be king to Pilate, but of a peculiar kingdom. For “world” (κοσμου kosmou) see John 17:13-18.My servants (οι υπηρεται οι εμοι hoi hupēretai hoi emoi). For the word see John 18:3 where it means the temple police or guards (literally, under-rowers). In the lxx always (Prov 14:35; Isaiah 32:5; Dan 3:46) officers of a king as here. Christ then had only a small band of despised followers who could not fight against Caesar. Was he alluding also to legions of angels on his side? (Matthew 26:56). Would fight (ηγωνιζοντο αν ēgōnizonto an). Imperfect middle of αγωνιζομαι agōnizomai common verb (only here in John, but see 1 Corinthians 9:25) from αγων agōn (contest) with αν an a conclusion of the second-class condition (assumed as untrue). Christians should never forget the profound truth stated here by Jesus. That I should not be delivered (ινα μη παραδοτω hina mē paradothō). Negative final clause with ινα μη hina mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of παραδιδωμι paradidōmi (see John 18:28, John 18:36). Jesus expects Pilate to surrender to the Jews. But now (νυν δε nun de). In contrast to the condition already stated as in John 8:40; John 9:41; John 15:22, John 15:24.
Art thou a king then? (ουκουν βασιλευς ει συ oukoun basileus ei su). Compound of ουκ ouk and ουν oun and is clearly ironical expecting an affirmative answer, only here in the N.T., and in lxx only in A text in 2Kings 5:23.Thou sayest that (συ λεγεις οτι su legeis hoti). In Matthew 27:11; Mark 15:2; Luke 23:3, συ λεγεις su legeis clearly means “yes,” as συ ειπας su eipas (thou saidst) does in Matthew 26:64 (= “I am,” εγω ειμι egō eimi in Mark 14:62). Hence here οτι hoti had best be taken to mean “because”: “Yes, because I am a king.” Have I been born (εγω γεγεννημαι egō gegennēmai). Perfect passive indicative of γενναω gennaō The Incarnation was for this purpose. Note repetition of εις τουτο eis touto (for this purpose), explained by ινα μαρτυρησω τηι αλητειαι hina marturēsō tēi alētheiāi (that I may bear witness to the truth), ινα hina with first aorist active subjunctive of μαρτυρεω martureō Paul (1 Timothy 6:13) alludes to this good confession when Christ bore witness (μαρτυρησαντος marturēsantos) before Pilate. Jesus bore such witness always (John 3:11, John 3:32; John 7:7; John 8:14; Revelation 1:5).
What is truth? (τι εστιν αλητεια ti estin alētheia). This famous sneer of Pilate reveals his own ignorance of truth, as he stood before Incarnate Truth (John 14:6). Quid est veritas? The answer in Latin is Vir est qui adest as has been succinctly said by the use of the same letters. Pilate turned with indifference from his own great question and rendered his verdict: “I find no crime in him” (εγω ουδεμιαν ευρισκω εν αυτωι αιτιαν egō oudemian heuriskō en autōi aitian). For this use of αιτια aitia see Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26. Pilate therefore should have set Jesus free at once.
A custom (συνητεια sunētheia). Old word for intimacy, intercourse, from συνητης sunēthēs (συν ητος sun class="normal greek">αναγκη ēthos), in N.T. only here, 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 11:16. This custom, alluded to in Mark 15:6; Matthew 27:15, is termed necessity (απολυω anagkē) in Luke 23:17 (late MSS., not in older MSS.). All the Gospels use the verb ινα απολυσω apoluō (release, set free). Then ινα hina apolusō is a subject clause (συνητεια hina and first aorist active subjunctive) in apposition with βουλεστε ουν απολυσω sunētheiaWill ye therefore that I release? (ινα boulesthe oun apolusō). Without the usual απολυσω hina before ινα apolusō asyndeton, as in Mark 10:36, to be explained either as parataxis or two questions (Robertson, Grammar, p. 430) or as mere omission of hina (ibid., p. 994). There is contempt and irony in Pilate‘s use of the phrase “the king of the Jews.”
Cried out (εκραυγασαν ekraugasan). First aorist active of κραυγαζω kraugazō old and rare verb from κραυγη kraugē outcry (Matthew 25:6), as in Matthew 12:19.Not this man (μη τουτον mē touton). Contemptuous use of ουτος houtos The priests put the crowd up to this choice (Mark 15:11) and Pilate offered the alternative (Matthew 27:17, one MS. actually gives Jesus as the name of Barabbas also). The name αραββας Barabbas in Aramaic simply means son of a father. A robber (ληιστης lēistēs). Old word from ληιζομαι lēizomai to plunder, and so a brigand and possibly the leader of the band to which the two robbers belonged who were crucified with Jesus. Luke terms him an insurgent and murderer (Luke 23:19, Luke 23:25). They chose Barabbas in preference to Jesus and apparently Jesus died on the very cross planned for Barabbas.
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 18". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/
the Second Week after Epiphany