Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 19:17

They took Jesus, therefore, and He went out, bearing His own cross, to the place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Calvary;   Cross;   Death;   Golgotha;   Jesus, the Christ;   Thompson Chain Reference - Burden-Bearer;   Calvary, Mount;   Cross;   Saviour, Christ Our;   Sin-Saviour;   Sufferings of Christ;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Gates;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Calvary;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Cross;   Crucifixion;   Disciple;   Golgotha;   Jerusalem;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Persecution;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Christianity;   Humiliation of Christ;   Jesus Christ;   CARM Theological Dictionary - Type, typology;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Encamp;   Golgotha;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Encampment;   Isaac;   Simeon;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Calvary;   John, the Gospel of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Golgotha;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Cross, Cross-Bearing;   Golgotha ;   Humiliation of Christ;   Israel, Israelite;   Manliness;   Marks Stigmata;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Gol'gotha;   Si'mon;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Head;   Hebrew;   Johannine Theology, the;   Languages of the Old Testament;   Ostraca;   Skull;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Crucifixion;  
Devotionals:
Chip Shots from the Ruff of Life - Devotion for March 24;   Every Day Light - Devotion for March 5;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Bearing his cross - He bore it all alone first; when he could no longer carry the whole through weakness, occasioned by the ill usage he had received, Simon, a Cyrenian, helped him to carry it: see the note on Matthew 27:32.

Golgotha - See on Matthew 27:33; (note).

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 19:17". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-19.html. 1832.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

They took Jesus therefore: and he went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha.

John omitted many details found in the synoptics. This verse is all that John related of the Via Dolorosa. For an account of the events associated with that title, see my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 27:32.

Golgotha ... The place of the skull was near the city but outside the walls, but any certainty as to the exact location is precarious. The favored location for many is the hill which strikingly resembles a deaths-head, and which is always pointed out to visitors in the Holy City.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And he bearing his cross,.... Which was usual for malefactors to do, as LipsiusF9De Cruce, l. 2. c. 5. p. 76. shows out of Artemidorus, and Plutarch; the former says,

"the cross is like to death, and he that is to be fixed to it, first bears it;'

and the latter says,

"and everyone of the malefactors that are punished in body, "carries out his own cross".'

So Christ, when he first went out to be crucified, carried his cross himself, until the Jews, meeting with Simon the Cyrenian, obliged him to bear it after him; that is, one part of it; for still Christ continued to bear a part himself: of this Isaac was a type, in carrying the wood on his shoulders for the burnt offering; and this showed that Christ was made sin, and a curse for us, and that our sins, and the punishment which belonged to us, were laid on him, and bore by him; and in this he has left us an example to go forth without the camp, bearing his reproach:

went forth in a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha: and signifies a man's skull: it seems, that as they executed malefactors here, so they buried them here; and in process of time, their bones being dug up to make room for others, their skulls, with other bones, lay up and down in this place; from whence it had its name in the Syriac dialect, which the Jews then usually spake: here some say Adam's skull was found, and that it had its name from thence. This was an ancient tradition, as has been observed in the notes on See Gill on Matthew 27:33, and See Gill on Luke 23:33 the Syriac writers have itF11Bar Bahluli apud Castel. Lexic. Polyglot. col. 3466. , who say,

"when Noah went out of the ark there was made a distribution of the bones of Adam; to Shem, his head was given, and the place in which he was buried is called "Karkaphta": where likewise Christ was crucified;'

which word signifies a skull, as Golgotha does: and so likewise the Arabic writersF12Elmacinus, p. 13. Patricides, p. 12. apud Hottinger. Smegma Oriental. l. 1. c. 8. p. 257. ; who affirm that Shem said these words to Melchizedek,

"Noah commanded that thou shouldst take the body of Adam, and bury it in the middle of the earth; therefore let us go, I and thou, and bury it; wherefore Shem and Melchizedek went to take the body of Adam, and the angel of the Lord appeared to them and went before them, till they came to the place Calvary, where they buried him, as the angel of the Lord commanded them:'

the same also had the ancient fathers of the Christian church; CyprianF13De Resurrectione Christi, p. 479. says, that it is a tradition of the ancients, that Adam was buried in Calvary under the place where the cross of Christ was fixed; and Jerom makes mention of it more than once; so Paula and Eustochium, in an epistle supposed to be dictated by him, or in which he was assisting, sayF14Epist. Marcellae, fol. 42. L. Tom. I. , in this city, meaning Jerusalem, yea in this place, Adam is said to dwell, and to die; from whence the place where our Lord was crucified is called Calvary, because there the skull of the ancient man was buried: and in another place he himself saysF15Comment. in Eph. v. 14. , that he heard one disputing in the church and explaining, Ephesians 5:14 of Adam buried in Calvary, where the Lord was crucified, and therefore was so called. AmbroseF16Comment. in Luc. xx. 33. also takes notice of it; the place of the cross, says he, is either in the midst of the land, that it might be conspicuous to all, or over the grave of Adam, as the Hebrews dispute: others say that the hill itself was in the form of a man's skull, and therefore was so called; it was situated, as Jerom saysF17De locis Hebraicis, fol. 92. F. , on the north of Mount Zion, and is thought by some to be the same with the hill Gareb, in Jeremiah 31:39. It was usual to crucify on high hills, so Polycrates was crucified upon the highest top of Mount MycaleF18Valer. Maxim. l. 6. c. ult. .

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 19:17". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-19.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

John 19:17-30. Crucifixion and death of the Lord Jesus.

And he bearing his cross — (See on Luke 23:26).

went forth — Compare Hebrews 13:11-13, “without the camp”; “without the gate.” On arriving at the place, “they gave Him vinegar to drink mingled with gall [wine mingled with myrrh, Mark 15:23 ], and when He had tasted thereof, He would not drink” (Matthew 27:34). This potion was stupefying, and given to criminals just before execution, to deaden the sense of pain.
Fill high the bowl, and spice it well, and pour
The dews oblivious: for the Cross is sharp,

The Cross is sharp, and He

Is tenderer than a lamb.
- Keble.

But our Lord would die with every faculty clear, and in full sensibility to all His sufferings.
Thou wilt feel all, that Thou may‘st pity all;
And rather would‘st Thou wrestle with strong pain

Than overcloud Thy soul,

So clear in agony,

Or lose one glimpse of Heaven before the time,

O most entire and perfect Sacrifice,

Renewed in every pulse.
- Keble.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

They took (παρελαβονparelabon). Second aorist active indicative of παραλαμβανωparalambanō they took Jesus from Pilate. Cf. John 1:11; John 14:3. This is after the shameful scourging between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m. when the soldiers insult Jesus ad libitum (Mark 15:16-19; Matthew 27:27-30).

Bearing the cross for himself (βασταζων αυτωι τον σταυρονbastazōn hautōi ton stauron). Cf. Luke 14:27 for this very picture in the words of Jesus. The dative case of the reflexive pronoun αυτωιhautōi “for himself” is in strict accord with Roman custom. “A criminal condemned to be crucified was required to carry his own cross” (Bernard). But apparently Jesus under the strain of the night before and the anguish of heart within him gave out so that Simon of Cyrene was impressed to carry it for Jesus (Mark 15:21.; Matthew 27:32.; Luke 23:26). See Mark 15:22.; Matthew 27:33.; Luke 23:33 for the meaning of “place of a skull” or Calvary and Golgotha in Hebrew (Aramaic). Luke has simply ΚρανιονKranion (Skull), a skull-looking place.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Bearing ( βαστάζων )

See on John 12:6; see on John 10:31.

His cross ( τὸν σταυρὸν αὑτοῦ )

The best texts read αὑτῷ or ἑαυτῷ , “bearing the cross for Himself.” John does not mention the impressment of Simon of Cyrene for this service. Compare Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26.

Skull

See on Matthew 27:33.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-19.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

Bearing his cross — Not the whole cross, (for that was too large and heavy,) but the transverse beam of it, to which his hands were afterward fastened. This they used to make the person to be executed carry. Matthew 27:31; Mark 15:20; Luke 23:26.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on John 19:17". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/john-19.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

They took Jesus therefore: and he went out, bearing the cross for himself, unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha1:
    THE CRUCIFIXION. A. ON THE WAY TO THE CROSS. (Within and without Jerusalem. Friday morning.) Mark ; Matthew 27:31-34; Mark 15:20-23; Luke 23:26-33; Luke Joh19:17

  1. Unto the place called The place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha. See Luke Joh.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 19:17". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-19.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Он вышел на место. Упоминаемые здесь обстоятельства не только удостоверяют рассказанную историю, но и назидают нашу веру. Нам надлежит искать праведность в умилостивлении, совершенном Христом. Итак, чтобы доказать, что Он есть умилостивление за наши грехи, Христос восхотел быть выведен за город и повешен на древе. Ибо жертвы, кровь которых проливалась за грех, обычно по заповеди закона приносились вне лагеря. И тот же закон объявляет проклятым всякого повешенного на древе (Лев.6:30, 16:27, Втор.21:23). И то, и другое исполнилось во Христе, дабы мы убедились: наши грехи изглажены Его смертью. А Сам Он был подвернут проклятию, чтобы искупить нас от проклятия закона (Гал.3:13); сделался грехом, чтобы в Нем нам стать праведностью Божией (2Кор.5:21), был выведен за город, дабы взять из среды нашу возложенную на Него скверну (Евр.13:12).

Сюда же можно отнести и то, что затем сказано о разбойниках. Хотя жестокости казни самой по себе было достаточно, Христос был повешен посреди двух разбойников, словно был не просто одним из их числа, а самым преступным и наиболее презренным. Всегда надо помнить о следующем: палачи Христовы сделали лишь то, что постановила десница и совет Божий. Ибо Бог не оставил Сына на их произвол, но по Своему суду и приговору восхотел принести Его в жертву. Если же совет Божий во всем том, что Он дал претерпеть Своему Сыну, не лишен наилучшего основания, к нам надо относить и тяжесть Его гнева за грех, и безмерное величие Его благости. Нашу вину нельзя было упразднить, если бы Сын Божий не стал за нас отвержением. Мы видим, как Он, словно взвалив на Себя все преступления, был отведен в проклятое место, дабы там явиться проклятым в глазах Бога и людей. Действительно, наша глупость будет безмерной, если мы не поймем из этой сцены, сколь ненавистны грехи Богу. Мы окажемся черствее камня, если не вострепещем от такого суда. С другой стороны, Бог свидетельствует: Ему столь дорого наше спасение, что Он не пощадил Единородного Сына. Какое же величие благости и благодати мы здесь видим! Итак, всякий, взвесивший причины смерти Христовой и одновременно плод этой смерти, не сочтет учение креста как иудеи соблазном или как эллины безумием (1Кор.1:23). Он скорее сочтет его примером и залогом бесценной божественной силы, мудрости, праведности и благости. Иоанн же, говоря, что имя месту было Голгофа, заимствует название из халдейского или сирийского языка. Это слово производится от «галгал», то есть «катить», потому что у черепа отчасти шарообразная форма.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

Ver. 17. And he, bearing his cross, &c.] This was the Roman fashion (as Plutarch relates it), that every condemned person should bear that cross that anon should bear him. {a} Hence grew that expression of our Saviour, "He that will be my disciple must take up his cross," and so "fill up that which is behind," Colossians 1:24.

Into a place called the place of a skull] Where his tender heart was pierced with grief, no doubt, at the sad sight of such a slaughter of men made by sin; like as it could not but be a sore cut and corrosive to Mauritius, to see his wife and children slain before him, when himself was also to be next stewed in his own broth. St John is exact in setting down our Saviour’s sufferings, and this for one.

{a} τω σωματι των κολαζομενων εκαστος εκφερει τον εαυτου σταυρον. Plut.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 19:17". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-19.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Observe here, 1. That it was a custom among the Romans to cause the person condemned to crucifying, to carry his own cross; accordingly our Saviour bare his own cross part of the way, till fainting under the burden of it they laid it upon another, not out of mercy, but malice, reserving him for a more public death; they were loath he should go away in a fainting fit. But why could not Christ bear his own cross, who was able to bear the sins of the whole world, when hanging upon the cross?

Answer, 1. Probably the Jews' malice provided him a cross of an extraordinary greatness, proportionable to the crimes they charged him with.

2. He was much debilitated and weakened with his long watching and sweating the night before.

3. The sharp edges of the cross grating his late whipped and galled shoulders, might occasion the fresh bleeding of his wounds, and his weakening thereby.

4. Hereby he gave the world a demonstration of the truth of his humanity, that he was in all things like unto us, with respect to his human nature and the common infirmities of that nature.

Herein, like Isaac, Christ cheerfully carried the wood on which he was to be offered up a sacrifice to divine justice.

Observe, 2. The infamous company which our holy Lord suffered with, two thieves; on either side one, and himself in the midst: it had been a sufficient disparagement to our blessed Redeemer, to be sorted with the best of men; but to be numbered with the scum of mankind, is such an indignity as confounds our thoughts. This was designed by the Jews to dishonour and disgrace our Saviour the more, and to persuade the world that he was the greatest of offenders. But God overruled this, for fulfilling an ancient prophecy concerning the Messias, And he was numbered with the transgressors. Isaiah 53:12

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on John 19:17". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/john-19.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

17.] See on Matthew 27:33.

αὐτῷ is dat. commodi: ‘carrying the cross for himself.’

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 19:17". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-19.html. 1863-1878.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Matthew 27:31", and following verses to Matthew 27:33, where whatsoever needs expounding in this verse may be found, and this text is reconciled to that, which telleth us, that one Simon, a man of Cyrene, bore his cross. Their places of execution (as usually with us) were without their cities.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 19:17". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-19.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

неся крест Свой Здесь говорится о части креста, о горизонтальной перекладине. Осужденный всегда нес ее на своих плечах к месту казни. Иисус нес Свой крест до городских ворот, но последствия зверского избиения дали о себе знать, поэтому в конце концов Его крест должен был нести кто-то другой, т.е. Симон Киринеянин (Мф. 27:32; Мк. 15:21; Лк. 23:26).

Голгофа Это слово является транслитерацией греческого выражения, которое, в свою очередь, является транслитерацией арамейского слова, означающего «череп». Вероятно, это место получило название из-за своего внешнего вида. Сегодня точное месторасположение его неизвестно.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on John 19:17". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/john-19.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

§ 140.LEADING FORTH AND CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS, John 19:17.

Matthew 27:32-34; Mark 15:21-23; Luke 23:26-33. See notes on the parallel sections.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-19.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

1. Jesus" journey to Golgotha19:17 (cf. Matthew 27:31-34; Mark 15:20-23; Luke 23:26-33a)

John omitted the detail that Simon carried Jesus" cross ( Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26), which might have detracted from John"s presentation of Jesus as the divine Savior. He also made no reference to Jesus" sufferings on the way to Calvary that Luke, who had a special interest in Jesus" humanity, stressed ( Luke 23:27-32).

The soldiers led Jesus from Pilate"s judgment seat to Golgotha. Normally an execution squad consisted of four legionnaires plus a centurion (cf27:23). [Note: Tenney, " John," p180.] John did not comment on Jesus" painful journey to the cross, probably because He wanted to stress His deity. He did mention the fact that Jesus bore His own cross, however, probably for the same reason (cf. Genesis 22:6; Hebrews 13:11-13).

Criminals condemned to crucifixion, such as Jesus, normally carried all or only the crosspiece (Lat. patibulum) of their cross. [Note: Morris, p711.] This was common procedure in crucifixions, as John"s original readers undoubtedly knew. Jesus evidently carried the crosspiece.

All the Gospel writers identified the place of Jesus" crucifixion as "the place of the skull." All but Luke gave its Aramaic title, namely, golgolta ("skull") the transliteration of which is Golgotha. "Calvary" is the transliteration of the Latin calvaria meaning "place of a skull." Why the place bore this name remains a mystery, though it may have been a common place for executions. Most modern scholars believe that the site was the traditional one over which the Church of the Holy Sepulcher now stands. There is little support for the fairly recent suggestion that Gordon"s Calvary was the correct location. The idea that Golgotha was on a hill came more from hymns than from Scripture.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 19:17. And bearing the cross for himself he went forth unto the place called the place of a skull, which is called in Hebrew Golgotha. It is a trace of the accuracy of John both in observing and relating facts, that he is the only Evangelist who mentions the circumstance. Nor is there any contradiction betwixt this statement and that of the three earlier Gospels which tells us that they compelled Simon of Cyrene to bear the cross after Jesus. Jesus had borne it at first, but had afterwards been compelled through fatigue to resign it. On ‘went forth’ comp. on chap. John 18:1. The place was called Golgotha, ‘the place of a skull,’ probably as being a small round hillock. The most interesting point to be noticed is the manner in which John dwells upon the meaning of the name. The ‘place of a skull’ is the emblem to him of the sad transaction about to be completed there. The Evangelist adds,

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-19.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 19:17. The Jewish authorities on their part “received” Jesus, . . “And carrying the cross for Himself, He went out to the place called Kraniou (of a skull), which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.” The condemned man carried at least part of the cross, and sometimes the whole. , Artemid., Oneir., ii. 56. Other passages in Keim, vi. 124. Since Tertullian (adv. Judges 1:10) a type of this has been found in Isaac’s carrying the wood for the sacrifice. , it was usual both in Jewish and Roman communities to execute criminals outside the city. In Athens the gate through which they passed to the place of punishment was called . Cf. Bynaeus, De Morte Christi, 220; Pearson, On the Creed (Art. iv.); Hebrews 13:12; Leviticus 24:14. The place of execution at Jerusalem was a small knoll just beyond the northern wall, which, from its bare top and two hollow caves in its face, bears a rough resemblance to a skull, and was therefore called , Calvaria, Skull. “Golgotha” is the Aramaic form of Gulgoleth, which is found in 2 Kings 9:35. It is described in Conder’s Handbook, p. 355; Henderson’s Palestine, pp. 163, 164.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 19:17". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-19.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

. John makes no mention of what took place on the way to Calvary, when Jesus, being worn out by fatigue, could not proceed any farther, and they were obliged to relieve him of his burden, and to give it to a man, named Simon, of Cyrene, to carry for him, as is related in St. Matthew xxvii. 32. and St. Mark xv. 21. (Calmet) --- For the honour paid in the early ages to the holy cross see St. Cyril, lib. vi. cont. Julian.; St. Jerome, ep. xvii.; St. Paulin. ep. xi.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 19:17". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-19.html. 1859.

Bridgeway Bible Commentary

157. Journey to Golgotha (Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26-31; John 19:17)

As the prisoners set out for the place of execution, Jesus was made to carry his cross (John 19:17). He must have been weak from the brutal flogging, and when it appeared he was about to collapse, a passer-by was forced to carry it for him. This man, Simon, was from northern Africa and had apparently come to Jerusalem for the Passover (Luke 23:26).

Among the crowd that followed Jesus were some women who wept and wailed at the dreadful sight. Jesus told them not to weep because of what they saw happening to him. One day they also would suffer. When the Romans later attacked Jerusalem, women now sad because they had no children would be better off than others, for they would not have to witness their children being slaughtered. If Rome crucified an innocent man such as Jesus, how brutal would they be in dealing with people guilty of open rebellion (Luke 23:27-31).

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Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Brideway Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bbc/john-19.html. 2005.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

cross. Greek. stauros. See App-162.

skull. Greek. kranion. See Matthew 27:33.

Golgotha. Aramaic. App-94.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 19:17". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

He went forth into a place called the place of a skull - or 'unto the place called Skull-place,'

Which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha, [ Gulgaaltaa' (Hebrew #1538), softened into Golgotha (Greek #1115)]. 'Roll-formed' or 'roll-shaped,' is the idea of the word. But whether this refer to the round shape of the skulls of criminals executed there, which has hitherto been the prevailing opinion, or to the shape of the ground-a round hill or knoll there-as others think, is not agreed. That a hill of that form lay to the north of the city seems true enough; but as this would place the spot outside the city, it is at least inconsistent with what is now shown as the place where our Lord suffered, which is within the city, and must have been so then, as Dr. Robinson contends-though Mr. Williams, who has examined the ground with equal care, endeavours to disprove his positions.

Matthew 27:33-34; Mark 15:22-23 : "And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, A place of a skull, they gave Him vinegar to drink mingled with gall;" using the words of the prophetic Psalm (Psalms 69:21), "They gave Me also gall for My meat; and in My thirst they gave Me vinegar to drink." But Mark, no doubt, gives the precise mixture: "They gave Him to drink wine mingled with myrrh." This potion was stupefying, and given to criminals just before execution, to deaden the sense of pain.

`Fill high the bowl, and spice it well, and pour The dews oblivious; for the Cross is sharp,

The Cross is sharp, and He Is tenderer than a lamb.'

But our Lord would die with every faculty clear, and in full sensibility to all His sufferings. `Thou wilt feel all, that thou may'st pity all; And rather would'st Thou wrestle with strong pain Than overcloud Thy soul,

So clear in agony, Or lose one glimpse of heaven before the time. O most entire and perfect sacrifice,

Renewed in every pulse,' etc. - KEBLE

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(17) For the way of the cross, comp. Matthew 27:31-34; Mark 15:20-23; Luke 23:26-33. For the present passage, comp. especially Note on the parallel words in Matthew 27:33.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-19.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:
he
Matthew 10:38; 16:24; 27:31-33; Mark 8:34; 10:21; 15:21,22; Luke 9:23; 14:27; Luke 23:26,33
went
Leviticus 16:21,22; 24:14; Numbers 15:35,36; 1 Kings 21:13; Luke 23:33; Acts 7:58; Hebrews 13:11-13
Golgotha
Golgotha, of which [ ()] and Calvaria are merely translations, is supposed to have been a hill, or a rising on a greater hill, on the north-west of Jerusalem.
Matthew 27:33,34; Mark 15:21,22; Luke 23:33
Reciprocal: Genesis 22:6 - laid it;  John 12:32 - if;  Acts 21:40 - Hebrew;  Hebrews 13:12 - suffered;  Revelation 16:16 - the Hebrew

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 19:17". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-19.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

17.He went forth to a place. The circumstances which are here related contribute greatly, not only to show the truth of the narrative, but likewise to build up our faith. We must look for righteousness through the satisfaction made by Christ. To prove that he is the sacrifice for our sins, he wished both to be led out of the city, and to be hanged on a tree; for the custom was, in compliance with the injunction of the Law, that the sacrifices, the blood of which was shed for sin, were carried out of the camp, (Leviticus 6:30;) and the same Law declares that

he who hangeth on a tree is accursed,
(
Deuteronomy 21:23.)

Both were fulfilled in Christ, that we might be fully convinced that atonement has been made for our sins by the sacrifice of his death; that

he was made subject to the curse, in order that he might redeem us from the curse of the law,
(
Galatians 3:13;)

that

he was made sin, in order that we might be the righteousness of God in him,
(
2 Corinthians 5:21;)

that he was led out of the city, in order that he might carry with him, and take away, our defilements which were laid on him, (Hebrews 12:12.) To the same purpose is the statement about the robbers, which immediately follows: —

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:17". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.