Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 5:9

So David lived in the stronghold and called it the city of David. And David built all around from the Millo and inward.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Armies;   Jebusites;   Jerusalem;   Millo;   Siege;   Zion;   Thompson Chain Reference - Fortresses;   Forts;   Millo;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Fortresses;   Jerusalem;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Joab;   Millo;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Israel;   Jebusites;   Jerusalem;   Zion;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Devote, Devoted;   Psalms, Theology of;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Jerusalem;   Joab;   Millo;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Jebus;   Jeroboam;   Jerusalem;   Millo;   Zion;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Call, Calling;   Castle;   City of David;   Jerusalem;   Samuel, Books of;   Tribes of Israel, the;   Zion;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Castle;   Fortification and Siegecraft;   Israel;   Jerusalem;   Samuel, Books of;   Solomon;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jerusalem ;   Millo;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jebus;   Jerusalem;   Millo;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Da'vid;   Mil'lo;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Division of the Earth;   Jerusalem;   Millo;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Amorites;   Fortification;   Jebus;   Jerusalem;   Joab;   Millo;   Names, Proper;   Samuel, Books of;   Zion;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Fortress;   Jerusalem;   Samuel, Books of;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

David dwelt in the fort - or stronghold, (as in 2 Samuel 5:7) i. e. eventually, when the buildings were completed, which may not have been for two or three years. Millo appears to have been a fortress of some kind, the northern defense of the city of David, and to have been a part of the original Canaanite defenses of Zion, as appears probable also from there having been a fortress called the house of Millo in the Canaanite city of Shechem. (Judges 9:6 note, and 2 Samuel 9:1-13:20.) Millo may be the native name. Some identify it with the great platform called the Haram es Sherif.

David built round about - Probably meaning built his own house and other houses and streets, all, in short, that caused it to be coiled the city of David. (Compare 1 Chronicles 11:8.) The buildings were within, on the south of Millo, so as to be protected by it on the north, as they were east, west. and south, by the precipitous ravines.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-5.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

So David dwelt in the fort,.... The strong hold of Zion, which he took:

and called it the city of David; from his own name, to keep up the memory of his taking it, and of his habitation in it:

and David built round about, from Millo and inward; built a wall about it, and enlarged the place, increased the buildings both within and without. Millo is supposed to be a ditch round the fort, full of water, from whence it had its name; or was a large hollow place which divided the fort from the lower city, and which afterwards Solomon filled up, and made it a level, and therefore is called so here by anticipation; though Jarchi says it was done by David. According to Dr. LightfootF15Works, vol. 2. Chorograph. Cent. c. 24. p. 25. , it was a part or Sion, or some hillock, east up against it on the west side; his first sense is best, Millo being no other than the fortress or citadel; which, as Josephus saysF16Antiqu. l. 7. c. 3. sect. 2. , David joined to the lower city, and made them one body, and erecting walls about it made Joab superintendent of them; and this was the "round about", or circuit, which David made, reaching from Millo, or the citadel, to that again, which is meant by "inward", or "to the house"F17וביתה "et ad domum". , as it should be rendered; that is, to the house of Millo, as in 2 Kings 12:20; and so it is said 1 Chronicles 11:8; that David built the city "from Millo round about"; that is, to the same place from whence he beganF18See Dr. Kennicott, ut supra, (Dissert. 1.) p. 49, &c. .

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-5.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from e Millo and inward.

(e) He built from the town house round about to his own house (1 Chronicles 11:8).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-samuel-5.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

David dwelt in the fort, etc. — Having taken it by storm, he changed its name to “the city of David,” to signify the importance of the conquest, and to perpetuate the memory of the event.

David built round about from Millo and inward — probably a row of stone bastions placed on the northern side of Mount Zion, and built by David to secure himself on that side from the Jebusites, who still lived in the lower part of the city. The house of Millo was perhaps the principal corner tower of that fortified wall.

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/2-samuel-5.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.

Millo — Which seems to have been the town-hall or, state-house, near the wall of the city of Zion.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-samuel-5.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 5:9 So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.

Ver. 9. So David dwelt in the fort.] After that he had slain all the old inhabitants, save one Araunah, saith Josephus, who afterwards proved his very friend.

And called it, The city of David.] As Constantine called Bizantium Constantinople, after his own name: making it likewise the metropolis and seat of the empire.

And David built round about, from Millo.] A certain tower or fortress. [2 Chronicles 32:5] All the inside of the city David rebuilt, leaving the care of building the walls to Joab. [1 Chronicles 11:8]

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-5.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Samuel 5:9. David built round about from Millo David, having possessed himself of the castle of Zion, joined the castle to the town beneath it, by building houses from one to the other, and made thereby one regular city. Millo is a word that has greatly perplexed the commentators: but it seems to have been the name of the castle of Zion, or the fortress of the city of David. The LXX generally render it, as in the text, by ακρα, a citadel. And in 2 Chronicles 32:5 we read, he fortified Millo in the city of David; or rather, "he fortified the castle or citadel of the city of David." Thus Dr. Lightfoot tells us, Millo was a part of Zion, vol. 2: p. 25 and Josephus uses the word ακρα, for Millo, when he speaks of this very circumstance. Antiq. lib. 7: cap. 3: What we render and inward, the LXX render and his house. See 1 Chronicles 11:8. 2 Kings 12:20. According to Dr. Kennicott, this passage should be translated, and David built a circuit from Millo, and round to the house; i.e. even to the house of the citadel, or to Millo, from which the works were first begun. What puts this interpretation (says he) out of all doubt, is the use of this word at the end of the preceding verse; and as it there most certainly means the house of Millo, or the citadel, from the walls of which the blind and lame shouted, David shall not come into this house; so it must mean the same house of Millo here. See Kenn. diss. 1: p. 50.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-samuel-5.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Millo seems to have been some large and well fortified building, Jude 9:6 2 Chronicles 32:5, adjoining or near to the wall of the city of Zion.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-5.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

