corner graphic   Hi,    
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to

Bible Commentaries

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament
1 Timothy 2



Verse 1

First of all (πρωτον παντωνprōton pantōn). Take with παρακαλωparakalō My first request (first in importance).

Intercessions (εντευχειςenteuxeis). Late word (Polybius, Plutarch, etc.), only here in N.T. and 1 Timothy 4:5, though the verb εντυγχανωentugchanō in Romans 8:27, Romans 8:34; Romans 11:2, Romans 11:25. The other three words for prayer are common (Philemon 4:6).

For all men (υπερ παντων αντρωπωνhuper pantōn anthrōpōn). The scope of prayer is universal including all kinds of sinners (and saints).

Verse 2

For kings (υπερ βασιλεωνhuper basileōn). And this included Nero who had already set fire to Rome and laid it on the Christians whom he was also persecuting.

And all them that are in high place (και παντων των εν υπεροχηι οντωνkai pantōn tōn en huperochēi ontōn). υπεροχηHuperochē is old word (from υπεροχοςhuperochos and this from υπερhuper and εχωechō), but in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 2:1.

That we may lead (ινα διαγωμενhina diagōmen). Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of διαγωdiagō an old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and Titus 3:3.

Tranquil (ηρεμονēremon). Late adjective from the old adverb ηρεμαērema (stilly, quietly). Here only in N.T.

Quiet (ησυχιονhēsuchion). Old adjective, once in lxx (Isa 66:2), in N.T. only here and 1 Peter 3:4.

Life (βιονbion). Old word for course of life (not ζωηzōē). So Luke 8:14.

Gravity (σεμνοτητιsemnotēti). Old word from σεμνοςsemnos (Philemon 4:8), in N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 3:4; Titus 2:7.

Verse 3

Acceptable (αποδεκτονapodekton). Late verbal adjective from αποδεχομαιapodechomai In inscriptions and papyri. In N.T. only here and 1 Timothy 5:4.

Verse 4

Willeth (τελειthelei). God‘s wish and will in so far as he can influence men.

That all men should be saved (παντας αντρωπους σωτηναιpantas anthrōpous sōthēnai). First aorist passive infinitive of σωζωsōzō with accusative of general reference. See note on 1 Corinthians 10:33; 2 Corinthians 5:18.

To the knowledge (εις επιγνωσινeis epignōsin). “The full knowledge” as in Colossians 1:6; Ephesians 4:13 (ten times in Paul). See note on 2 Timothy 3:7 for the whole phrase “full knowledge of the truth” (αλητειαalētheia 14 times in the Pastorals). Paul is anxious as in Colossians and Ephesians that the Gnostics may not lead the people astray. They need the full intellectual apprehension of Christianity.

Verse 5

One God (εις τεοςheis theos). Regular Pauline argument for a universal gospel (Galatians 3:20; Romans 3:30; Ephesians 4:6).

One mediator (εις μεσιτηςheis mesitēs). Late word (Polybius, Philo) from μεσοςmesos (middle), a middle man. In N.T. only here, Galatians 3:20; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24.

Between God and men (τεου και αντρωπωνtheou kai anthrōpōn). Ablative case (though objective genitive may explain it) after μεσιτηςmesitēs (notion of separation) as in Romans 10:12; Hebrews 5:14.

Himself man (αντρωποςanthrōpos). No “himself” (αυτοςautos) in the Greek.

Verse 6

A ransom for all (αντιλυτρον υπερ παντωνantilutron huper pantōn). “A reminiscence of the Lord‘s own saying” (Lock) in Matthew 20:28 (Mark 10:45) where we have λυτρον αντι πολλωνlutron anti pollōn In the papyri υπερhuper is the ordinary preposition for the notion of substitution where benefit is involved as in this passage. ΑντιAnti has more the idea of exchange and αντιλυτρον υπερantilutron huper combines both ideas. ΛυτρονLutron is the common word for ransom for a slave or a prisoner. Paul may have coined αντιλυτρονantilutron with the saying of Christ in mind (only one MS. of Psalm 48:9 and Orph. Litt. 588). See note on Galatians 1:4 “who gave himself for our sins.”

