corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.03.26
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 1:27

to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.

Adam Clarke Commentary

To a virgin espoused, etc. - See on Matthew 1:18, Matthew 1:23; (note). The reflections of pious father Quesnel on this subject are worthy of serious regard. At length the moment is come which is to give a son to a virgin, a saviour to the world, a pattern to mankind, a sacrifice to sinners, a temple to the Divinity, and a new principle to the new world. This angel is sent from God, not to the palaces of the great, but to a poor maid, the wife of a carpenter. The Son of God comes to humble the proud, and to honor poverty, weakness, and contempt. He chooses an obscure place for the mystery which is most glorious to his humanity, its union with the Divinity, and for that which is most degrading (his sufferings and death) he will choose the greatest city! How far are men from such a conduct as this!


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/luke-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

To a virgin espoused … - See the notes at Matthew 1:18-19. Compare the notes at Isaiah 7:14.

House of David - Family of David, or descendants of David.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

To a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.

To a virgin betrothed ... Among the Jews of that period the betrothal took place a year before the couple lived together; but in every other respect it WAS the marriage ceremony. The bride's infidelity during the betrothal period was a capital offense (Deuteronomy 22:23f).

The house of David ... Commentators have sometimes troubled themselves over the applications of these words, whether to Joseph or to Mary; but they surely apply to both. That Mary was also of the house of David, as a comparison with Luke 1:69 shows, Luke would fully prove by the genealogy which he introduced a little later (Luke 3:23f).

The virgin's name was Mary ... This is the same as Miriam and was a common name for daughters in those times, and ever since.

CONCERNING THE VIRGIN BIRTH

The Old Testament foretold the virgin birth. The first prophecy of the Messiah ever given (Genesis 3:15) identified him as "the seed of woman"; and that never meant, nor could it ever have meant, anything other than the virgin birth of Christ. It was prophesied again in Isaiah 7:14, a prophetic word which an apostle declared a prediction of the virgin birth (Matthew 1:23).

The Old Testament identified the coming redeemer as Immanuel (meaning "God with us"), Mighty God, Everlasting Father, etc. (Isaiah 9:6; 1:14f); and this identification was continued in the New Testament where Jesus Christ is referred to no less than ten times as "God." How could God have become a man if not by means of a virgin birth? The pre-existence of Christ "before the world was" (John 17:5) made it an impossibility for him to have entered earth life as a result of the normal processes of procreation in which the union of two mortals, male and female, is utterly incapable of producing a life which had already existed. A denial of the virgin birth is a denial of the deity of Jesus Christ.

All four of the Gospel writers evidence their belief that Christ was born of a virgin. Matthew spelled it out categorically, presenting it from the viewpoint of Joseph. Mark did not mention it, but in his report of the gossip at Nazareth selected the words "Is not this the carpenter?" rather than the other form of it, "Is not this the carpenter's son?" as it is in Matthew (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55). Of course, the gossip existed in both forms; but Matthew, who had recorded the virgin birth, selected one form of it; and Mark, who had not recorded the virgin birth, was careful to choose the other form in order to avoid any implication against the virgin birth. From this we are certain that Mark knew of the doctrine and that he believed it. Extensive New Testament reference to Jesus as "Son of God" cannot be understood otherwise than in the sense of the unique sonship of Jesus Christ, every such reference being equivalent to denial that Jesus was begotten by any mortal father. Therefore, the fact of the virgin birth is affirmed in every reference. "Only begotten," as used by John (John 1:18; 3:18), carries the same message of confirmation from the Gospel of John.

Regarding the allegation that Paul "knew nothing of the virgin birth!" - such an error can derive only from ignorance of what that great apostle said: Christ was "of the seed of David" and also "Son of God" (Romans 1:3,4); "Christ existed in the form of God ... emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, and being made in the likeness of men" (Philippians 2:5-7); "God sent forth his Son, made of woman" (Galatians 4:4).[21] Versions or translations rendering this passage "born of a woman" are in error. As Clarke said, "Being made of a woman was according to the promise of Genesis 3:15: (meaning) produced by the power of God in the womb of the virgin Mary without the intervention of man."[22] "He taketh hold of the seed of Abraham" (Hebrews 2:16) has the reading in the Greek New Testament, "He taketh on him the seed of Abraham." This makes the birth of Jesus to have been an act willed by himself while existing at a time prior to his entering our earth life. This cannot be anything except a recognition of the fact of the virgin birth. The Hebrew reference is here considered as Pauline. The fact that Paul did not make any references to this doctrine is incapable of casting any doubt regarding his true acceptance of it; because, in his preaching to the Gentiles, he stressed the far greater miracle of the resurrection. Significantly, Luke himself, in Acts, made no reference to the virgin birth in that volume; and if, for any reason, the Gospel of Luke had been lost, the critics would still have been shouting to high heaven that "Luke knew nothing of it?' We are thankful to God that Paul made a more than sufficient reference to this vital doctrine to justify the conclusion that he fully received it.

Actually, the virgin birth is no greater miracle than raising the dead, walking on the sea, or changing water into wine. It even pales in significance when compared to the resurrection of Christ. Therefore, unbelief of the virgin birth is really a refusal to believe in Christ at all.

[21] Nestle's Greek Text (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1959).

[22] Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: Carlton-Porter, 1829), Vol. VI, p. 402.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

To a virgin,.... A pure virgin, that never knew man; see Gill on Luke 1:34 and yet

espoused to a man whose name was Joseph; but they were not come together, nor had he taken her for his wife, and home to his house, nor had they cohabited:

of the house of David; which, according to the grammatical construction of the words, may be connected either with the virgin, or with Joseph, to whom she was espoused; and is true of both; for they both were of the house and lineage of David: and this shows what a low condition David's family was in, that the persons that were the nearest allied to it were a carpenter, and a poor virgin; and both residing in so despicable a place as Nazareth in Galilee:

and the virgin's name was Mary; a name frequent among the Jews, and the same with Miriam; of which name was the sister of Moses and Aaron.


Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the y house of David; and the virgin's name [was] Mary.

(y) The same can be said of Mary, otherwise Christ would not have been of the stock of David, nor his son.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/luke-1.html. 1599-1645.

People's New Testament

To a virgin. She was espoused; that is, formally engaged to Joseph, but not yet married. Compare with Matthew 1:18-25.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.

Bibliography
Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "People's New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/luke-1.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Betrothed (εμνηστευμενηνemnēsteumenēn). Perfect passive participle. Betrothal usually lasted a year and unfaithfulness on the part of the bride was punished with death (Deuteronomy 23:24.).


Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.

Espoused — It was customary among the Jews, for persons that married to contract before witnesses some time before. And as Christ was to be born of a pure virgin, so the wisdom of God ordered it to be of one espoused, that to prevent reproach he might have a reputed father, according to the flesh.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/luke-1.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

to a virgin betrothed to a man1 whose name was Joseph, of the house of David2; and the virgin's name was Mary3.

  1. To a virgin betrothed to a man. In the East, the betrothal or engagement was entered into with much ceremony, and usually took place a year before the marriage. It was so sacred that the parties entering into it could not be separated save by a bill of divorcement (Matthew 1:19).

  2. Whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. That is, Joseph was of the house of David.

  3. And the virgin's name was Mary. The same as Miriam (Exodus 15:20).


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.

Bibliography
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "The Fourfold Gospel". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-1.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Espoused; betrothed.

Luke 1:29. That is, what this salutation should mean.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/luke-1.html. 1878.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary.

Ver. 27. Espoused to a man] 1. The better to free her from suspicion of fornication. 2. That she might have one to provide for her when she was with child. 3. That the mystery of God manifested in the flesh might come to light by little and little, Sensim sine sensu.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Luke 1:27. To a virgin espoused, &c.— I should render the verse thus: to a virgin of the house of David, betrothed to a man, whose name was Joseph; and the virgin's name was Mary. The original will bear this translation: and what makes for this interpretation is, that this and the preceding verse refer wholly to the virgin; who is described by the place of her residence, Nazareth; by her relation to Joseph, being espoused to him; by her lineage and descent, of the house of David; and by her name, Mary. See Whitby and others.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/luke-1.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

27.] ἐξ οἴκου δ refers to Joseph in this place, who (see Matthew 1) was of the direct lineage of David. That Mary was so, is no where expressed in the Gospels, but seems to be implied in Luke 1:32, and has been the general belief of Christians. The Son of David was to be the fruit of his body (Psalms 132:11); which He would not be, unless His virgin mother was of the house of David. See notes on the genealogy in ch. 3. (Still we must remember the absolute oneness in the marriage relation, which might occasion that Mary herself should be reckoned as being in very deed that which her husband was. Perhaps this has been hardly enough taken into account. Edn. 5, 1862.)


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-1.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 1:27. πρὸς παρθένον, to a virgin) Matthew 1:23.— μεμνηστευμένην, [espoused] betrothed) by the divine ruling of Providence. It would not have been befitting that Mary should have been only betrothed after the annunciation of the angel, and not sooner.— ἀνδρὶ, to a man) who was designed to act as guardian both of the virgin and of her offspring.— ἐξ οἴκου δαυίδ, of the house of David) Construe with Joseph; comp. ch. Luke 2:4. This is, however, not to the exclusion of Mary.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Luke 1:26"


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 1:27". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-1.html. 1685.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

27. παρθένον. Isaiah 7:14; Jeremiah 31:22. The many miraculous and glorifying legends which soon began to gather round the name of Mary in the Apocryphal Gospels are utterly unknown to Scripture.

ἐμνηστενμένην. ‘Betrothed.’ The betrothal, which is in the East a ceremony of the deepest importance, usually took place a year before the marriage. The ‘espoused’ of the A. V[32] means ‘betrothed.’

Ἰωσήφ, ἐξ οἴκου Δαυείδ. We are nowhere told that Mary was of the house of David, for both the genealogies of the Gospels are genealogies of Joseph. See Excursus ii. The fact that it seems always to be assumed that Mary also was of the lineage of David (Luke 1:32), makes it probable that the genealogy of Mary is involved in that of Joseph, and that they were first cousins.

΄αριάμ. The same name as Miriam and Marah, Exodus 15:20; Ruth 1:20. Her early residence at Nazareth, before the birth of Christ at Bethlehem, is narrated by St Luke alone. It does not however follow that St Matthew was unaware of it (Matthew 13:55-56). After the narrative of the Nativity she is very rarely mentioned. The Ave Maria of the Roman Catholics did not assume its present form till the 16th century.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
"Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/luke-1.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

27. To a virgin—See note on Matthew 1:23.

House of David—Lineage or family of David. It is disputed among critics whether this is spoken of Joseph or of Mary.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-1.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 1:27. Comp. Matthew 1:18.

Of the house of David. These words refer to Joseph alone, in this instance; but that Mary was also ‘of the house of David,’ seems to be implied in Luke 1:32, and has been the general belief of Christians. Comp, the genealogy in chap. 3.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-1.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 1:27. ἐξ οἴκου δ.: Mary, Joseph, or both? Impossible to be sure, though the repetition of παρθένου in next clause (instead of αὐτῆς) favours the reference to Joseph.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-1.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

word Miriam, or Mary, is expounded by St. Jerome from different etymologies, to signify in Hebrew, star of the sea, and in Chaldaic, lady. Both interpretations admirably well agree with her, who is the glorious Queen of heaven, our patroness and star, to direct us in the stormy ocean of this world. --- "O you," cries out St. Bernard, "who find yourselves tossed to and fro in this tempestuous life, turn not your eyes away from the brightness of this star, if you would not be overwhelmed in these storms. If the winds of temptations arise; if you fall among the rocks of tribulation; look up to the star, call upon Mary. If your are agitated, and hard driven with the surges of pride, ambition, detraction, jealously, or envy; look up to the star, call upon Mary. If anger, covetousness, or lust, beat furiously on the vessel of your soul; look up to the star, call upon Mary. If you are beginning to founder, and are just sinking into the gulf of melancholy and despair; think on Mary. In dangers, in distresses, in perplexities, think on Mary, call on Mary. Let her name be never absent from your mouth; from your mouth let it constantly descend into your heart; and, that you may obtain the suffrage of her prayers; both in life and death, never depart from the example of her pious conversation." (St. Bernard, hom. ii. super Missus est.)


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

To. Greek. pros. App-104.

virgin. This settles the meaning of the Hebrew `almah in Isaiah 7:14. There is no question about the Greek parthenos.

espoused = betrothed. A year before marriage. See Matthew 1:18.

man = husband. Greek. aner. App-123.

Mary = the Hebrew Miriam. Exodus 15:20. See App-100.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.

To a virgin espoused [rather 'betrothed' memneesteumeneen (G3423)] to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. See the note at Matthew 1:16.

And the virgin's name was Mary , [ Maryaam (Hebrew #4813)] - equivalent to "Miriam" in the Old Testament.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-1.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(27) To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph.—Of the parentage of Mary the canonical Gospels tell us nothing, and the legends of the apocryphal have no claim to credit. That her mother’s name was Anna, that she surpassed the maidens of her own age in wisdom, that she went as a child into the Temple, that she had many who sought her hand, and that they agreed to decide their claims by laying their rods before the Holy Place and seeing which budded, and that Joseph thus became the accepted suitor—this may be worth mentioning, as having left its impress on Christian art, but it has no claim to the character even of tradition. The scanty notices in the Gospels are (1) that she was a “cousin,” or more generally a “kinswoman,” of Elizabeth, and may, therefore, have been, by her parentage, wholly or in part of the daughters of Aaron. (2) That she had a sister who, according to a somewhat doubtful construction of an ambiguous sentence, may also have borne the name of Mary or Mariam (the “Miriam” of the Old Testament), and been afterwards the wife of Cleophas, or, more correctly, Clopas (John 19:25). The absence of any mention of her parents suggests the thought that she was an orphan, and the whole narrative of the Nativity presupposes poverty. Assuming the Magnificat to have been not merely the sudden inspiration of the moment, but, in some sense, the utterance of the cherished thoughts of years, we may think of her as feeding upon the psalms and hymns and prophecies of the Sacred Books, and knowing, as she did, that the man to whom she was betrothed was of the house of David, this may well have drawn her expectations of redemption into the line of looking for the Christ, who was to be the son of David. Of Joseph, we know that he was, possibly by a twofold lineage (but see Note on Luke 3:23), the heir of that house, and must have known himself to be so. He was but a carpenter in a Galilean village, probably older than his betrothed, possibly a widower with sons and daughters, possibly the guardian of nephews and nieces who had been left orphans, but the documents which contained his genealogy must have been precious heirlooms, and the hopes that God would raise up the tabernacle of David that had fallen, to which one of those sons or nephews afterwards gave utterance (Acts 15:16), could never have been utterly extinguished.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
2:4,5; Genesis 3:15; Isaiah 7:14; Jeremiah 31:22; Matthew 1:18,21,23

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-1.html.

The Bible Study New Testament

He had a message for a girl. This girl was a VIRGIN - "The Virgin" of Isaiah 7:14 (see note on Matthew 1:23). Promised in marriage. Equivalent to being married. See note on Matthew 1:19. Who was a descendant of King David. Both Mary (the mother of Jesus) and Joseph (the LEGAL father of Jesus) were descendants of King David.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Luke 1:27". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/luke-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Lectionary Calendar
Tuesday, March 26th, 2019
the Third Week of Lent
There are 26 days til Easter!
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology