Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 19:16

So he then handed Him over to them to be crucified.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Complicity;   Cowardice;   Death;   Government;   Jesus, the Christ;   Priest;   Verdict;  
Dictionaries:
Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Persecution;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Christianity;   Humiliation of Christ;   Jesus Christ;   Holman Bible Dictionary - John, the Gospel of;   Trial of Jesus;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Golgotha ;   Nationality;   Progress;   Trial of Jesus;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ostraca;   Pilate, Pontius;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for February 17;   Every Day Light - Devotion for March 5;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Then delivered he him - This was not till after he had washed his hands, Matthew 27:24, to show, by that symbolical action, that he was innocent of the death of Christ. John omits this circumstance, together with the insults which Christ received from the soldiers. See Matthew 27:26, etc.; Mark 15:16, etc.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 19:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-19.html. 1832.

The Biblical Illustrator

John 19:16

Then delivered he Him therefore unto them to be crucified

When?

I. NOT WHEN THE EVIDENCE AGAINST JESUS WAS CONCLUSIVE. Charges had been made, but nothing had been proved. Neither in their testimony, nor in the utterances of Jesus Himself, did Pilate find any ground for passing the death-sentence.

II. NOT WHEN HEROD SENT HIM BACK TO PILATE. Had that ruler sent word that Christ was worthy of death, Pilate might have yielded, and “then” have passed sentence on the prisoner. But Pilate says: “No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto Him.”

III. NOT WHEN HIS WIFE URGED HIM TO PLEASE THE JEWS. Herod had, indeed, beheaded John the Baptist through his wife’s influence. But, singularly enough, Pilate’s wife defended the righteous Prisoner.

IV. NOT WHEN HE THOUGHT THAT THE MOTIVES OF HIS ACCUSERS WERE JUST AND HOLY. Pilate was not by any means deceived by them.

V. NOT WHEN HE HAD NO POWER TO DELIVER CHRIST FROM THEIR RAGE. “Knowest Thou not that I have power,” &c. The power lay absolutely in his hands. The Jews knew this, and Pilate knew it. He never could have pleaded that he was powerless.

VI. NOT WHEN HIS CONSCIENCE FAILED TO ACT IN THIS MATTER. If ever Pilate’s conscience was active, it was just at this time. To the very last it strove with him, even to the extent of making him wash his hands. His testy answer to the Jews, later on, when they wanted the superscription over the cross changed, shows that he was irritated at having been dragged into the position in which he found himself.

VII. WHEN HE SAW THAT BY REFUSAL HE WOULD FORFEIT THE FAVOUR OF THE JEWS. He did not want to do wrong, if he could help it. But, at the same time, he did not want to lose the favour of the Jewish leaders. Two desires strove within him for the mastery. The conflict was long and bitter. All arguments but one were in favour of the release of Jesus. But all just arguments had to go to the wall before the one selfish motive of popularity. Conclusion: And are there no modern Pilates? The youngest child has had experience enough to enable him to sympathize keenly with this man.

1. For no one lives long in this world without finding that, sooner or later, duty and desire conflict with each other. Not for lack of light, but for lack of will, do men go astray.

2. Like Pilate, men seek to evade the responsibility for their actions. How often “circumstances” are blamed, or companions are made the bearers of the responsibility. “Inability” to resist is pleaded. Any flimsy excuse is laid hold of and magnified, in order to shift the guilt of the act from the sinning soul. Pilate’s hand-washing seems to us frivolous and childish. Is it any more childish than half of the foolish excuses offered for the evil deeds of many?

3. It is very possible that a previous misdeed of Pilate’s may have occurred to him as a reason for this iniquitous act (Luke 13:1). Is it too fanciful to suppose that at this time Pilate saw an opportunity to regain the popularity which then he had lost? One lie calls for another, and one dishonest deed begets a second. The only way out of past wrong is to confess it, and break from the bondage of old-time sins. Otherwise, the last state of a man simply becomes worse than his first. (A. F. Schauffler.)

The morally wrong ever inexpedient

I. A DIFFICULTY REMOVED DESTINED TO APPEAR IN MORE TERRIBLE FORMS “Then delivered he,” &c. In this no doubt Pilate felt that he had got rid of a difficulty. How to meet the claims of his imperial master, maintain his popularity with the Jews, and save his conscience, constituted a difficulty that had distracted him beyond measure. Now handing Christ over to the Jews he would breathe more freely. Alas! the difficulty is merely temporarily shifted and pushed for a moment out of sight, but otherwise becoming, more huge and revolting. No difficulty can be removed by outraging or ignoring rectitude.

1. One man has a financial difficulty: accumulated debts drag him down, and he knows not how to deliver himself. He makes himself bankrupt, or forges a bill and fancies the difficulty removed. Not so.

2. Another has a social difficulty. By amorous impulses and reckless vows, he has committed himself to some one whom he comes to loathe as an intolerable infliction. In an evil moment he uses a razor or administers a poison, foolishly supposing that the difficulty is got rid of. But the old tormentor, though buried in the earth, is alive in memory to haunt it for ever.

3. Another has a moral difficulty; his conscience is oppressed with a sense of guilt, and he seeks to remove the difficulty by resorting to drink and revelry. But the sleeping conscience soon awakes.

II. A CONQUEST ACHIEVED WHICH MUST OVERWHELM THE VICTORS IN ULTIMATE RUIN. “And they took Jesus and led Him away.” The Jews were now triumphant: but of what worth was their victory? Even in this life they felt the rebound. A few years on, and the king they chose ravaged their country, destroyed their Temple, extinguished their national life, and scattered them throughout the earth. Truly the “triumphing of the wicked is short.” History abounds in instances of conquests reversed and victors vanquished. “Whoso taketh the sword shall perish by the sword.” The slaveholders martyred John Brown, and thought they had killed the antislavery movement; hut in the course of a few years the cause of slavery was ruined. The principle is this--what is wrongfully achieved must lead to ruin. A man struggles for a fortune. He achieves it, but how? He struggles for senatorial honours, but how? The how is the question. All the produce of human labour, however valuable, if unrighteously obtained, the justice of the universe turns into stone that will grind the possessors to powder. (D. Thomas, D. D.)

And they took Jesus, and led Him away

The procession of sorrow

I. CHRIST AS LED FORTH. Pilate scourged our Saviour according to the custom of Roman courts, and gave him over to the Praetorian guards to insult him. We do not read that they removed the crown of thorns, and therefore it is probable that our Saviour wore it along the Via Dolorosa. They put on Him His own clothes that the multitude might discern Him to be the very man who had professed to be the Messiah. We all know that a different dress will often raise a doubt about the identity of an individual; but lo! the people saw Him in the street wearing His garment without seam. How they led Him forth we do not know; perhaps with a rope about His neck, since it was not unusual for the Romans thus to conduct criminals to the gallows. We care, however, far more for the fact that He went forth carrying His cross. This was intended at once to proclaim His guilt and intimate His doom.

1. We learn here as we see Christ led forth that which was set forth in shadow by the scapegoat. Did not the high-priest bring the scapegoat, and put both his hands upon its head, confessing the sins of the people, that thus those sins might be laid upon the goat? Then the goat was led away by a fit man into the wilderness, and it carried away the sins of the people. Now we see Jesus brought before the priests and rulers, who pronounce Him guilty; God Himself imputes our sins to Him; He was made sin for us; and, as the great Scapegoat, led away by the appointed officers of justice.

2. Jesus was conducted to the common place of death. Our great Hero, the destroyer of Death, bearded the lion in his den, and slew the monster in his own castle.

3. He was led thither to aggravate His shame. Calvary was like our Old Bailey. Christ must die a felon’s death in the place where horrid crimes had met their due reward. In this, too, He draws the nearer to us, “He was numbered with the transgressors,” &c.

4. But the great lesson is, “let us go forth, therefore, without the camp, bearing His reproach.”

II. CHRIST CARRYING HIS CROSS. I have shown you, believer, your position; let me now show you your service. Christ comes forth from Pilate’s hall with the cumbrous wood, all to heavy for His exhausted frame; so they place it upon Simon, a Cyrenian. He was the father of Alexander and Rufus, two persons well known in the early Church; let us hope that salvation came to his house when he was compelled to bear the Saviour’s cross. Let us comfort ourselves with this thought, that in our case, as in Simon’s

1. It is not our cross, but Christ’s which we carry. When your religion brings the trial of cruel mockings upon you, then remember, it is Christ’s cross; and how delightful is it to carry that.

2. You carry the cross after Him. Your path is marked with footprints of your Lord.

3. You bear this cross in partnership. It is the opinion of some that Simon only carried one end of it. That is possible; Christ may have carried the heavier end. Certainly it is so with you. Rutherford says, “Whenever Christ gives us a cross, He cries, ‘Halves, My love.’” Others think that Simon carried the whole of the cross. If he carried all the cross, yet he only carried the wood of it; he did not bear the sin which made it such a load. If you think that you suffer all that a Christian can suffer, yet, remember, there is not one drop of wrath in all your sea of sorrow. Jesus took that.

4. Although Simon carried Christ’s cross, he did not volunteer to do it, but they compelled him. I fear that the most of us carry it by compulsion; at least when it first comes on to our shoulders we do not like it; but the world compels us to bear Christ’s cross. I do not think we should seek after needless persecution. That man deserves no pity who purposely excites the disgust of other people. We must not make a cross of our own. Let there be nothing but your religion to object to, and then if that offends them, it is a cross which you must carry joyfully.

5. Though Simon had to bear the cross for a very little while, it gave him lasting honour. The cross we have to carry is only for a little while at most. “I reckon that these light afflictions,” &c.

III. CHRIST AND HIS MOURNERS. When the voice of sympathy prevailed over the voice of Scorn, Jesus paused, and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for Me,” &c. This was a very proper sorrow; Jesus did not by any means forbid it, He only recommended another sorrow as being better.

1. Weep not because the Saviour bled, but because your sins made Him bleed. The Lord thinks far more of the tears of repentance than of the mere drops of human sympathy.

2. Weep over those who have brought that blood upon their heads. We ought not to forget the Jews.

3. Sorrow deeply for the souls of all unregenerate men and women. What Christ suffered for us, these must suffer for themselves, except they put their trust in Christ.

IV. CHRIST’S FELLOW-SUFFERERS. There were two other cross-bearers, malefactors. Their crosses were just as heavy as the Lord’s, and one of them had no sympathy with him, and his bearing the cross only led to his death, and not to his salvation. I have met with persons who have suffered much, and therefore suppose that because of that they shall escape punishment. Yonder malefactor carried his cross and died on it; and you will carry your sorrows, and be damned with them, except you repent. No sufferings of ours have anything to do with the atonement of sin.

V. THE SAVIOUR’S WARNING QUESTION. “If they do these things in the green tree, what will they do in the dry?” “If I, the innocent substitute for sinners, suffer thus, what will be done when the sinner himself shall fall into the hands of an angry God?” Remember that when God saw Christ in the sinner’s place He did not spare Him, and when He finds you without Christ, He will not spare you. (C. H. Spurgeon.)

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Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "John 19:16". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/john-19.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

Then therefore he delivered him unto them to be crucified.

Them ... has reference to the chief priests. Yes, Pilate provided the soldiers and a centurion to command the detail; but he put those evil priests squarely in charge of the crucifixion.

The decision was then final, and the further deeds of that dark day would unfold on schedule. Pilate had vainly tried to avoid what he knew was an injustice; but there was no way that such a man as he could avoid doing what, in the last analysis, he held to be expedient to the maintenance of his political power. He hated the whole Jewish nation; and what matter to him was it, if an innocent was put to death? The chief priests too must have thought the whole business was finished. God was out of it, as far as they were concerned; they had shouted their allegiance to Caesar only; but history held some surprises for them also. As Hendriksen put it:

They forgot, however, that God as king of the universe was not through with them. In a certain terrible sense, he was still their King. Indescribable punishments were not far away. In winning this battle, they had lost the war.[12]

There is no evidence that the chief priests actually supervised the crucifixion, but, in a sense, it was their act. They demanded it and were present for the gory execution of the sentence, even adding insulting taunts of the holy Saviour on the cross itself!

ENDNOTE:

[12] William Hendriksen, op. cit., p. 422.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Then delivered he him therefore,.... Perceiving he could not by any means work upon them, and that nothing would satisfy them but his death; he therefore passed sentence on him, and gave him up to their will,

unto them to be crucified; as they requested, and which was done in a judicial way, and all by divine appointment, according to the counsel and foreknowledge of God:

and they took Jesus and led him away; directly from the judgment hall, out of the city to the place of execution, whither he was led as a lamb to the slaughter, without opening his mouth against God or man; but behaved with the utmost patience, meekness, and resignation.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on John 19:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-19.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

5 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led [him] away.

(5) Christ fastens Satan, sin, and death to the cross.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 19:16". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/john-19.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified, etc. — (See Mark 15:15).

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

He delivered (παρεδωκενparedōken). Kappa aorist active of παραδιδωμιparadidōmi the very verb used of the Sanhedrin when they handed Jesus over to Pilate (John 18:30, John 18:35). Now Pilate hands Jesus back to the Sanhedrin with full consent for his death (Luke 23:25).

To be crucified (ινα σταυρωτηιhina staurōthēi). Purpose clause with ιναhina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of σταυροωstauroō John does not give the dramatic episode in Matthew 27:24. when Pilate washed his hands and the Jews took Christ‘s blood on themselves and their children. But it is on Pilate also.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Delivered

Luke says, delivered to their will (Luke 23:25). Pilate pronounced no sentence, but disclaimed all responsibility for the act, and delivered Christ up to them ( αὐτοῖς ), they having invoked the responsibility upon themselves. See Matthew 27:24, Matthew 27:25.

And led Him away

The best texts omit.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-19.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

The Fourfold Gospel

Then therefore he delivered him unto them to be crucified.

  1. Then therefore he delivered him to them to be crucified. See .

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 19:16". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-19.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Unto them; that is, to their will. One of Pilate's centurions had charge of the execution.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/john-19.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Предал Его им. Их настойчивость вынудила Пилата предать им Христа. Но это произошло не как во время мятежа. Христос был торжественно осужден, причем одновременно с Ним были осуждены на распятие два разбойника. Однако Иоанн пользуется этим словом, чтобы сказать: Христос был предан неумолимой ярости толпы, не будучи обличенным ни в одном преступлении.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

Then

For order of events, (See Scofield "Matthew 27:33").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on John 19:16". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/john-19.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.

Ver. 16. Then delivered he him, &c.] Overcome by their importunity, and over awed by the fear of Caesar to condenm the innocent. It was Cato’s complaint, that private men’s thieves are laid by the heels, and in cold irons; but these public thieves that wrong and rob the commonwealth sit in scarlet, with gold chains about their necks. Sinisterity is an enemy to sincerity. {a} All self-respects and corrupt ends must be laid aside by men in authority and justice, as Moses speaks, that is, pure justice without mud must run down, Deuteronomy 16:20. Durescite, durescite, said the smith to the duke, that dared not do justice.

{a} Privatorum fures in nervo et compedibus vitam agunt; publici in auro et purpura visuntur. {Gellius, Attic Nights, l. 11. c. 18. 2:349}

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 19:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-19.html. 1865-1868.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

16.] παρέλ., viz. the chief priests.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 19:16". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-19.html. 1863-1878.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

This must be at or about twelve of the clock, for that must be signified by the sixth hour, John 19:14. Pilate condemned him, and delivered him to the executioner, who (as the manner is in such cases) led him away.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 19:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-19.html. 1685.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Pilate"s action constituted his sentence against Jesus. Evidently John meant that Pilate handed Jesus over to the Roman soldiers to satisfy the demands of the Jews. He omitted any reference to the severe flogging (the verberatio) that the Roman soldiers then gave Jesus as preliminary punishment before His crucifixion (cf. Matthew 27:27-30; Mark 15:15-19).

"He was slapped in the face before Annas ( John 18:22), and spat on and beaten before Caiaphas and the council ( Matthew 26:67). Pilate scourged Him and the soldiers smote Him ( John 19:1-3); and before they led Him to Calvary, the soldiers mocked Him and beat Him with a rod ( Mark 15:19). How much He suffered for us!" [Note: Wiersbe, 1:379.]

The NASB and NIV translators divided the material in John 19:16-17 differently, but the content is the same.

In his account of Jesus" civil trial, John stressed the divine kingship of Jesus and the Jews" rejection of Him. The Gentiles also rejected Him in the person of their leader, Pilate.

"From the human standpoint, the trial of Jesus was the greatest crime and tragedy in history. From the divine viewpoint, it was the fulfillment of prophecy and the accomplishment of the will of God. The fact that God had planned all of this did not absolve the participants of their responsibility. In fact, at Pentecost, Peter put both ideas together in one statement! ( Acts 2:23)" [Note: Ibid, 1:381.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 19:16 a. Then therefore delivered he him up unto them to be crucified. The tragedy has reached its climax; and in this single sentence the rest of the direful story may be told.

John 19:16 b. They therefore received Jesus. ‘They,’ not the soldiers, but the chief priests of John 19:15 and the Jews of John 19:14. The verb is that of chap. John 1:11, ‘His own accepted him not.’ Now they did ‘receive’ Him, but only to hurry Him to a cruel death. It will be observed how much this peculiar force of the verb is brought out by the true reading of the verse, which omits ‘and led him away.’

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-19.html. 1879-90.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

delivered, &c.: i.e. to their will (Luke 23:25). Thus the Lord"s execution was in Jewish hands (Acts 2:23). The centurion and his quaternion of soldiers merely carried out the decision of the chief priests, Pilate having pronounced no sentence, but washed his hands, literally as well as metaphorically, of the matter.

to be = in order that (Greek. hina) He might be.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 19:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.

Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified - against all justice, against his own conscience, against his solemnly and repeatedly pronounced judicial decision that He was innocent whom he now gave up.

And they took Jesus, and led him away. And so, amidst the conflict of human passions and the advancing tide of crime, the Scripture was fulfilled which said, "He is led as a lamb to the slaughter."

Remarks:

(1) If the complicated details of the ecclesiastical trial of our Lord bear such indubitable marks of truth as we have seen that they do (see the notes at Mark 14:53-72, Remark 9 at the close of that section, pages 210,

211), surely those of the political trial which followed are not less self-evidencing. Think first of the dark consistency with which His accusers held to their point of obtaining a condemnation from Pilate; the facility with which they oscillated between two kinds of charges-of treason against Caesar and treason against God-just as the chances of success by urging the one or the other of these charges seemed to preponderate for the moment; the ingenuity with which they set on the mob to shout for His crucifixion, and the fiendish violence with which, when Pilate wavered at the very last, they bore him down, and by insinuating the disloyalty of sparing the Prisoner, at length extorted compliance.

Think, next, of that extraordinary conflict of emotions which agitated the breast of Pilate-such as we may safely say no literary ingenuity could have invented, and so artlessly managed as we have it told in the Evangelical Narratives. Think, finally, of the placid dignity of the Sufferer, in all these scenes-the dignity with which He speaks, when alone with Pilate, and what is even more remarkable, the dignity of His silence before the multitude and in the presence of Herod. Whether we look at each of these features of the political trial by itself, or at all of them as composing one whole-their originality, their consistency, their wonderful verisimilitude, must strike every intelligent and impartial reader. Can we be surprised that such a History makes way for itself throughout the world without the need of laboured books of evidence, and is rejected or suspected only by perverted ingenuity? Similar remarks are applicable even to the minor details of this section, such as what is said of Barabbas; but the reader can follow this out for himself.

(2) As the subjects of Christ's Kingdom are at the same time under the Civil Government of the country in which they reside, and may be helped or hindered by it in their Christian duties according to the procedure of that government toward them, it is plainly both the right and the duty of Christians to procure such civil arrangements as shall be most for the advantage of religion in the land. What these ought to be is a question on which Christians are not agreed, and on which they may reasonably differ; and, indeed, the varying conditions of civil society may render the policy which would be proper or warrantable in one case neither right nor practicable in another. But since Civil Government never will nor can nor ought to be altogether indifferent to Religion, it is the duty of Christians to endeavour that at least nothing injurious to Religion be enacted and enforced. But the Christian world has grievously erred on this subject. Since the days of Constantine, when the Roman Empire became externally Christian, the desire to turn civil government to the advantage of Christianity has led to the incorporation of such a multitude of civil elements with the government of the Church, that the lines of essential distinction between the political and the religious have been obliterated, not only under Romanism, but even in the constitution of Church and State in the countries of the Reformation; insomuch that the explicit declaration of our Lord to Pilate - "My Kingdom is not of this world" - would scarcely have satisfied the Roman Governor that His master's interests were unaffected by such a kingdom, if explained according to some modern principles of ecclesiastical government. Let Christians but interpret our Lord's explanation of the nature of His kingdom honestly and in all its latitude, and their differences on this subject, if they do not melt away, will become small and unimportant.

(3) If in the suffering and death of Christ we have the substitution of the Innocent for the guilty, we have a kind of visible exhibition of this in the choice of Barabbas, which was the escape of the guilty in virtue of the condemnation of the Innocent.

(4) Often as we have had occasion to notice in this History the consistency of the divine determinations with the liberty of human actions, nowhere is it more conspicuous than in this section. Observe how our Lord meets the threat of Pilate, when he asked Him if He knew not that the power of life and death was in his hands. 'No, Pilate, it is not in thine hands, but in Hands which thine only obey; therefore is the guilty man who delivered Me unto thee, the more guilty.' But "He taketh the wise in their own craftiness, and the counsel of the froward is carried headlong."

No sooner do those envenomed enemies of the Lord Jesus get Him again into their hands, than they renew their mockeries, as we learn from the first two Gospels.

JESUS IS AGAIN SUBJECTED TO MOCKERY

(Matthew 27:31; Mark 15:20)

"And after they had mocked Him, they took the (purple) robe off from Him, and put His own raiment on Him, and led Him away to be crucified."

The next two steps possess the deepest interest.

And he bearing his cross went forth - that is, without the city; a most significant circumstance in relation to a provision of the Levitical law. "For," says the apostle, "the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp: Wherefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered without the gate" (Hebrews 13:11-12). None of the Evangelists but John mentions the important fact that Christ was made to bear His own cross; although we might have presumed as imposed upon criminals condemned to be crucified the burden of bearing their own cross, as Plutarch expressly states, and from our Lord's injunctions to his followers to bear their cross after Him (see the note at Matthew 10:38). But soon, it would appear, it became necessary to lay this burden upon some one else if He was not to sink under it. How this was done our Evangelist does not say, nor that it was done at all. But it had been related by all the three preceding Evangelists.

Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26 : "And as they came out," says Matthew, "they found a man of Cyrene," in Libya, on the north coast of Africa, "Simon by name," "who passed (or 'was passing') by," says Mark. He was not, then, one of the crowd that had come out of the city to witness the execution; and Mark adds that he was "coming out of the country," probably into the city, all ignorant, perhaps, of what was going on; and was "the father of Alexander and Rufus." This stranger, then, "they compelled to bear His cross." Jesus, it would appear, was no longer able to bear it. And when we think of the Agony through which He passed during the previous night, not to speak of other causes of exhaustion, under which the three disciples were unable to keep awake in the garden; if we think of the night He passed with Annas, and the early morn before the Sanhedrim, with all its indignities; of the subsequent scenes before Pilate first, then Herod, and then Pilate again; of the scourging, the crown of thorns, and the other cruelties before He was led forth to execution-can we wonder that it soon appeared necessary, if He was not to sink under this burden, that they should find another to bear it? For we must remember that "He was crucified through weakness" [ ex (Greek #1537) astheneias (Greek #769)], 2 Corinthians 13:4. (See on the "loud voice" which He emitted on the cross as He expired, page 474.)

It will be observed that his Simon the Cyrenian is said to be "the father of Alexandere and Rufus" (Mark 15:21). From this we naturally conclude that when Mark wrote his Gospel these two persons-Alexander and Rufus-were only Christians, but well known as such among those by whom he expected his Gospel to be first read. Accordingly, when we turn to Romans 16:13, we find these words, "Salute Rufus, chosen in the Lord-that is, 'the choice one' or 'precious one in the Lord', and his mother and mine." That this is the same Rufus as Mark supposes his readers would at once recognize, there can hardly be a doubt. And when the apostle calls Rufus' mother 'his own mother,' in grateful acknowledgment of her motherly attentions to himself for the love she bore to his Master, does it not seem that Simon the Cyrenian's conversion dated from that memorable day when, 'passing casually by as he came from the country,' they "compelled him to bear" the Saviour's cross Sweet compulsion, and noble pay for the enforced service to Jesus then rendered, if the spectacle which his eyes then beheld issued in his voluntarily taking up his own cross! Through him it is natural to suppose that his wife would be brought in, and that this believing couple, now "heirs together of the grace of life" (1 Peter 3:7), as they told their two sons, Alexander and Rufus, what honour had been put upon their father all unwittingly, at that hour of deepest and dearest interest to all Christians, might be blessed to the fetching in of both those sons. By the time that Paul wrote to the Romans, the older of the two may have gone to reside in some other place place, or departed to be with Christ, which was far better; and Rufus being left alone with his mother, they only were mentioned by the apostle.

THE SPECTACLE OF CHRIST'S SUFFERINGS DRAWS TEARS FROM THE WOMEN THAT FOLLOWED HIM-HIS REMARKABLE ADDRESS TO THEM

For this we are indebted exclusively to the third Gospel.

Luke 23:27-32 : Luke 23:27 . "And there followed Him a great company (or 'multitude') of people, and of women, which also" - that is, the women [ hai (Greek #3588)] - "bewailed and lamented Him." These women are not to be confounded with those precious Galilean women afterward expressly mentioned. Our Lord's reply shows that they were merely a miscellaneous collection of females, whose sympathies for the Sufferer-of whom some would know more and some less-drew forth tears and lamentations. "But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for Me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children." Noble spirit of compassion, rising above His own dread endurances in tender commiseration of sufferings yet in the distance and far lighter, but without His supports and consolations! "For, behold the days (or 'days' ) are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us." These words, taken from Hosea 10:8, are a lively way of expressing the feelings of persons flying here and there despairingly for shelter. The more immediate reference of them is to the sufferings which awaited them during the approaching siege of Jerusalem; but they are a premonition of cries of another and more awful kind (Revelation 6:16-17; and compare, for the language, Isaiah 2:10; Isaiah 2:19; Isaiah 2:21). "For if they do these things in a green tree" - that naturally resists the fire - "what shall be done in the dry," that attracts the flames, being their proper fuel. The proverb plainly means: 'If such sufferings alight upon the innocent One, the very Lamb of God, what must be in store for those who are provoking the flames?'

Our Evangelist only brings us to Calvary. For the rest we are indebted to the first two Gospels.

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(16) Then delivered he him therefore unto them—i.e., to the chief priests. The Crucifixion was actually carried out by the Roman soldiers, acting under the direction of the chief priests,

And led him away.—These words should probably be omitted.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-19.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.
Matthew 27:26-31; Mark 15:15-20; Luke 23:24
Reciprocal: Job 16:11 - to the ungodly;  Matthew 27:20 - should;  Matthew 27:31 - and led;  Mark 15:20 - and led;  Luke 23:26 - they laid

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 19:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-19.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ver. 16. "Then delivered he Him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led Him away."— παρέδωκεν obviously must not be understood of material delivery over; it is equivalent to χαρίζεσθαί εἰς ἀπώλειαν, Acts 25:16 : comp. ver. 11. A comparison with that passage shows that in the expression there lies a complaint against Pilate. According to the Roman law he acted unjustly, but still more so according to the law of God, which commands the ruler, "Ye shall not respect persons in judgment," Deuteronomy 1:17. παρέδωκε here is distinct from παρέδωκε in Matthew 27:26. Here it denotes the last and definitive delivery, as it followed upon the solemn judgment; there it was the actual delivery, as it was expressed by the scourging. St Matthew has omitted the attempt of Pilate to undo the sentence which had been actually uttered by the fact of the scourging; he has omitted also the formal pronunciation of the sentence.

Despite the seeming humiliation of Jesus under Pilate, the transactions before him yielded a result which furthered the Divine plan of salvation. Jesus was to die for the sins of the world; but His innocence and righteousness must be attested by the judge himself who condemned Him to death. Pilate's triple "I find no fault in this man;" the declaration that he would be innocent of the blood of this righteous man; the adoption of all means that might have been available to rescue Him, down to the very moment when he pronounced the sentence; the message of his wife;—all these things utterly destroy the very root of the disparaging conclusions that might be drawn from the condemnation of our Lord.

We shall now cast a closing glance over the series of events that took place before Pilate. They present no real difficulty, still less any contradictions. Matthew and Mark are most brief; Luke and John communicate each his peculiar details with considerable minuteness. But in the matter common to all the Evangelists, we have a sure guide by which we can adjust the position of what is peculiar to each, so that the order is never arbitrary or doubtful.

John 18:29-32 forms the beginning. Then follows Luke 23:2. The Jews, repelled in their request that Pilate would, without further ado, confirm the judgment they had pronounced, bring their accusation against Jesus, that He stirred the people to sedition, and hindered them from giving tribute to Cesar, saying that He Himself was Christ a King. This accusation was the point of connection for the question, common to all the Evangelists, "Art thou the King of the Jews?" From St John we gather that Pilate put this question to Christ after he had taken Him into the praetorium. The Lord's answer is communicated by the first three Evangelists only in its central words, σὺ λέγεις. St John records previously the explanations which Jesus had given Pilate touching the nature of His kingdom before that decisive answer. Then did Pilate, convinced of His innocence, betake himself with Jesus to the people outside, and speak for the first time the words afterwards twice repeated, "I find no fault in this man," John 18:38; Luke 23:4. The rulers are not pacified by that declaration; they renew, with increased vehemence, their allegations: Luke, Luke 23:5. Pilate challenges Jesus to defend Himself, but He answers nothing, so that Pilate greatly marvelled, Matthew 13:14; Mark, Mark 13:5. In the accusation of the rulers, mention had been made of Galilee. Pilate takes up that word, hoping that here would be an opening for his own extrication from the embarrassment. He asks (Luke) whether Christ were a Galilean; and on finding that it was so, sends Him to Herod. After Christ's return from Herod, Pilate, according to St Luke, summons the rulers of the people together, and declares a second time, "I find no fault in him;" but offers, that the hateful offence of false accusation and unrighteous judgment might not seem to rest with them, to inflict corporal punishment on Christ, and release Him. So far we follow St Luke. Now all the Evangelists concur. That the people's voice might be raised in favour of the accused, Pilate makes use of the popular cry, heard, according to St Mark, just at this moment, and before the answer to the proposal of chastisement could be given, demanding the release of a prisoner; and he gives them the choice between Christ and Barabbas. The conciseness with which St John touches this momentous event suggests that it had been already exhaustively treated by his predecessors. Between the proposal of Pilate and the answer of the people must be placed the message from his wife, which is peculiar to St Matthew. After this attempt had failed, Pilate a third time, despairing of the matter now, says, "I find no fault in him," Luke 23:22, and repeats his earlier proposition to dismiss Jesus with chastisement. But His enemies redouble their clamour, Luke, Luke 23:23. Still Pilate did not give all up. He declared by a symbolical action, the washing of his hands, that he would release himself from all responsibility. The multitude, regarding nothing but the readiness to fall into their plans which Pilate's words betrayed, declare themselves prepared to take the whole responsibility upon themselves, Matthew 24:25. Then follows the scourging, Matthew 24:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1. Then come the indignities perpetrated by the soldiers, Matthew 24:27-31; Mark 15:16-20; John 19:2-3. Then Pilate renews his attempts to influence the people in favour of Jesus,—attempts which St John records in John 19:4 seq.; and, finally, when these availed nothing, the formal and final sentence.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on John 19:16". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/john-19.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

16.Then, therefore, he delivered him to them to be crucified. Pilate was, no doubt constrained by their importunity to deliver Christ; and yet this was not done in a tumultuous manner, but he was solemnly condemned in the ordinary form, because there were also two robbers who, after having been tried, were at the same time condemned to be crucified. But John employs this expression, in order to make it more fully evident that Christ, though he had not been convicted of any crime, was given up to the insatiable cruelty of the people.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:16". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.