The testimony (το μαρτυριονto marturion). Either the nominative absolute or the accusative absolute in apposition to the preceding clause like το αδυνατονto adunaton in Romans 8:3.

In its own times (καιροις ιδιοιςkairois idiois). Locative case as in 1 Timothy 6:15; Titus 1:3. See note on Galatians 6:9 for “due season.” There is no predicate or participle here, “the testimony in its due seasons” (plural).

Verse 7

For which (εις οeis ho). The testimony of Jesus in his self-surrender (1 Timothy 2:6). See εις οeis ho in 2 Timothy 1:11.

I was appointed (ετετην εγωetethēn egō). First aorist passive indicative of τιτημιtithēmi

Preacher and apostle (κηρυχ και αποστολοςkērux kai apostolos). In 2 Timothy 1:10 Paul adds διδασκαλοςdidaskalos (herald, apostle, teacher) as he does here with emphasis. In Colossians 1:23. he has διακονοςdiakonos (minister). He frequently uses κηρυσσωkērussō of himself (1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 9:27; Galatians 2:2; Romans 10:8.).

I speak the truth, I lie not (αλητειαν λεγω ου πσευδομαιalētheian legōou pseudomai). A Pauline touch (Romans 9:1). Cf. Galatians 1:20; 2 Corinthians 11:31. Here alone he calls himself “a teacher of the Gentiles,” elsewhere apostle (Romans 11:13), minister (Romans 15:16), prisoner (Ephesians 3:1).

Verse 8

I desire (βουλομαιboulomai). So Philemon 1:12.

The men (τους ανδραςtous andras). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive προσευχεσταιproseuchesthai The men in contrast to “women” (γυναικαςgunaikas) in 1 Timothy 2:9. It is public worship, of course, and “in every place” (εν παντι τοπωιen panti topōi) for public worship. Many modern Christians feel that there were special conditions in Ephesus as in Corinth which called for strict regulations on the women that do not always apply now.

Lifting up holy hands (επαιροντας οσιους χειραςepairontas hosious cheiras). Standing to pray. Note also οσιουςhosious used as feminine (so in Plato) with χειραςcheiras instead of οσιαςhosias The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up “clean hands” (morally and spiritually clean). See Luke 24:50. Adverb οσιωςhosiōs in 1 Thessalonians 2:10 and οσιοτηςhosiotēs in Ephesians 4:24.

Without wrath and disputing (χωρις οργης και διαλογισμουchōris orgēs kai dialogismou). See note on Philemon 2:14.

Verse 9

In like manner that women (οσαυτως γυναικαςhosautōs gunaikas). ουλομαιBoulomai must be repeated from 1 Timothy 2:8, involved in οσαυτωςhosautōs (old adverb, as in Romans 8:26). Parry insists that προσευχομεναςproseuchomenas (when they pray) must be supplied also. Grammatically that is possible (Lock), but it is hardly consonant with 1 Timothy 2:11-15 (White).

Adorn themselves (κοσμειν εαυταςkosmein heautas). Present active infinitive after βουλομαιboulomai understood. Old word from κοσμοςkosmos (arrangement, ornament, order, world). See note on Luke 21:5 and note on Titus 2:10. See note on 1 Corinthians 11:5. for Paul‘s discussion of women‘s dress in public worship.

In modest apparel (εν καταστοληι κοσμιωιen katastolēi kosmiōi). ΚαταστοληKatastolē is a late word (a letting down, καταστελλωkatastellō of demeanour or dress, arrangement of dress). Only here in N.T. ΚοσμιοςKosmios is old adjective from κοσμοςkosmos and means well-arranged, becoming. W. H. have adverb in margin (κοσμιωςkosmiōs).

With shamefastness (μετα αιδουςmeta aidous). Old word for shame, reverence, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:28.

Sobriety (σωπροσυνηςsōphrosunēs). Old word, in N.T. only here, 1 Timothy 2:15, and Acts 26:15 (Paul also).

Not with braided hair (μη εν πλεγμασινmē en plegmasin). Old word from πλεκωplekō to plait, to braid, for nets, baskets, here only in N.T. Cf. 1 Peter 3:1 (εμπλοκηςemplokēs).

And gold (εν χρυσιωιen chrusiōi). Locative case with ενen repeated. Some MSS. read χρυσωιchrusōi Both used for gold ornaments.

Or pearls (η μαργαριταιςē margaritais). See note on Matthew 7:6 for this word.

Or costly raiment (η ιματισμωι πολυτελειē himatismōi polutelei). ιματισμοςHimatismos a common Koiné{[28928]}š word from ιματιζωhimatizō to clothe. ΠολυτεληςPolutelēs old word from πολυςpolus and τελοςtelos (great price). See Mark 14:3.

Verse 10

Becometh (πρεπειprepei). Old word for seemly. Paul wishes women to wear “becoming” clothes, but τεοσεβειανtheosebeian (godliness, from τεοσεβηςtheosebēs John 9:31, τεοσ σεβομαιtheossebomai worship) is part of the “style” desired. Only here in N.T. Good dress and good works combined.

Verse 11

In quietness (εν ησυχιαιen hēsuchiāi). Old word from ησυχιοςhēsuchios In N.T. only here, Acts 22:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:12.

In all subjection (εν πασηι υποταγηιen pasēi hupotagēi). Late word (Dion. Hal., papyri), in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 9:13; Galatians 2:5. See 1 Corinthians 14:33-35.

Verse 12

I permit not (ουκ επιτρεπωouk epitrepō). Old word επιτρεπωepitrepō to permit, to allow (1 Corinthians 16:7). Paul speaks authoritatively.

To teach (διδασκεινdidaskein). In the public meeting clearly. And yet all modern Christians allow women to teach Sunday school classes. One feels somehow that something is not expressed here to make it all clear.

Nor to have dominion over a man (ουδε αυτεντειν ανδροςoude authentein andros). The word αυτεντεωauthenteō is now cleared up by Kretschmer (Glotta, 1912, pp. 289ff.) and by Moulton and Milligan‘s Vocabulary. See also Nageli, Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus and Deissmann, Light, etc., pp. 88f. ΑυτοδικεωAutodikeō was the literary word for playing the master while αυτεντεωauthenteō was the vernacular term. It comes from αυτεντεςauṫhentes a self-doer, a master, autocrat. It occurs in the papyri (substantive αυτεντηςauthentēs master, verb αυτεντεωauthenteō to domineer, adjective αυτεντικοςauthentikos authoritative, “authentic”). Modern Greek has απεντεςaphentes = Effendi = “Mark.”

Verse 13

Was first formed (πρωτος επλαστηprōtos eplasthē). Note πρωτοςprōtos not πρωτονprōton first before Eve. First aorist passive indicative of πλασσωplassō old verb, in N.T. only here and Romans 9:20 (cf. Genesis 2:7.).

Verse 14

Being beguiled (εχαπατητεισαexapatētheisa). First aorist passive participle of εχαπατεωexapateō old compound verb, in N.T. only by Paul (2 Thessalonians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 11:3; Romans 7:11; Romans 16:18; 1 Timothy 2:14). Not certain that εχeẋ here means “completely deceived” in contrast to simplex (ουκ ηπατητηouk ēpatēthē) used of Adam, though possible.

Hath fallen (γεγονενgegonen). Second perfect indicative active, permanent state. See note on 1 Corinthians 11:7.

Verse 15

Through the child-bearing (δια της τεκνογονιαςdia tēs teknogonias). Late and rare word (in Aristotle). Here alone in N.T. From τεκνογονοςteknogonos and this from τεκνονteknon and root γενωgenō This translation makes it refer to the birth of the Saviour as glorifying womanhood. That is true, but it is not clear that Paul does not have mostly in mind that child-bearing, not public teaching, is the peculiar function of woman with a glory and dignity all its own. “She will be saved” (σωτησεταιsōthēsetai) in this function, not by means of it.

If they continue (εαν μεινωσινean meinōsin). Condition of third class, εανean with first aorist active subjunctive of μενωmenō to continue. Note change to plural from the singular (σωτησεταιsōthēsetai).


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on 1 Timothy 2:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, October 29th, 2020
the Week of Proper 25 / Ordinary 30
Commentary Navigator
Search This Commentary
Enter query in the box below
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology