Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 10:10

And the Lord confounded them before Israel, and He slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and pursued them by the way of the ascent of Beth-horon and struck them as far as Azekah and Makkedah.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Adoni-Zedek;   Amorites;   Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Debir;   Hebron;   Roads;   War;   Thompson Chain Reference - Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Makkedah;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Armies;   Canaanites, the;   Gibeonites;   Jerusalem;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Adonizedek;   Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Makkedah;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Gibeon;   Joshua the son of nun;   Palestine;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Prayer;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Adoni-Zedec;   Amorites;   Beth-Horon;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Bethhoron;   Makkedah;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Japhia;   Joshua, the Book of;   Makkedah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Adoni-Bezek;   Adoni-Zedek;   Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Israel;   Joshua;   Makkedah;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Adonizedec ;   Azekah ;   Bethhoron ;   Eglon ;   Gibeon ;   Gilgal;   Jebusites ;   Lachish ;   Makkedah ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Adonizedek;   Azekah;   Journeyings of israel from egypt to canaan;   Lachish;   Makkedah;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Adonize'dek;   Beth-Ho'ron;   Cave;   Makke'dah;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Conquest of Canaan;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ascent;   Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Beth-Horon, the Battle of;   Discomfit;   Hoham;   Japhia (1);   Joshua (2);   Joshua, Book of;   Palestine;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Adonizedek;   Amorites;   Beth-horon;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Azekah;   Beth-Horon;   Jebusites;   Merom;   Miracle;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon - Multitudes of them fell in the onset; after which they fled, and the Israelites pursued them by the way of Beth-horon. There were two cities of this name, the upper and lower, both in the tribe of Ephraim, and built by Sherah, the daughter of Ephraim, 1 Chronicles 7:24. The situation of these two cities is not exactly known.

To Azekah, and unto Makkedah - These two cities were in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 15:35-41.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Beth-horon - The two places of this name, the upper and the lower Beth-horon (marginal reference), are identified with the villages Beit-ur el Foka (the upper) and Beit-ur et Tahta (the lower): Beit-ur being probably a corruption of Beth-horon. The name itself (“house of caves”) points to the exceedingly rocky character of the district. Upper Beth-horon was between six and seven miles west of Gibeon; and “the way that goeth up to Beth-horon” must accordingly be the hilly road which leads from Gibeon to it. Between the two Beth-horons is a steep pass, “the going down to Beth-horon” Joshua 10:11; and here the Amorites were crushed by the hailstones. The main road from Jerusalem and the Jordan valley to the seacoast lay through the pass of Beth-horon; and, accordingly, both the Beth-horons were secured by Solomon with strong fortifications 2 Chronicles 8:5. It was in this pass that Judas Maccabaeus routed the Syrians under Seron (2 Kings 19:35.

Azekah, which has not been as yet certainly identified, was in the hill country, between the mountains around Gibeon and the plain (see the marginal reference). It was fortified by Rehoboam 2 Chronicles 11:9 and besieged by the Babylonians Jeremiah 34:7 shortly before the captivity. It was an inhabited city after the return from the exile Nehemiah 11:30.

Makkedah - The exact site of this town is uncertain. It was situated in the plain between the mountains and the line of seacoast which the Philistines held Joshua 15:41, and no great way northeast of Libnab Joshua 12:15-16. (Warren (Conder) identifies it with the modern el Mughhar, a village on the south side of the valley of Torek.)

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/joshua-10.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the Lord discomfited them before Israel,.... Disturbed, troubled, and frightened them, at the appearance and presence of the people of Israel; they were thrown into terror and confusion upon their approach, being so sudden and unexpected:

and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon; by the Israelites, who came upon them suddenly:

and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron; there were two places of this name, the upper and the nether, both built by Sherah, the daughter or granddaughter of Ephraim, 1 Chronicles 7:24; therefore here so called by anticipation. It was about an hundred furlongs, or twelve miles and a half, according to JosephusF15Antiqu. l. 20. c. 4. sect. 4. , from Jerusalem, which agrees with Eusebius and Jerom; and from Gibeon thither, it was fifty furlongs, or six miles and a quarter; so far the kings were pursued by Joshua and his army, at least unto the ascent of it; for being built on a hill, it had an ascent on one side, and a descent on the other, after mentioned, and both were very narrow passages; of the former it is said in the TalmudF16T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 32. 2. , that if two camels go up the ascent to Bethhoron, they both fall; upon which the gloss says, it is a narrow place, and there is no way to turn to the right hand, or the left:

and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah; the former of which is placed by JeromF17De loc. Heb. fol. 88. A. & 93. C. between Eleutheropolis and Jerusalem, and was a village in his days, and the other eight miles from Eleutheropolis, and both in the tribe of Judah, see Joshua 15:35; according to BuntingF18Travels, &c. p. 98. , they were both eight miles from Jerusalem towards the west.

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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-10.html. 1999.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.

At Gibeon — Heb. in Gibeon, not in the city, but in the territory belonging to it.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/joshua-10.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 10:10 And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.

Ver. 10. And the Lord discomfited them.] It is he that giveth victory, as the Romans also acknowledged by presenting a palm, in that case, to their Jupiter, so other nations,

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 10. And chased them along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon That is, by the way of the mountain on which the town of Beth-horon was raised at the time of writing this book; for that town did not yet exist, nor was it built till the Israelites had taken possession of the land of Canaan. It was founded by Sherah, the daughter or granddaughter of Ephraim. See 1 Chronicles 7:24. But it should be remarked, that she built Beth-horon the nether and the upper; these are the expressions of the historian. We do not exactly know the situation of these two towns; both of them were in the tribe of Ephraim, one to the south, the other to the north. It is certain, that that of which we are now speaking is Beth-horon the nether, or the southern, which was upon the frontiers of Ephraim, near the mountains. See Wells's Geog. vol. 2: p. 200.

And smote them to Azekah and unto Makkedah The towns of Azekah and Makkedah are afterwards reckoned among the cities of Judah, chap. Joshua 15:35; Joshua 15:41. They are both placed in the northern part of that tribe. Azekah could not be a great way from Jarmuth, so far as one may judge from chap. Joshua 15:35 and consequently must be less northerly than Makkedah.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-10.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Slew them, or, he slew them; either God or Israel; for God’s work is described Joshua 10:11.

At Gibeon, Heb. in Gibeon; not in the city, but in the territory belonging to it; as Joshua is said to be in Jericho, Joshua 5:13.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-10.html. 1685.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Joshua 10:10. At Gibeon — That is, near Gibeon; for it is plain they were not in the city; and so ought we to take the particle at, in many other places of Scripture, as signifying no more than nigh unto. Along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon — That is, to the place which was afterward called by that name; for there was no such place at the time of this battle, it being built after they were settled in Canaan, as we read 1 Chronicles 7:24. And it probably was so called from the miraculous destruction which overtook the enemies of Israel here; for Beth-horon signifies the place of anger or fury. It stood upon a hill, as appears by the expression here used, of going up to Beth-horon.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/joshua-10.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Troubled them. Septuagint, "filled them with consternation;" so that they knew not what to do, Exodus xxiii. 17. --- Bethoron. There were two cities of this name in the tribe of Ephraim, rebuilt by Sara, 1 Paralipomenon vii.. 24. The lower was twelve miles from Jerusalem. Maceda was eight from Eleutheropolis to the east, as Azeca was about the same distance west of Jerusalem, and not far from Soco, 1 Kings xvii. 1. Thus Josue proceeded westward to Gabaon and Bethoron, where he defeated the confederates, and pursued them, as they fled to their respective cities in the south, on the road between Jerusalem and the country of the Philistines, as far as Maceda. (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/joshua-10.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Beth-horon = the "Upper Beth-horon, which stood at the head of the Pass to the coast.

Azekah. Near Shochoh, where Goliath afterwards opposed Israel (1 Samuel 17:1).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/joshua-10.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.

The Lord discomfited them - Hebrew, terrified, confounded the Amorite allies; probably, in the first instance, by the suddenness of the Israelites' appearance, and the effect of their terrific war-shout, but afterward by a fearful storm of lightning and thunder. So the word is usually employed (Judges 4:15; Judges 5:20; 1 Samuel 7:10; Psalms 18:13-14; Psalms 144:6).

And slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon. This refers to the attack of the Israelites upon the besiegers. It is evident that there had been much hard fighting around the heights of Gibeon for the day was far spent ere the enemy took to flight.

Chased them along the way that goeth up to Beth-horon - i:e., the House of the Hollow, or the House of Caves, of which there are still traces existing. Others ascribe the name to the worship of Horus. There were two contiguous villages of that name-upper and nether. Upper Beth-horon was nearest Gibeon-about ten miles distant-and approached by a gradual ascent through a long and precipitous ravine. This was the first stage of the flight. The fugitives had crossed the high ridge of Upper Beth-horon, and were in full flight down the descent to Beth-horon the Nether. 'The road between the two places is so rocky and rugged that there, is a path made by means of steps cut in the rock' (Robinson). Down this pass, the scene of this first (as also of the last great victory that crowned the Jewish arms, at the interval of nearly 1,500 years-Stanley, 'Sinai and Palestine,' p. 208), Joshua continued his victorious route. Here it was that the Lord interposed, assisting his people by means of a storm-`one of the fearful tempests which from time to time sweep over the hills of Palestine' (Stanley), and which, having been probably gathering all day, burst with such irresistible fury that "they were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword."

The Oriental hail-storm is a terrific agent: the hailstones are masses of ice, large as walnuts, and sometimes as two fists; their prodigious size, and the violence with which they fall, make them always very injurious to property, and often fatal to life, both in men and beasts (see Hardy's 'Notices of the Holy Land,' p. 213). 'Infidelity has ridiculed this miracle, but without reason. That single stones, and even showers of stones, of uncommon weight have frequently fallen, is proved by the most unexceptionable evidence. In 1510, near Padua, in Italy, about 1,200 stones fell, and some of them were 120 lbs. weight. On the Upper Rhine, in 1492, once stone fell, 260 lbs.; and near Verona, in 1762, one fell 200, and another 300 lbs. weight. Why, then, should it be thought incredible that God should employ such agents on the occasion before us? Does not disbelief of such a recorded fact display culpable ignorance or heartless folly? But granting that the shower was composed of hailstones, this concession does not, even supposing that it was a natural occurrence, increase the improbability of the case. In the south of France and Switzerland hailstones of large size sometimes fall in showers, and still more frequently in the countries of the Levant. Among the Arabian hills, in the vicinity of the Dead Sea, it is recorded that thirty of the soldiers of Baldwin I. perished in a tempest, described as "horrible hail, terrible frost, and indescribable rain and snow." Nor does his strong description appear much overcharged, when it is considered that thirty soldiers fell victims to the severity of the storm.

Thus, completely does history refute the infidel objection of impossibility in the present instance. Yet who, except one strangely insensible to his condition as a feeble creature, would presumptuously circumscribe the power of the Deity over universal nature? This shower, though natural in itself, was supernaturally employed, and miraculously directed, to fall where and when it did, and to do the execution prescribed' (''Azuba,' by Rev. W. Ritchie, p. 396). The miraculous feature of this tempest, which fell on the Amorite army, was the entire preservation of the Israelites from its destructive ravages.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-10.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the LORD discomfited them before Israel, and slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them along the way that goeth up to Bethhoron, and smote them to Azekah, and unto Makkedah.
the Lord
11:8; Judges 4:15; 1 Samuel 7:10-12; 2 Chronicles 14:12; Psalms 18:14; 44:3; 78:55
at Gibeon
Isaiah 28:21
Beth-horon
16:3,5; 21:22; 1 Samuel 13:18
Azekah
11; 15:35; Jeremiah 34:7
Makkedah
28; 12:16; 15:41
Reciprocal: Exodus 14:14 - the Lord;  Deuteronomy 28:7 - flee before;  Joshua 10:20 - had made;  1 Samuel 17:1 - Azekah;  2 Samuel 22:15 - arrows;  2 Samuel 23:10 - the Lord;  1 Chronicles 6:68 - Bethhoron;  Psalm 68:14 - When;  Isaiah 24:18 - he who fleeth

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-10.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

10.And the Lord discomfited them, etc In the first slaughter the Lord exerted his own might, but used the swords of the people. Hence we infer that whenever he works by men, nothing is detracted from his glory, but whatever is done redounds to him alone. For when he employs the co-operation of men, he does not call in allies as a subsidiary force, or borrow anything from them; but as he is able to accomplish whatever he pleases by a mere nod, he uses men also as instruments to show that they are ruled by his hand and will. Meanwhile it is said with truth in either way, that the enemy were routed and crushed by God, or by the Israelites, inasmuch as God crushed them by the instrumentality of the Israelites.

In the second slaughter the hand of God appeared more clearly, when the enemy were destroyed by hail. And it is distinctly stated that more were destroyed by hail than were slain by the sword, that there might be no doubt of the victory having been obtained from heaven. Hence again it is gathered that this was not common hail, such as is wont to fall during storms. For, in the first place, more would have been wounded or scattered and dispersed than suddenly destroyed; and secondly, had not God darted it directly, part would have fallen on the heads of the Israelites. Now, when the one army is attacked separately, and the other, kept free from injury, comes forward as it were to join auxiliary troops, it becomes perfectly clear that God is fighting from heaven. To the same effect it is said that God threw down great stones of hail from heaven: for the meaning is that they fell with extraordinary force, and were far above the ordinary size. If at any time, in common battles, a storm has suddenly arisen, and has proved useful to one of the parties, God has seemed to give that party a token of his favor and hence the line, Dearly beloved of heaven is he on whose side the elements are enlisted. (93) Here we have the account of a more distinguished miracle, in which the omnipotence of God was openly displayed.

O nimium dilecte Deo, tibi militat aether,
Et conjurati veniunt ad classica venti
!— Ed.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:10". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/joshua-10.html. 1840-57.