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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 1:28

And coming in, he said to her, "Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you."

Adam Clarke Commentary

And the angel came in unto her - Some think that all this business was transacted in a vision; and that there was no personal appearance of the angel. When Divine visions were given, they are announced as such, in the sacred writings; nor can we with safety attribute any thing to a vision, where a Divine communication is made, unless it be specified as such in the text.

Hail - Analogous to, Peace be to thee - May thou enjoy all possible blessings!

Highly favored - As being chosen in preference to all the women upon earth, to be the mother of the Messiah. Not the mother of God, for that is blasphemy.

The Lord is with thee - Thou art about to receive the most convincing proofs of God's peculiar favor towards thee.

Blessed art thou among women - That is, thou art favored beyond all others.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/luke-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Hail - This word of salutation is equivalent to “Peace be with thee,” or “Joy be with thee;” a form of speech implying that she was signally favored, and expressing joy at meeting her.

Highly favoured - By being the mother of the long-expected Messiah - the mother of the Redeemer of mankind. Long had he been predicted; long had the eyes of the nation been turned to him, and long had his coming been an object of intense desire. To be reckoned among his “ancestors” was accounted sufficient honor for even Abraham and David. But now the happy “individual” was designated who was to be his mother; and on Mary, a poor virgin of Nazareth, was to come this honor, which would have rendered infinitely illustrious any of the daughters of Adam the honor of giving birth to the world‘s Redeemer and the Son of God.

The Lord is with thee - The word “is” is not in the original, and the passage may be rendered either “the Lord “is” with thee,” or “the Lord be” with thee,” implying the prayer of the angel that all blessings from God might descend and rest upon her.

Blessed art thou among women - This passage is equivalent to saying “thou art the most happy of women.”


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

And he came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee.

Thou art highly favored ... In the Vulgate, these words are "gratia plena" as found in the opening phrase of the famed "Ave Maria." Plummer noted that this is wrong if it means "full of grace which thou hast to bestow," and right only if it is understood as "full of grace which thou hast received."[23] Thus, the Vulgate is inaccurate, as Spence said:

The "plena gratia" of the Vulgate, said and sung so often in the virgin's famous hymn, is an inaccurate rendering. Rather, "gratia cumulata," as it has been well rendered. "Having been much graced (by God)" is the literal translation of the Greek word.Luke 1, p. 8.">[24]

[23] Herschel H. Hobbs, op. cit., p. 34.

Luke 1, p. 8.">[24] H. D. M. Spence, The Pulpit Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1962), Vol. 16, Luke 1, p. 8.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the angel came in unto her,.... Into her house, and into the room where she was:

and said, hail; all health, happiness, and prosperity attend thee; Matthew 28:9.

thou art highly favoured; or graciously accepted, or hast obtained grace; not referring to electing, redeeming; justifying, pardoning, adopting, and sanctifying grace, which she had in common with other saints; but to that special and particular favour, in being chosen and singled out from all other women, to be the mother of the Messiah:

the Lord is with thee; so the angel to Gideon, Judges 6:12 or "be with thee", an usual form of salutation among the Jews; 2:4.

thou art blessed among women; and will be pronounced so by other women, as she was by Elisabeth, Luke 1:42 and by another woman, Luke 11:27.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, [thou that art] z highly favoured, the Lord [is] with thee: a blessed [art] thou among women.

(z) It might be literally rendered, "full of favour and grace", and he shows immediately after, laying out plainly unto us, what that favour is in that he says, "The Lord is with thee".

(a) Of God.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/luke-1.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

highly favoured — a word only once used elsewhere (Ephesians 1:6, “made accepted”): compare Luke 1:30, “Thou hast found favor with God.” The mistake of the Vulgate‘s rendering, “full of grace,” has been taken abundant advantage of by the Romish Church. As the mother of our Lord, she was the most “blessed among women” in external distinction; but let them listen to the Lord‘s own words. “Nay, rather blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep it.” (See on Luke 11:27).


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-1.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Highly favoured (κεχαριτωμενηkecharitōmenē). Perfect passive participle of χαριτοωcharitoō and means endowed with grace (χαριςcharis), enriched with grace as in Ephesians 1:6, non ut mater gratiae, sed ut filia gratiae (Bengel). The Vulgate gratiae plena “is right, if it means ‹full of grace which thou hast received‘; wrong, if it means ‹full of grace which thou hast to bestow‘” (Plummer). The oldest MSS. do not have “Blessed art thou among women” here, but in Luke 1:42.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Thou that art highly favored ( κεχαριτωμένη )

Lit., as Rev. in margin,endued with grace. Only here and Ephesians 1:6. The rendering full of grace, Vulgate, Wyc., and Tynd., is therefore wrong.

All the best texts omit blessed art thou among women.

Cast in her mind ( διελογίζετο )

See on James 2:4. The imperfect tense, “began to reason.”


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/luke-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.

Hail, thou highly favoured; the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among women — Hail is the salutation used by our Lord to the women after his resurrection: thou art highly favoured, or hast found favour with God, Luke 1:30, is no more than was said of Noah, Moses, and David. The Lord is with thee, was said to Gideon, Judges 6:12; and blessed shall she be above women, of Jael, Judges 5:24. This salutation gives no room for any pretence of paying adoration to the virgin; as having no appearance of a prayer, or of worship offered to her.


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Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/luke-1.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

And he came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord [is] with thee1.
    Luke 1:28

  1. Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord [is] with thee. See


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.

Bibliography
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "The Fourfold Gospel". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-1.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

28.Hail, thou who hast obtained favor The angel’s commission being of an astonishing and almost incredible description, he opens it with a commendation of the grace of God. And certainly, since our limited capacities admit too slender a portion of knowledge for comprehending the vast greatness of the works of God, our best remedy is, to elevate them to meditation on his boundless grace. A conviction of the Divine goodness is the entrance of faith, and the angel properly observes this order, that, after preparing the heart of the virgin by meditation on the grace of God, he may enlarge it to receive an incomprehensible mystery. For the participle κεχαριτωμένη, which Luke employs, denotes the undeserved favor of God. This appears more clearly from the Epistle to the Ephesians, (Ephesians 1:6,) where, speaking of our reconciliation to God, Paul says, God hath made us accepted ( ἐχαρίτωσεν) in the Beloved:” that is, he has received into his favor, and embraced with kindness, us who were formerly his enemies.

The angel adds, the Lord is with thee To those on whom he has once bestowed his love God shows himself gracious and kind, follows and crowns them with loving-kindness,” (Psalms 103:4.) Next comes the third clause, that she is blessed among women. Blessing is here put down as the result and proof of the Divine kindness. The word Blessed does not, in my opinion, mean, Worthy of praise; but rather means, Happy. Thus, Paul often supplicates for believers, first “grace” and then “peace,” (Romans 1:7; Ephesians 1:2,) that is, every kind of blessings; implying that we shall then be truly happy and rich, when we are beloved by God, from whom all blessings proceed. But if Mary’s happiness, righteousness, and life, flow from the undeserved love of God, if her virtues and all her excellence are nothing more than the Divine kindness, it is the height of absurdity to tell us that we should seek from her what she derives from another quarter in the same manner as ourselves. With extraordinary ignorance have the Papists, by an enchanter’s trick, changed this salutation into a prayer, and have carried their folly so far, that their preachers are not permitted, in the pulpit, to implore the grace of the Spirit, except through their Hail, Mary (23) But not only are these words a simple congratulation. They unwarrantably assume an office which does not belong to them, and which God committed to none but an angel. Their silly ambition leads them into a second blunder, for they salute a person who is absent.


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/luke-1.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

angel

(See Scofield "Hebrews 1:4")


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Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Luke 1:28". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/luke-1.html. 1917.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

HIGHLY FAVOURED OF THE LORD

‘And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God … and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.’

Luke 1:26; Luke 1:28

Whether Mary was in her house, or what her engagement when Gabriel visited her, we know not; but he instantly saluted her—‘Hail!’ After this brief salutation, Gabriel bids Mary rejoice, because being ‘highly favoured’ she is to be the mother of the Messiah. This, in truth, was the honour for which every Hebrew female intensely longed from the beginning; but Mary was Divinely chosen for this signal pre-eminency.

I. Mary’s joy.—What joy she felt when Gabriel assured her of this! When he left, she hastened to her cousin Elizabeth, in the upland country, to communicate the information and the joy to her. ‘Only the meeting of saints in heaven can parallel the meeting of these two cousins: the two wonders of the world under one roof, declaring their mutual happiness!’ (Luke 1:46-47).

II. Mary’s dignity.—High dignity, beside deep joy, was now conferred upon Mary. ‘Thou art highly favoured,’ said Gabriel to her. But this dignity was not of an earthly, fleeting nature; for Mary was left by the angel in the same humble condition in which he found her; and, in truth, her humble condition was the same at the birth of Christ, and to the day of her own death. The dignity, therefore, was heavenly and lasting. So it has proved itself. No woman, from Eve downward, has been so honoured as the Blessed Virgin of Nazareth. Her very memory is fragrant as Eden.

III. Mary’s blessedness.—Nor is this all: ‘The Lord is with thee.’ This constituted her real blessedness, and was the climax of the annunciation of the angel. The Lord was with Mary in two sublime senses—to sustain and further deepen the joy of her soul, and to perform the covenant which Gabriel had made with her at His bidding. Mary, in her glorious Magnificat, says of herself, ‘All generations shall call me blessed.’ This they have done since the birth of Christ, and this they will continue to do.

Illustration

The Festival of the Annunciation has been variously yet appropriately designated thus: ‘The Day of Salutation’; ‘the Day of the Gospel’; and ‘the Festival of the Incarnation.’ In many parts it was for some time the first day of the ecclesiastical year, as it is now, under its vernacular name—Lady-Day, the first quarterly division of the ordinary year. How the ancient Church observed the day can scarcely be ascertained now. And this is not a little remarkable, as the Christian Fathers have written numerous homilies on the day itself, and the Christian muse has for centuries been actively engaged in illustrating it. To the Christian artist, the holy mysteries of the day have ever had a special fascination, as shown by the pictures and paintings—some very grotesque, others very beautiful—which were produced during the first ages succeeding the Annunciation itself. Christians of the present day regard it as the first stage of the Incarnation. Hence we gladly keep the day as a holy festival, and fix our mind upon its marvels.’


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Bibliography
Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". Church Pulpit Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/luke-1.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.

Ver. 28. Hail, thou that art highly favoured] κεχαριτωμενη. A salutation and not a prayer, as Papists pervert and abuse it. And when the Ave Maria bell rings, which is at sun rising, noon, and sun setting, all men in what place soever, house, field, street, or market, do presently kneel down, and send up their united devotions to heaven by an Ave Maria. Also, where one fasteth on Friday, which they count our Lord’s day, many fast on Saturday, which they count our Lady’s day. (Sand’s Survey.)


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Luke 1:28. Hail, thou that art highly favoured, Thou who hast found favour, or mercy with God, as it is expounded, Luke 1:38. It follows, Blessed art thou among women: so it is said of Jael, Judges 5:24 of Ruth 3:10. See also 1 Samuel 25:33. Again, the Lord is with thee, is said to Gideon, Judges 6:12 and the words, Luke 1:30 thou hast found favour with God, are said of Noah, Genesis 6:8 of Joseph, Genesis 39:4 and of David, Acts 7:46. So that here is nothing said of the blessed virgin in this salutation, which was not before said of others. Instead of among women, some read above women; which appears a just translation: for the Jews do not express their degrees of comparison by any change at the end of the words, like other nations, but by doubling or trebling the positive, or by adding a preposition, such as with, or among; and accordingly, this salutation, which is expressed in the Hebrew idiom, signifies, that she was superlatively blessed. Dr. Campbell renders it, thou happiest of women. But this salutation gives no room for any pretence of paying adoration to the virgin, as having no appearance of a prayer, or of worship offered to her.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/luke-1.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

28.] κεχαριτωμ., not ‘gratiâ plena,’ as the Vulg.;—for, though χαριτόω is not found in classical writers, the analogy of all verbs in - όω must rule it to mean, the passing on of the action implied in the radical substantive to the object of the verb—the ‘conferring of grace or favour, upon.’ And this is its meaning in the only other place (see reff.) where it occurs in the N.T. Thl. explains it as corresponding to εὗρες χάριν παρὰ τῷ θεῷ, Luke 1:30 :— τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ κεχαριτῶσθαι, τὸ εὑρεῖν χάριν παρὰ τῷ θεῷ.

ὁ κύρ. μετὰ σοῦ] i.e. ἐστίν: see ref.


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-1.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 1:28. εἰσελθὺν, entering in) At evening time, as is probable. Comp. Daniel 9:21.— κεχαριτωμένη) Ephesians 1:6. The Vulg. renders gratia plena, in a passive sense [“filled with grace”], (as Ovid, Carmina plena favoris), one who has found favour, Luke 1:30. She is so called, not as the mother of grace, but as the daughter of grace, especially at that early time.— μετὰ σοῦ) May the Lord be with thee [not, “The Lord is with thee,” as Engl. Vers.] Comp. Matthew 1:23, at the end of verse, and the note. It is parallel to, χαῖρε, Hail. The Indicative is taken for granted,(7) and the Optative here subscribes to [seals and confirms] it. So Judges 6:12 [the angel to Gideon, “The Lord is (or rather, may the Lord be) with thee”], κύριος μετὰ σοῦ.— σὺ, thou) The Vocative: as in Acts 4:24 [ δέσποτα, σὺ ποιήσας, etc.] Chrys de Sacerd., p. 322.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Virgins betrothed, until the consummation of their marriage, were ordinarily kept in their friends’ house: thither came this angel, and saith,

Hail, thou that art highly favoured. The word translated hail signifies, Rejoice thou, or is as much as, God save thee. It is not the form of a prayer, (as the papists use it), but an ordinary salutation, as much as, God save you, or, Good morrow, is amongst us.

Thou that art highly favoured, kecaritwmenh; the word comes originally from cariv, which signifieth in Scripture two things:

1. The free love and favour of another bestowed on any: thus it is taken Luke 1:30 thou hast found favour. To the praise of the glory of his grace, Ephesians 1:6.

2. It signifies good habits in the soul; as 2 Peter 3:18, Grow in grace; Colossians 3:16, Singing with grace in your hearts.

Hence the verb, a participle from which the word here used is, may signify, two things; either:

1. Thou hast received grace or favour from God, or,

2. Thou that art full of gracious habits.

The first seems to be its sense in this place: it followeth in the verse, blessed art thou; so also it is expounded Luke 1:30, for thou hast found favour with God. So as the virgin was the object of Divine grace, as we are, and therefore not to be prayed to as the fountain of grace; she herself had nothing but what she received. This whole verse seemeth to be only a salutation, there is nothing of a prayer in it; the angel doth only take notice of her as a favourite of Heaven, one dear unto his Lord, with whom God was in an especial manner, and whom God blessed above the rate of those ordinary blessings with which he blesseth other women.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 1:28". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-1.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Highly favored; in being chosen to be the mother of Jesus.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/luke-1.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

28. κεχαριτωμένη. Marg. “graciously accepted” or “much graced.” Literally, having been graced (by God). Ephesians 1:6, “accepted.” Not as in the Vulgate “Gratiâ plena” but “gratiâ cumulata.” “Not a mother of grace, but a daughter.” Bengel. The χαῖρε κεχ. is a pleasing paronomasia. The verb only occurs again in Ephesians 1:6.

[εὐλογημένη σὺ ἐν γυναιξίν.] These words are of dubious authenticity, being omitted by B and various versions. They may have been added from Luke 1:42. With this address comp. Judges 6:12.


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"Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/luke-1.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

28. Angel came… said, Hail—In a green, open space at the northwestern extremity of Nazareth there is a small fountain, whence issues a slender stream from which the maidens of Nazareth, holding beneath their pitchers, obtain water for their homes. It is called the Fountain of the Virgin; for there the tradition is that this annunciation by Gabriel took place. In commemoration of this event, there stands the Church of the Annunciation. Whether the tradition be true or false, there can be no reasonable doubt that Mary in her day, among the maidens of that village, held the pitcher and drew water from this spring.

Highly favoured—This, in the Roman or Vulgate translation of the New Testament, is rendered plena gratiâ, full of grace. See note on Matthew 1:18. The Romanists in vain endeavour to prove the sinlessness of Mary from this phrase. It means, as is said in Luke 1:30, that she had found favour or grace with God. Blessed art thou among women—See note on Matthew 1:18.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-1.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And he came in to her, and said, “Hail, you who are highly favoured, the Lord is with you.” ’

So to that little backwater of a hillside town in Galilee came the mighty Gabriel, and he came to where she was and said, “Hail, you who are highly favoured, the Lord is with you.” ‘Hail’ is a Greek greeting, possibly translating ‘shalom’. Luke’s intention is possibly to stress that he has come on behalf of the Greeks as well as the Jews. Or it may be that he wanted the mother of the Messiah to be hailed like an Emperor, as a recognition of the One Whom she was going to bear.

‘Highly favoured.’ Every woman in Israel longed to be the mother of the coming Messiah. It was seen as the distinction that outclassed all distinctions. And now this woman in this small hillside town in Galilee learned of the great favour that God was bestowing on her. She above all women was being chosen to be the mother of the Messiah. That it was not because she was supremely perfect comes out quite clearly in her subsequent behaviour, for she would later rebuke Jesus for what He saw as right (Luke 2:48-49) and would seek to interfere with His ministry and have to be put in her place (Mark 3:21; Mark 3:31-35; John 2:4). But nevertheless God saw in her a devoutness which meant that he could trust His son with her. She would bring Him up well until He was too big for her to be able to understand.

The word can also be used of physical beauty (Sirach 9:8) or moral excellence (Sirach 18:17). (It does not refer to something that can be passed on or signify ‘full of grace’ in that sense).

‘The Lord is with you.’ This, in contrast to ‘hail’, was very much an Old Testament idea (compare Ruth 2:4; 2 Chronicles 15:2; Zechariah 8:23), thus confirming that the message was for both Greek and Jew. She was about to face the humiliation of bearing a baby without a known father, but it was very much to be because the Lord was with her in a way in which He would never be with any other woman. For from her womb would come forth, as truly human as well as truly divine, the Son of God. Through the coming months, and even years, she would need ever to remember that assurance that ‘the Lord was with her’ in it all.

But we must not see in this an over-exaltation of Mary. The concentration in this passage is on Jesus. She is ‘favoured’ because of the huge part that she will play in His coming, even more favoured than the favoured Elisabeth. The favour is all from God. She is but the recipient.


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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/luke-1.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The fact that Gabriel greeted Mary as he did and did not greet Zechariah the same way shows Mary"s favored position. Gabriel"s greeting was customary: Hail! or Greetings! (Gr. chaire). Mary was highly "favored" (Gr. kecharitomene) because God chose to bestow special grace ("favor," Gr. charis) on her (cf. Ephesians 1:6, the only other New Testament occurrence of kecharitomene). She would be the mother of the Messiah, which was an honor most Jewish mothers prayed would be hers. God did this without any special merit of her own (cf. Luke 1:47). Roman Catholic commentators dispute this point, but competent scholars have refuted their arguments. [Note: See Marshall, The Gospel . . ., p65 , for further discussion.] The Lord"s presence with Mary guaranteed His help in the assignment she would have to fulfill (cf. Judges 6:12; Ruth 2:14-16).


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/luke-1.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 1:28. And Hebrews, i.e., the angel, as the later manuscripts (followed in the E. V.) insert. To refer it to any human being, makes sheer non-sense of the account.

Came in. This was not a dream, ‘but a visit in open day. Although, of course, in a quiet hour of retirement as more befitting and satisfactory under the circumstances.’

Thou that art highly favored, or, ‘endued with grace,’ one on whom grace or favor has been conferred and abides. See on Ephesians 1:6. Hence it does not refer to any external beauty of Mary, nor does it mean ‘full of grace (Vulgate and Roman Catholic versions).’ She is here presented ‘not as the mother of grace, but as the daughter of grace.’

The Lord is with thee. This might mean’s ‘The Lord be with thee;’ an angelic benediction. But it is more probably a declaration of the Divine presence and blessing as already with her. The rest of the verse is to be rejected; comp. Luke 1:42, from which it was taken. The first part of the Ave Maria, the famous Roman Catholic prayer to the Virgin, is formed by this verse: ‘Hail, Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee.’ The second is taken from Luke 1:42 : ‘Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.’ These Scripture passages were first used as a standing form of prayer in the thirteenth century. At the beginning of the sixteenth century (1508), just before the Reformation, a third part was added, which contains a direct invocation: ‘Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.’ The concluding words (in italics) were, however, a still later addition.


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Bibliography
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-1.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 1:28. χαῖρε, κεχαριτωμένη: ave plena gratiâ, Vulg(4), on which Farrar (C. G. T.) comments: “not gratiâ plena, but gratiâ cumulata”; much graced or favoured by God.— χαριτόω is Hellenistic, and is found, besides here, only in Ephesians 1:6 in N. T.— κύριος μετὰ σοῦ, the Lord (Jehovah) is or be with thee, ἐστί or ἔστω understood; the two renderings come practically to the same thing.


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-1.html. 1897-1910.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Luke 1:28. The angel said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured — Greek, κεχαριτωμενη, who hast found mercy, or favour, with God, as it is explained, Luke 1:30. The Lord is with thee — Or, The Lord be with thee, as Dr. Campbell renders κυριος μετα σου: Blessed art thou among women — That is, according to the Hebrew idiom, thou art the happiest of all the women that ever lived. It must be observed, that this salutation gives no room for any pretence of paying adoration to the virgin; as having no appearance of a prayer, or of worship offered to her. Besides, similar expressions are applied to others. Hail, is the salutation used by our Lord to the women after his resurrection: thou art highly favoured, or, hast found favour with God, is no more than was said of Noah, Moses, and David. The Lord is with thee, was said to Gideon, 6:12; and, Blessed shall she be above women, of Jael, 5:24. “The Church of Rome,” observes a pious writer, “saying ten Ave Marias for one Pater Noster, idolatrously uses these words as a prayer to the holy virgin, whereas they are only a salutation, declaring that she above all women had the honour freely conferred by God upon her, to be the mother of the Messiah. The original word, κεχαριτωμενη, signifies, not full of grace, but freely beloved. Compare Mary with other renowned women, and what had she, besides this favour, more than they? Had she the spirit of prophecy? so had they. Had she the spirit of sanctification? so had they: and she had no more immunity and freedom from sin and death than they. Accordingly the angel says, Blessed art thou among women, not, Blessed art thou above women. How senseless are they, 1st, In turning a salutation into a prayer! 2d, In making use of these words upon every occasion, which were spoken by an angel upon a special occasion! 3d, In applying these words to her now in heaven, which suited with her only when she was here on earth, saying, Full of grace, to her who is full of glory, and, The Lord is with thee, to her who is with the Lord!”


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/luke-1.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

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[BIBLIOGRAPHY]

Gratia plena. See Lucas Burgensis on this place.


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Hail. See note on Matthew 26:49

thou that art highly favoured = [thou] having been graced [by God] = endued with grace. Occurs only here, and Ephesians 1:6 = accepted through grace. "Grace" does not occur in Matthew or Mark.

with = in association with. Greek. meta. App-104. Not the same word as in verses: Luke 30:37, Luke 30:51, Luke 30:56.

blessed . . . women. Omitted by T [Tr. ] A WH R. Probably brought here from Luke 1:42, where it is unquestioned.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.

And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail! highly favoured - a word [ kecharitoomenee (Greek #5487)] only once used elsewhere (Ephesians 1:6, "made accepted"). That our translators have given the right sense of it here seems plain not only from the import of verbs of that termination, but from the next clause,

The Lord is with thee, and Luke 1:30, "Thou hast found favour with God." The Vulgate's mistaken rendering - "full of grace" [gratia plena] - has been taken abundant advantage of by the Romish Church. As the mother of our Lord, she was indeed "the most blessed among women;" but His own reply to the woman who once said this to Himself (see the notes at Luke 11:27-28) is enough to teach us that this blessedness of His virgin-mother is not to be mixed up or confounded with her personal character-high as no doubt that was.

Blessed art thou among women! This clause is excluded from the text here by Tischendorf, and Tregelles brackets it as of doubtful authority, though admitted to be without question in Luke 1:42. Alford excludes it from his text, and Meyer pronounces against it. But the authority in favour of the clause here also is immensely preponderating. Lachmann inserts it. The expression, "Blessed among women," is Old, Testament language for "Most blessed of women."


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-1.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(28) Highly favoured.—The verb is the same as that which is translated, “hath made us accepted “in Ephesians 1:6; and, on the whole, this, which is expressed in one of the marginal readings, seems the truest. The plena gratiâ of the Vulgate has no warrant in the meaning of the word.

The Lord is with thee.—Better, the Lord be with thee, as the more usual formula of salutation, as in Ruth 2:4.

Blessed art thou among women.—The words are omitted in many of the best MSS.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
Hail
Daniel 9:21-23; 10:19
highly favoured
or, graciously accepted, or much graced.
30; Hosea 14:2; Ephesians 1:6
the Lord
Judges 6:12; Isaiah 43:5; Jeremiah 1:18,19; Acts 18:10
blessed
42; 11:27,28; Judges 5:24; Proverbs 31:29-31; Matthew 12:48

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 1:28". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-1.html.

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