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Bible Commentaries

The Gospels Compared

John 18

Verses 1-11

Jesus is betrayed and arrested
Matt 26:47-56 Mark 14:43-50 Luke 22:47-53 John 18:1-11
Matthew 26:47 And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and elders of the people. Mark 14:43 And immediately, while he yet spake, cometh Judas, one of the twelve, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders. Luke 22:47 And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, John 18:2 And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. John 18:3 Judas then, having received a band [of men] and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.



John 18:4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth,
Matthew 26:48 Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he: hold him fast. Mark 14:44 And he that betrayed him had given them a token, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he; take him, and lead [him] away safely.

Matthew 26:49 And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master; and kissed him. Mark 14:45 And as soon as he was come, he goeth straightway to him, and saith, Master, master; and kissed him. and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him.
Matthew 26:50 And Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come?
Luke 22:48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? and said unto them, Whom seek ye?
John 18:5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am [he]. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them. John 18:6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am [he], they went backward, and fell to the ground. John 18:7 Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth. John 18:8 Jesus answered, I have told you that I am [he]: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way: John 18:9 That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.
Matthew 26:50 Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. Mark 14:46 And they laid their hands on him, and took him. Luke 22:49 When they which were about him saw what would follow,


they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword?
Matthew 26:51 And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out [his] hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. Mark 14:47 And one of them that stood by drew a sword, and smote a servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. Luke 22:50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. John 18:10 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.
Matthew 26:52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword.
Luke 22:51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him. John 18:11 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath:
Matthew 26:53 Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels?

the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?
Matthew 26:54 But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?


Matthew 26:55 In that same hour said Jesus to the multitudes, Are ye come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me? Mark 14:48 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Are ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and [with] staves to take me? Luke 22:52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves?
I sat daily with you teaching in the temple, and ye laid no hold on me. Mark 14:49 I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and ye took me not: Luke 22:53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me:
Matthew 26:56 But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. but the scriptures must be fulfilled. but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled. Mark 14:50 And they all forsook him, and fled.

Verses 12-24

Caiaphas questions Jesus
Matt 26:57-68 Mark 14:53-65 Luke 22:54 Luke 22:67-71 John 18:12-24
Matthew 26:57 And they that had laid hold on Jesus led [him] away Mark 14:53 (a) And they led Jesus away Luke 22:54 (a) Then took they him, and led [him], John 18:12 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,
Luke 3:2 "in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness." John 18:13 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.
John 18:19 The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine. John 18:20 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing. John 18:21 Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said. John 18:22 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so? John 18:23 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me? John 18:24 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.
to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. Mark 14:53 (b) to the high priest: and with him were assembled all the chief priests and the elders and the scribes. Luke 22:54 (b) and brought him into the high priest's house. John 18:14 Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.
Matthew 26:58 But Peter followed him afar off unto the high priest's palace, and went in, and sat with the servants, to see the end. Mark 14:54 And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire. And Peter followed afar off. John 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and [so did] another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.
Matthew 26:59 Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; Mark 14:55 And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death;
Matthew 26:60 But found none: and found none.
yea, though many false witnesses came, [yet] found they none. Mark 14:56 For many bare false witness against him, but their witness agreed not together.
At the last came two false witnesses, Mark 14:57 And there arose certain, and bare false witness against him, saying,
Matthew 26:61 And said, This [fellow] said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days. Mark 14:58 We heard him say, I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.

Mark 14:59 But neither so did their witness agree together.
Matthew 26:62 And the high priest arose, and said unto him, Answerest thou nothing? what [is it which] these witness against thee? Mark 14:60 And the high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, saying, Answerest thou nothing? what [is it which] these witness against thee?


Matthew 26:63 But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God. Mark 14:61 But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? Luke 22:67 Art thou the Christ? tell us.


And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe:


Luke 22:68 And if I also ask [you], ye will not answer me, nor let [me] go.
Matthew 26:64 Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Mark 14:62 And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Luke 22:69 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God. Luke 22:70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
Matthew 26:65 Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy. Mark 14:63 Then the high priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further witnesses? Luke 22:71 And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.


Matthew 26:66 What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death. Mark 14:64 Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
Matthew 26:67 Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others smote [him] with the palms of their hands, Mark 14:65 And some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to buffet him, and to say unto him,
Matthew 26:68 Saying, Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, Who is he that smote thee? Prophesy: and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.

Verses 25-27

Peter's Denial of Christ
Matt 26:69-75 Mark 14:66-72 Luke 22:55-62 John 18:25-27
Matthew 26:69 Now Peter sat without in the palace:

John 18:16 But Peter stood at the door without.
Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.


Luke 22:55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. John 18:25 (a) And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself.
and a damsel came unto him, saying, Mark 14:66 And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there cometh one of the maids of the high priest: Luke 22:56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, John 18:17 Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also [one] of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not.

Mark 14:67 And when she saw Peter warming himself, she looked upon him, and earnestly looked upon him,
Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. and said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth. and said, This man was also with him. John 18:25 (b) They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also [one] of his disciples?
Matthew 26:70 But he denied before [them] all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. Mark 14:68 But he denied, saying, I know not, neither understand I what thou sayest. And he went out into the porch; and the cock crew. Luke 22:57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not. He denied [it], and said, I am not.
Matthew 26:71 And when he was gone out into the porch, another [maid] saw him, and said unto them that were there, This [fellow] was also with Jesus of Nazareth. Mark 14:69 And a maid saw him again, and began to say to them that stood by, This is [one] of them. Luke 22:58 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. John 18:18 And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.
Matthew 26:72 And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. Mark 14:70 And he denied it again. And Peter said, Man, I am not.
Matthew 26:73 And after a while came unto [him] they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also art [one] of them; for thy speech bewrayeth thee. And a little after, they that stood by said again to Peter, Surely thou art [one] of them: for thou art a Galilaean, and thy speech agreeth [thereto]. Luke 22:59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this [fellow] also was with him: for he is a Galilaean. John 18:26 One of the servants of the high priest, being [his] kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?
Matthew 26:74 Then began he to curse and to swear, [saying], I know not the man. Mark 14:71 But he began to curse and to swear, [saying], I know not this man of whom ye speak. Luke 22:60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest.
And immediately the cock crew. Mark 14:72 And the second time the cock crew. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. John 18:27 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.


Luke 22:61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter.
Matthew 26:75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And Peter called to mind the word that Jesus said unto him, Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
And he went out, and wept bitterly. And when he thought thereon, he wept. Luke 22:62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
If a cock crows a second time, then it has crowed once before. The problem is that in Mark, after Peter denies the Lord for the third time (Mark 14:71), immediately a cock crows a second time (v. Mark 14:72). The other gospels tell us that after Peter's third denial a cock then crows. How do we reconcile this difficulty?
Mark does not mention when the cock crowed the first time. Therefore, it is possible that after Peter's third denial, the cock then crowed twice; that is, two times in a row. (
carm.org)

Verses 28-37

Jesus stands trial before Pilate
Matt 27:11-14 Mark 15:2-5 Luke 23:1-5 John 18:28-37


Luke 23:1 And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. John 18:28 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.


Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
Matthew 27:11 And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest. Mark 15:2 And Pilate asked him, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answering said unto him, Thou sayest [it]. Luke 23:3 And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, Thou sayest [it].


Luke 23:4 Then said Pilate to the chief priests and [to] the people, I find no fault in this man. John 18:29 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?
Matthew 27:12 And when he was accused of the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. Mark 15:3 And the chief priests accused him of many things: but he answered nothing. Luke 23:5 And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. John 18:30 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.
Matthew 27:13 Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? Mark 15:4 And Pilate asked him again, saying, Answerest thou nothing? behold how many things they witness against thee.

Matthew 27:14 And he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly. Mark 15:5 But Jesus yet answered nothing; so that Pilate marvelled.

John 18:31 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death: John 18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die. John 18:33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? John 18:34 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me? John 18:35 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done? John 18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence. John 18:37 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

Verses 38-40

Pilate hands Jesus over to be crucified
Matt 27:15-26 Mark 15:6-15 Luke 23:13-25 John 18:38-40 John 19:4-16



John 18:38
Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault [at all].

Luke 23:13 And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people,

Luke 23:14 Said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having examined [him] before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him:

Luke 23:15 No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.

Luke 23:16 I will therefore chastise him, and release [him].
Matthew 27:15 Now at [that] feast the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would. Mark 15:6 Now at [that] feast he released unto them one prisoner, whomsoever they desired. Luke 23:17 (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.) John 18:39 (a) But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover:
Matthew 27:16 And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. Mark 15:7 And there was [one] named Barabbas, [which lay] bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.


Mark 15:8 And the multitude crying aloud began to desire [him to do] as he had ever done unto them.
Matthew 27:17 Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ? Mark 15:9 But Pilate answered them, saying, Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
John 18:39 (b) will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?
Matthew 27:18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him. Mark 15:10 For he knew that the chief priests had delivered him for envy.

Matthew 27:19 When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.
Matthew 27:20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. Mark 15:11 But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them. Luke 23:18 And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this [man], and release unto us Barabbas: John 18:40 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

Luke 23:19 (Who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.)
Matthew 27:21 The governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. Mark 15:12 And Pilate answered and said again unto them, What will ye then that I shall do [unto him] whom ye call the King of the Jews? Luke 23:20 Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them.
Matthew 27:22 Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? [They] all say unto him, Let him be crucified. Mark 15:13 And they cried out again, Crucify him. Luke 23:21 But they cried, saying, Crucify [him], crucify him.
Matthew 27:23 And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? Mark 15:14 Then Pilate said unto them, Why, what evil hath he done? Luke 23:22 And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let [him] go. John 19:4 Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.



John 19:5 Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And [Pilate] saith unto them, Behold the man!
But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified. And they cried out the more exceedingly, Crucify him. Luke 23:23 And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. John 19:6 When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify [him], crucify [him].
Matthew 27:24 When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but [that] rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed [his] hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye [to it].

Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify [him]: for I find no fault in him.
Matthew 27:25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood [be] on us, and on our children.

John 19:7 The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.
John 19:8 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid; John 19:9 And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. John 19:10 Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee? John 19:11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power [at all] against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin. John 19:12 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar. John 19:13 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. John 19:14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! John 19:15 But they cried out, Away with [him], away with [him], crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

Luke 23:24 And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required.
Matthew 27:26 Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered [him] to be crucified. Mark 15:15 And [so] Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged [him], to be crucified. Luke 23:25 And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will. John 19:16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led [him] away.
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Bibliographical Information
"Commentary on John 18". "The Gospels Compared". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/eng/tgc/john-18.html. 2014.