Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 19:18

There they crucified Him, and with Him two other men, one on either side, and Jesus in between.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Death;   Jesus, the Christ;   Priest;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Prophecies Respecting Christ;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Punishments;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Cross;   Disciple;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Persecution;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Christianity;   Humiliation of Christ;   Jesus Christ;   Holman Bible Dictionary - John, the Gospel of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Endurance;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Either;  
Devotionals:
Chip Shots from the Ruff of Life - Devotion for March 24;   Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for February 17;   Every Day Light - Devotion for March 5;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Two other - Matthew and Mark in the parallel places calls them robbers or murderers; they probably belonged to the gang of Barabbas. See about the figure of the cross, and the nature of crucifixion, on Matthew 27:35; (note).

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 19:18". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-19.html. 1832.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

Where they crucified him, and with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

For discussion of the malefactors and the words of Jesus with one of them, and for other particulars, see my Commentary on Matthew, Matthew 27:32.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Where they crucified him,.... Namely, at Golgotha, the same with Calvary; and so had what they were so desirous of:

and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst: these other two men were thieves, as the other evangelists declare; among whom Christ was placed, being numbered and reckoned among transgressors: he was no transgressor of the law of God himself, but he was accounted as such by men, and was treated as if he had been one by the justice of God; he, as a surety, standing in the legal place, and stead of his people; hence he died in their room, and for their sins: this shows the low estate of Christ, the strictness of justice, the wisdom of God in salvation, and the grace and love of the Redeemer; who condescended to everything, and every circumstance, though ever so reproachful, which were necessary for the redemption of his people, and the glory of the divine perfections, and for the fulfilment of purposes, promises, and predictions.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
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Gill, John. "Commentary on John 19:18". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-19.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

they crucified him, and two others with him — “malefactors” (Luke 23:33), “thieves” (rather “robbers,” Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27).

on either side one and Jesus in the midst — a hellish expedient, to hold Him up as the worst of the three. But in this, as in many other of their doings, “the scripture was fulfilled, which saith (Isaiah 53:12), And he was numbered with the transgressors” - (Mark 15:28) - though the prediction reaches deeper. “Then said Jesus” - [“probably while being nailed to the CROSS,”] [Olshausen], “FATHER, FORGIVE THEM, FOR THEY KNOW NOT WHAT THEY DO” (Luke 23:34) - and again the Scripture was fulfilled which said, “And He made intercession for the transgressors” (Isaiah 53:12), though this also reaches deeper. (See Acts 3:17; Acts 13:27; and compare 1 Timothy 1:13). Often have we occasion to observe how our Lord is the first to fulfil His own precepts - thus furnishing the right interpretation and the perfect Model of them. (See on Matthew 5:44). How quickly was it seen in “His martyr Stephen,” that though He had left the earth in Person, His Spirit remained behind, and Himself could, in some of His brightest lineaments, be reproduced in His disciples! (Acts 7:60). And what does the world in every age owe to these few words, spoken where and as they were spoken!

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

They crucified (εσταυρωσανestaurōsan). The soldiers just as in Acts 22:24.; the scourging of Paul was to be done by the soldiers.

And Jesus in the midst (μεσον δε τον Ιησουνmeson de ton Iēsoun). Predicate adjective μεσονmeson A robber (ληιστηςlēistēs not a thief, κλεπτηςkleptēs) was on each side of Jesus (Mark 15:27; Matthew 27:38) like Barabbas (John 18:40) and probably members of his band, malefactors (κακουργοιkakourgoi) Luke terms them (Luke 23:32).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

In the midst

All the Synoptists describe the character of the two who were crucified with Jesus. Matthew and Mark, robbers; Luke, malefactors ( κακούργους ). All three use the phrase, one on the right, the other on the left, and so, substantially, John: on either side one. John says nothing about the character of these two, but simply describes them as two others.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-19.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