9.Built round about from Millo and inward — Millo was a fortress or rampart of ancient Zion, apparently so called from having been filled in (מלא ) with earth and stones. The article connected with the Hebrew word serves to designate it as some well known fortress, and it was evidently a noted stronghold before the city was occupied by David. It was afterwards built up again and strengthened by Solomon, (1 Kings 9:15; 1 Kings 9:24; 1 Kings 11:27,) and later still by Hezekiah. 2 Chronicles 32:5. It seems to have been situated on the northern side of Zion, where the natural defences were less strong than on the other sides; and from it, as a bulwark, David built all round the northern side a strong wall, and fortified it inward towards the south, so as to make it more secure against assault than it had ever been before.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-5.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Inwards. He built or repaired the higher "city of David," beginning at Mello, to "fill up" the valley, which Solomon finished, and adorned with a palace, 3 Kings ix. 15., and 4 Kings xii. 20. The place is probably called Asaramel, 1 Machabees xiv. 27. (Calmet) --- Septuagint and Josephus generally understand Mello to designate the citadel of Sion, or "a complete fortification," to defend the city. Instead of inwards, the Septuagint have, "and his house." But ubithe means, "and to the house," temple, or fort, whence he began the enclosure, so as to make a complete communication. (Kennicott) --- This city became "the most famous in all the East." (Pliny, [Natural History?] v. 14.) --- "Walls, built in a crooked manner, according to the rules of art, enclosing two hills, immensely high." (Tacitus, Hist. v.) --- These hills were multiplied, on account of their different summits, so that Josephus speaks of five hills. The palace of David stood on Sion, the temple on Moria, which was a part of it still more elevated, towards the east. The other hill is often called Acra, by Josephus, and lay southward of Sion. Here the ancient town of Jebus was built. The Machabees took in an adjoining eminence. (Josephus, Jewish Wars vi. 6.) --- Bethsetta, or the new city, was afterwards enclosed. Herod adorned the city with may superb monuments, both of a public and of a private nature. (Calmet) --- We read of ten gates, and of four towers, belonging to this city. It was not well supplied with water, and what it had was brackish. The walls seem never to have exceeded four and a half miles; now they are only three, and include Mount Calvary, which was formerly no part of the city. Button says a valley run from west to east, between the two hills of Zion on the south, and Acra on the north; which contradicts the former statement. (Haydock) --- Villalpand supposes that the citadel was nine and a half stadia, and all the city thirty-five stadia in circumference, eight of which make an Italian mile. (Menochius)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-5.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

fort = the "strong hold" of 2 Samuel 5:7. Citadel.

round about = the wall, which was continued by Solomon (1 Kings 9:15, 1 Kings 9:24; 1 Kings 11:27), afterward by Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:5), and extended by Manasseh (2 Chronicles 33:14).

Millo = the Millo, or the filling up: i.e. of the valley between Moriah and Jebus.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-5.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.

David dwelt in the fort ... Having taken it by storm, he changed its name to "The city of David," to signify the importance of the conquest, and to perpetuate the memory of the event.

David built round about from Millo and inward - probably a row of stone bastions placed on the northern side of Mount Zion, and built by David to secure himself on that side from the Jebusites, who still lived in the lower part of the city. The house of Millo was, perhaps, the principal corner-tower of that fortified wall. Such was the small beginning of Jerusalem; and although its walls were far from being of so diminutive a size at this time, that, like those of Rome, any one could have leaped over them in contempt, "The city of David" was but the rudiments of what became afterward the most celebrated in the world. Viewing its site in connection with the limits of the promised land, it was not a happy selection; yet it is constantly spoken of in Scripture as the place which God had chosen to put his name there, (Psalms 132:13, etc.) There is an apparent difficulty here, which, however, is at once explained when we remember that David utterly failed to realize the Mosaic type and ideal of the Hebrew nation. His empire, as it was constituted, and as he enlarged it by conquest, was formed after the model of the Assyrian kingdom-empires. In reference to the actual circumstances and the after-history of the Jews, Jerusalem was, of all sites in the country, the best that could have been chosen; and yet on its mountain height (2,500 feet above the sea), far away from the roads between the great empires, and accessible only by steep and winding passes, it was secluded, so that it was freed, as it now is, from any necessary implication in the great movements of the world. So secluded, and yet so central, it was marvelously fitted as the scene of the events that were to be transacted in it (Drew's 'Scripture Lands,'

p. 147: see also Robinson's 'Biblical Researches,' 1:, p. 389).

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-5.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) The fort.—The same word as strong hold in 2 Samuel 5:7.

Millo.—A word always used in Hebrew with the definite article (except in Judges 9:6; Judges 9:20), the Millo. It is probably an old Canaanitish name for the fortification on the northern end of Mount Zion, “inward” from which the palace was situated. Subsequent kings, as Solomon (1 Kings 11:27) and Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 32:5), saw its importance and added to its strength. On all other sides Zion was protected by precipitous ravines. There is, however, some difference of opinion about the topography of ancient Jerusalem.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-5.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.
city
Millo
Judges 9:6,20; 1 Kings 9:15,24; 11:27; 1 Chronicles 11:8; 2 Chronicles 32:5
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 12:20 - the house of Millo;  1 Chronicles 11:5 - the city;  1 Chronicles 15:1 - houses;  Psalm 122:3 - builded;  Isaiah 16:5 - in the;  Isaiah 29:1 - the city;  Ezekiel 21:20 - the defenced;  Zephaniah 1:10 - from

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 5:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-5.html.