The Fourfold Gospel

where they crucified him1, and with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst2.
    THE CRUCIFIXION. B. JESUS CRUCIFIED AND REVILED. HIS THREE SAYINGS DURING FIRST THREE HOURS. (Friday morning from nine o'clock till noon.) Matthew 27:35-44; Mark 15:24-32; Luke 23:33-43; John 19:18-27

  1. Where they crucified him. See John 19:18-27.

  2. And with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. See John 19:18-27.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
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J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 19:18". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-19.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

They placed him in the midst, as the most atrocious of the criminals.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/john-19.html. 1878.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

Ver. 18. Where they crucified him] An ignominious, accursed, and dolorous death; for he was nailed to the tree in the hands and feet, which are the most sensible parts, as fullest of sinews; and therefore (in so fine a body as his especially) of most exquisite sense. Look wistly upon sin in this glass, and love it if thou canst. For our sins were the nails and ourselves the traitors that fastened him to the tree. Pilate and his soldiers, Judas and the Jews, were all set to work by us. Learn to lay the blame on thyself, and say, It was my gluttony that reached a cup of gall and vinegar to his mouth; mine incontinence that provided stripes for his back; mine arrogance that platted a crown of thorns upon his head; mine inconstance that put a reed into his hand; my treachery that nailed his hands and feet; my vanity that grieved his soul to the death; my self-love that thrust a spear into his side, &c. Adsum ego qui feci. (Virgil.)

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 19:18". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-19.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Matthew 27:38".

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 19:18". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-19.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

распяли Его Иисуса заставили лечь на землю, пока Его руки растягивали и прибивали гвоздями к поперечной перекладине, которую Он нес. Затем перекладину подняли вместе с жертвой и прикрепили к вертикальной балке. Его ноги прибили к вертикальной перекладине, к которой иногда прикреплялся кусок дерева, служивший своего рода сиденьем, которое частично поддерживало вес тела. Однако все это предназначалось для того, чтобы продлить и увеличить мучение, а не облегчить его. Раздетый и избитый, Иисус мог висеть на солнечной жаре часами, если не днями. Чтобы дышать, надо было отталкиваться ногами и тянуться руками, вызывая мучительную боль. Ужасные мышечные судороги разрушали все тело; но так как ослабеть означало вызвать удушье, то борьба за жизнь продолжалась (см. пояснение к Мф. 27:31).

двух других Матфей (27:38) и Лука (23:33) используют для этих двоих то же слово, что Иоанн употребил для Вараввы, т.е. «разбойники». См. пояснение к 18:40.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on John 19:18". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/john-19.html.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

2. The men crucified with Jesus19:18 (cf. Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27; Luke 23:33b)

The horrors and shame of crucifixion are difficult for people who have grown up hearing pleas against "cruel and unusual punishment" to appreciate. It was a deliberately long and painful form of death that humiliated the sufferer as well as torturing him. Its purpose was to discourage others from rebelling against Rome, the main reason for crucifixion. John"s original readers would have been only too familiar with it, which probably accounts for his lack of elaboration.

"It was so brutal that no Roman citizen could be crucifed [sic] without the sanction of the Emperor. Stripped naked and beaten to pulpy weakness ..., the victim could hang in the hot sun for hours, even days. To breathe, it was necessary to push with the legs and pull with the arms to keep the chest cavity open and functioning. Terrible muscle spasm [sic] wracked the entire body; but since collapse meant asphyxiation, the strain went on and on. This is also why the sedecula [a piece of wood that served as a small seat in some cases] ... prolonged life and agony: it partially supported the body"s weight, and therefore encouraged the victim to fight on." [Note: Carson, The Gospel . . ., p610. Cf. M. Hengel, Crucifixion.]

"Crucifixion was probably the most diabolical form of death ever invented." [Note: Tenney, " John," p181. For an extended description of crucifixion, see ibid, pp180-81.]

"Popular piety, both Protestant and Catholic, has often emphasized the sufferings of Jesus; it has reflected on what happened and has dwelt on the anguish the Savior suffered. None of the Gospels does this. The Evangelists record the fact and let it go at that. The death of Jesus for sinners was their concern. They make no attempt to play on the heartstrings of their readers." [Note: Morris, p713.]

All the Gospel writers mentioned the men crucified with Jesus ( Matthew 27:38; Matthew 27:44; Mark 15:27; Mark 15:32; Luke 23:32-33; Luke 23:39-43). They were evidently robbers (Gr. lestai) and terrorists, such as Barabbas (cf18:40). John may have mentioned them to remind his readers of the fulfillment of Isaiah 53:12. [Note: However see D. J. Moo, The Old Testament in the Gospel Passion Narratives, pp154-55.] Their mention also prepares the reader to understand John"s description of the breaking of their legs but not Jesus" legs ( John 19:32-33).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 19:18. Where they crucified him, and with him two others, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. On the lingering torture of death by crucifixion it is unnecessary to dwell. We learn from the earlier Gospels that the two crucified along with Jesus were robbers (Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27). To this death they too must have been doomed by the Roman power, and as we find the Roman governor writing the inscription and Roman soldiers taking part in the crucifixion and dividing the spoils (comp. John 19:23), it is reasonable to think that it was also a Roman, not a Jewish, arrangement by which the two robbers were suspended on either side of Jesus. If so, the object must have been still more to bring out that idea of His royalty with which Pilate to the last mocked the Jews. Not only, however, did he mock them thus. Following the custom of the time, by which an inscription describing the crime for which a malefactor suffered was nailed to the cross, he ordered this to be done now, and he himself dictated the words.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-19.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 19:18. . All information regarding the cross has been collected by Lipsius in his treatise De Cruce, Antwerp, 1595; Amstel., 1670; and in vol. ii. of his collected works, published at Lugduni, 1613. With Jesus were crucified “other two,” in Matthew 27:38, called “robbers,” probably of the same class as Barabbas. Jesus was crucified between them; possibly, to identify Him with the worst criminals. “The whole of humanity was represented there: the sinless Saviour, the saved penitent, the condemned impenitent.” Plummer.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 19:18". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-19.html. 1897-1910.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

two other = other two. App-164.

other. Greek. altos. App-124.

with. Greek. meta. App-104.

on either side one. Greek. enteuthen kai enteuthen: literally hither and thither, i.e. on this side and on that side. This was before the parting of the garments (John 19:23). See App-164.

and, &c.: literally and the middle one, Jesus.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 19:18". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

Where they crucified him. Four soldiers were employed in this operation, which was done by fastening the body-after being stripped of all clothing except a broad belt round the loins-by nails or bolts driven through the hands to the transverse part of the cross. The feet, though not always nailed, but simply bound, to the upright beam, were almost certainly so in this case (Psalms 22:16). The body was supported by a piece of wood passing between the legs. The excruciating agony of this kind of death is universally attested, and may easily be supposed. But the shame of it was equal to the torture.

And two others with him. In Luke these are called by the general name of "malefactors," or 'evil-doers' [ kakourgous (Greek #2557)]; in Matthew and Mark "thieves," or rather 'robbers' [ leestas (Greek #3027)].

On either side one, and Jesus in the midst - a hellish expedient to hold him up as the worst of the three. But in this, as in many other of their doings, "the Scripture was fulfilled-which saith (Isaiah 53:12), And He was numbered with the transgressors," as it is in Mark 15:28 - though the prophecy reaches deeper than that outside fulfillment. [This entire verse, however (Mark 15:28), is of extremely doubtful genuineness. Lachmann inserts it, no doubt on the strength of the ancient versions; but the manuscript evidence against it is very strong, and while Tregelles brackets it, Tischendorf excludes it altogether. It seems to have come in from Luke 22:37, where we have the same words from our Lord's own mouth.]

JESUS NOW UTTERS THE FIRST OF HIS SEVEN SAYINGS ON THE CROSS

Of these Seven Sayings-embalmed forever in the hearts of believers-one is recorded by Matthew, three by Luke, and three by John. This first one is recorded in the third Gospel only.

Luke 23:34 : "Then said Jesus."

First Saying:

"FATHER, FORGIVE THEM FOR THEY KNOW NOT WHAT THEY DO." [Lachmann unhappily brackets this most precious verse as of doubtful authority. But the evidence for it, external as well as internal, is most decisive; and both Tischendorf and Tregelles print it as it stands in the received text.]

The Evangelist seems to intimate that this was said as the executioners were doing, or just as they finished, their dread task. But we must not limit the prayer to them. Beyond doubt, it embraced all who had any hand, directly or indirectly, in the death of Him who offered that prayer-of all of whom, even the most enlightened, the apostle could with truth say, that, "had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory" (1 Corinthians 2:8 : see also Acts 3:17; Acts 13:27; and compare 1 Timothy 1:13). In a wider and deeper sense still, that prayer fulfilled the great Messianic prediction, "And He made intercession for the transgressors" (Isaiah 53:12) - extending to all whose sins He bore in His own body on the tree. In the Sermon on the Mount our Lord says, "Pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you" (Matthew 5:44); and here, as in so many other cases, we find Him the first to fulfill His own precept-thus furnishing the right interpretation and the perfect model of the duty enjoined. And how quickly was it seen in "His martyr Stephen," that though He had left the earth in Person, His spirit remained behind, and Himself could, in some of His brightest lineaments, be reproduced in His disciples! (See the note at Acts 7:60.) And what does the world in every age owe to these few words, spoken where and as they were spoken!

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(18) Comp. Notes on Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27; Luke 23:33-34.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-19.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.
18:32; Psalms 22:16; Isaiah 53:12; Matthew 27:35-38,44; Mark 15:24-28; Luke 23:32-34; Galatians 3:13; Hebrews 12:2
Reciprocal: Matthew 27:38 - GeneralMark 15:26 - The King of the Jews;  Mark 15:27 - GeneralLuke 23:33 - when;  John 8:28 - When;  John 19:32 - of the first;  Hebrews 13:12 - suffered

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 19:18". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-19.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

18.And two others with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst. As if the severity of the punishment had not been sufficient of itself, he is hanged in the midst between two robbers, as if he not only had deserved to be classed with other robbers, but had been the most wicked and the most detestable of them all. We ought always to remember, that the wicked executioners of Christ did nothing but what had been determined by the hand and purpose of God; (167) for God did not surrender his Son to their lawless passions, but determined that, according to his own will and good pleasure, he should be offered as a sacrifice. And if there were the best reasons for the purpose of God in all those things which he determined that his Son should suffer, we ought to consider, on the one hand, the dreadful weight of his wrath against sin, and, on the other hand, his infinite goodness towards us. In no other way could our guilt be removed than by the Son of God becoming a curse for us. We see him driven out into an accursed place, as if he had been polluted by a mass of all sorts of crimes, that there he might appear to be accursed before God and men. Assuredly we are prodigiously stupid, if we do not plainly see in this mirror with what abhorrence God regards sin; and we are harder than stones, if we do not tremble at such a judgment as this.

When, on the other hand, God declares that our salvation was so dear to him, that he did not spare his only-begotten Son, what abundant goodness and what astonishing grace do we here behold! Whoever, then, takes a just view of the causes of the death of Christ, together with the advantage which it yields to us, will not, like the Greeks, regard the doctrlne of the cross as foolishness, nor, like the Jews, will he regard it as an offense, (1 Corinthians 1:23,) but rather as an invaluable token and pledge of the power, and wisdom, and righteousness, and goodness of God.

When John says, that the name of the place was Golgotha, he means that, in the Chaldaic or Syriac language, it was called גלגלתא, (Gulgaltha.) The name is derived from גלגל, (Gilgel, (168)) which signifies, to roll; because a skull is round like a ball or globe. (169)

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:18". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.