Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 14:1

It happened that when He went into the house of one of the leaders of the Pharisees on the Sabbath to eat bread, they were watching Him closely.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Jesus, the Christ;   Miracles;   Pharisees;   Sabbath;   Thompson Chain Reference - Guest, Christ a;   Hospitality;   Social Life;   Watching;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Sabbath, the;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Courage;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Heal, Health;   Hospitality;   Miracle;   Pharisees;   Sabbath;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Hospitality;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Jesus Christ;   Sabbath;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Faith;   Food;   Luke, Gospel of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Matthew, Gospel According to;   Sabbath;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Appreciation (of Christ);   Cures;   Discourse;   Dropsy;   Guest;   Guest-Chamber;   Imagination;   Israel, Israelite;   Joy (2);   Logia;   Luke, Gospel According to;   Meals;   Patience ;   Physician (2);   Preparation ;   Sabbath ;   Spies ;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Chief;   Jesus Christ (Part 2 of 2);   Joy;   Magistrate;   Meals;   Ruler;   Sabbath;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Chief Pharisees - Or, one of the rulers of the Pharisees. A man who was of the sect of the Pharisees, and one of the rulers of the people.

To eat bread on the Sabbath day - But why is it that there should be an invitation or dinner given on the Sabbath day? Answer: The Jews purchased and prepared the best viands they could procure for the Sabbath day, in order to do it honor. See several proofs in Lightfoot. As the Sabbath is intended for the benefit both of the body and soul of man, it should not be a day of austerity or fasting, especially among the laboring poor. The most wholesome and nutritive food should be then procured if possible; that both body and soul may feel the influence of this Divine appointment, and give God the glory of his grace. On this blessed day, let every man eat his bread with gladness and singleness of heart, praising God. In doing this, surely there is no reason that a man should feed himself without fear. If the Sabbath be a festival, let it be observed unto the Lord; and let no unnecessary acts be done; and avoid that bane of religious solemnity, giving and receiving visits on the Lord's day.

They watched him - Or, were maliciously watching, παρατηρουμενοι - from παρα, intens. or denoting ill, and τηρεω, to observe, watch. Raphelius, on Mark 3:2, has proved from a variety of authorities that this is a frequent meaning of the word: - clam et insidiose observare, quid alter agat - to observe privately and insidiously what another does. The context plainly proves that this is the sense in which it is to be taken here. The conduct of this Pharisee was most execrable. Professing friendship and affection, he invited our blessed Lord to his table, merely that he might have a more favorable opportunity of watching his conduct, that he might accuse him, and take away his life. In eating and drinking, people feel generally less restraint than at other times, and are apt to converse more freely. The man who can take such an advantage over one of his own guests must have a baseness of soul, and a fellness of malice, of which, we would have thought, for the honor of human nature, that devils alone were capable. Among the Turks, if a man only taste salt with another, he holds himself bound, in the most solemn manner, never to do that person any injury. I shall make no apology for inserting the following anecdote.

A public robber in Persia, known by the name of Yacoub, ibn Leits Saffer, broke open the treasury of Dirhem, the governor of Sistan. Notwithstanding the obscurity of the place, he observed, in walking forward, something that sparkled a little: supposing it to be some precious stones, he put his hand on the place, and taking up something, touched it with his tongue, and found it to be salt. He immediately left the treasury, without taking the smallest article with him! The governor finding in the morning that the treasury had been broken open, and that nothing was carried off, ordered it to be published, that "Whoever the robber was who had broke open the treasury, if he declared himself, he should be freely pardoned, and that he should not only receive no injury, but should be received into the good graces of the governor." Confiding in the promise of Dirhem, Yacoub appeared. The governor asked; How it came to pass that, after having broken open the treasury, he took nothing away? Yacoub related the affair as it happened, and added, "I believed that I was become your Friend in eating of your Salt, and that the Laws of that friendship would not permit me to touch any thing that appertained to you." D'Herbelot. Bib. Orient. p. 415. How base must that man be, who professes Christianity, and yet makes his own table a snare for his friend!

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/luke-14.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

It came to pass - It so happened or occurred.

As he went … - It is probable that he was invited to go, being in the neighborhood Luke 14:12; and it is also probable that the Pharisee invited him for the purpose of getting him to say something that would involve him in difficulty.

One of the chief Pharisees - One of the Pharisees who were “rulers,” or members of the great council or the Sanhedrin. See the notes at Matthew 5:22. It does not mean that he was the head of the “sect” of the Pharisees, but one of those who happened to be a member of the Sanhedrin. He was, therefore, a man of influence and reputation.

To eat bread - To dine. To partake of the hospitalities of his house.

On the sabbath-day - It may seem strange that our Saviour should have gone to dine with a man who was a stranger on the Sabbath; but we are to remember:

1.That he was traveling, having no home of his own, and that it was no more improper to go there than to any other place.

2.That he did not go there for the purpose of feasting and amusement, but to do good.

3.That as several of that class of persons were together, it gave him an opportunity to address them on the subject of religion, and to reprove their vices.

If, therefore, the example of Jesus should be pled to authorize accepting an invitation to dine on the Sabbath, it should be pled just as it was. If we can go “just as he did,” it is right. If when away from home; if we go to do good; if we make it an occasion to discourse on the subject of religion and to persuade people to repent, then it is not improper. Farther than this we cannot plead the example of Christ. And surely this should be the last instance in the world to be adduced to justify dinner-parties, and scenes of riot and gluttony on the Sabbath.

They watched him - They malignantly fixed their eyes on him, to see if he did anything on which they could lay hold to accuse him.

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-14.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

This section of Luke (Luke 14:1-17:10) is made up practically altogether of "material which Luke alone reports."[1] This chapter recounts the healing of the man with dropsy at the Pharisee's feast (Luke 14:1-6), the teaching on humility which Jesus addressed to the guests (Luke 14:7-11), advice to the host regarding his list of guests (Luke 14:12-14), the parable of the slighted invitation (Luke 14:15-24), and Jesus' pronouncement on the cost of discipleship (Luke 14:25-35).

THE HEALING OF THE MAN WITH DROPSY

And it came to pass, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. (Luke 14:1)

Went into the house of one of the rulers ... In view of the opposition of the Pharisees and rulers to Jesus, it is a little surprising that he should have been invited and that he should have accepted such an invitation; but this is clear in the light of two considerations. First, as Barclay said, "Jesus never refused any man's invitation to hospitality, ... and never abandoned hope of men."[2] Second, the Pharisee intended to use the occasion against Jesus. As Clarke said:

Professing friendship and affection, he invited our blessed Lord to his table, merely that he might have a more favorable opportunity of watching his conduct, that he might accuse him, and take away his life.[3]

On the sabbath ... The following miracles were performed on the sabbath day:

The healing of Simon's wife's mother (Luke 4:38)

The healing of the man with the withered hand (Luke 6:6)

The healing of the woman crippled eighteen years (Luke 13:14)

The healing of the paralytic at the pool of Bethesda (John 5:9)

The healing of the man born blind (John 9:14)

The healing of the demoniac in the synagogue at Capernaum (Mark 1:21)

The healing of the man with dropsy, as recorded herSIZE>

Thus, the Pharisees had every reason to believe that if confronted with the opportunity Jesus would surely heal on any sabbath day; therefore they contrived the incident before us. The invitation for Jesus to have a sabbath meal, the dramatic appearance of a man with dropsy, and the presence of many distinguished guests "had been carefully preconcerted among the Pharisees as a trap for Jesus."[4]

"The Jews took only two meals on week days, but they had three meals on the sabbath";[5] that extra meal was celebrated after the morning worship and was the big meal of the entire week. "The only restriction upon those feasts was that the food had to be cooked the day before."[6]

[1] Norval Geldenhuys, Commentary on the Gospel of Luke (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1951), p. 386.

[2] William Barclay, The Gospel of Luke (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1956), p. 194.

[3] Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Whole Bible (New York: Carlton and Porter, 1829), Vol. V, p. 451.

[4] J. S. Lamar, The New Testament Commentary, Vol. II (Cincinnati, Ohio: Chase and Hall, 1877), p. 191.

[5] Norval Geldenhuys, op. cit., p. 387.

[6] Charles L. Childers, Beacon Bible Commentary (Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press, 1964), p. 546.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-14.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And it came to pass,.... The Persic version adds, "on a certain day"; and it is afterwards said to be the sabbath day. This seems to have been somewhere or other in Galilee; see Luke 17:11.

As he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees; or rather, one of the rulers, and of the sect of the Pharisees: and he might be either a ruler of a synagogue, or a member of one of the lesser or greater sanhedrim; such another as Nicodemus, who was of the Pharisees, and a ruler of the Jews, John 3:1 for that there was any distinction among the Pharisees as a sect, does not appear: to this man's house Christ went, after he came out of the synagogue, being invited by him;

to eat bread on the sabbath day. The sabbath day was a feasting day with the Jews, in which they made very large and magnificent entertainments, for the honour of the sabbath; and he was reckoned the most praiseworthy, that exceeded this way; and no doubt, since this man was a Pharisee, one that was tenacious of the traditions of the elders, and was also a ruler, his table was well spread: the rules concerning this part of keeping the sabbath, are theseF7Maimon. Hilchot Sabbat, c. 30. sect. 7, 8, 9. ;

"what is this delight? the wise men say, a man ought to prepare abundance of food and spiced liquids, for the sabbath, all according to a man's substance; and whoever multiplies in the expenses of the sabbath, and in preparing food, much and good, lo, he is praiseworthy; and if he is not able, though he only prepares boiled food, and such like, on account of the glory of the sabbath, lo, this is the delight of the sabbath: and he is not obliged to straiten himself, nor to ask of others, to increase the food of the sabbath: the ancient wise men said, make thy sabbath a common day, and do not make thyself necessitous to men; he who is delicate and rich, and lo, all his days are as a sabbath day, ought to have food on a sabbath day, different from that on a weekday; and if it is not possible to change, let him alter the time of eating; if he had been used to have it soon, let him have it late; and if late, let him have it sooner: a man is obliged to eat three meals, or feasts, on a sabbath day; one in the evening, and one in the morning, and one at the time of the meat offering; and he ought to take heed to those three feasts, that he does not diminish them at all; and even a poor man that is maintained by alms, must keep the three feasts.'

And this last canon, or rule, is of the utmost importance with them; for theyF8T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 118. 1. Kimchi in Isa. lviii. 13. say,

"whoever keeps the three feasts on the sabbath day, shall be delivered from three punishments, from the sorrows of the Messiah, from the judgment of hell, and from the war of Gog and Magog.'

That they watched him; that is, those that sat down to meat with him, the lawyers and Pharisees: and it is very probable, that it was not out of pure respect to him, that he was asked to eat meat at this ruler's house; but with a design to observe whatever might be said, or done by him, they could take any advantage from, against him.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-14.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And 1 it came to pass, as he went into the house of a one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.

(1) The law of the very sabbath ought not to hinder the offices of charity.

(a) Either one of the elders, whom they called the sanhedrin, or one of the chiefs of the synagogue: for all the Pharisees were not chief men of the synagogue (John 7:48); for this word Pharisee was the name of a sect, though it appears by viewing the whole history of the matter that the Pharisees had much authority.

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/luke-14.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Luke 14:1-24. Healing of a dropsical man, and manifold teachings at a Sabbath Feast.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-14.html. 1871-8.

John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels

1. And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.

[To eat bread on the sabbath day.] The Jews' tables were generally better spread on that day than on any others: and that, as they themselves reckoned, upon the account of religion and piety. I have spoken to this elsewhere: take here a demonstration. "Rabba Bar Rabh Houna went to the house of Rabba Bar Rabh Nachman. He set before him three measures of rich cake: to whom he, 'How did you know of my coming?' The other answered, 'Is there any thing more valuable to us than the sabbath?'" The Gloss is; 'We do by no means prefer thee before the sabbath: we got these things ready in honour of the sabbath, not knowing any thing of thy coming.'

"Rabba Abba bought flesh of thirteen butchers for thirteen staters, and paid them at the very hinge of the door." The Gloss tells us, 'That he bought of thirteen butchers, that he might be sure to taste the best: and before they could come that should bring the flesh, he had gotten his money ready for them, and paid them at the very gate, that he might hasten dinner: and all this in honour of the sabbath-day.'

R. Abhu sat upon an ivory throne, and yet blew the fire: that was towards the cooking of his dinner in honour of the sabbath. It ought not to be passed by without observation, that Christ was at such a dinner, and that in the house of a Pharisee, who doubtless was observant enough of all ceremonies of this kind.

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Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "John Lightfoot Commentary on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jlc/luke-14.html. 1675.

People's New Testament

One of the rulers of the Pharisees on a sabbath to eat bread. In despite of the rigid ideas of the Pharisees concerning work on the Sabbath, it was made a day of feasting. "Meet the Sabbath with a lively hunger; let thy table be covered with fish, flesh, and generous wine," is a rabbinical precept.

They were watching. Though pretending hospitality, on the watch for grounds of accusation.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/luke-14.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

When he went (εν τωι ελτειν αυτονen tōi elthein auton). Luke‘s favourite temporal clause = “on the going as to him.”

That (καιkai). Another common Lukan idiom, καιοτιkai

=εγενετοhoti after αυτοιegeneto like Hebrew ησαν παρατηρουμενοιwav (αυτοιautoi). Emphatic.

Were watching (παραēsan paratēroumenoi). Periphrastic imperfect middle. Note force of autoi middle voice, and para -. They were themselves watching on the side (on the sly), watching insidiously, with evil intent as in Mark 3:2 (active).

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-14.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Watched ( ἧσαν παρατηρούμενοι )

The participle and finite verb, were engaged in watching. Closely ( παρά ). See on Mark 3:2.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/luke-14.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

The Fourfold Gospel

And it came to pass, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees1 on a sabbath to eat bread2, that they were watching him3.
    DINING WITH A PHARISEE. SABBATH HEALING AND THREE LESSONS SUGGESTED BY THE EVENT. (Probably Perea.) Luke 14:1-24

  1. And it came to pass, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees. The Pharisees were an unorganized party, hence their rulers were such not by "office", but by influence. Those who were members of the Sanhedrin, or who were distinguished among the rabbis, might fitly be spoken of as rulers among them.

  2. On a sabbath to eat bread. Bountiful feasts on the Sabbath day were common among the Jews; the food, however, was cooked the previous day in obedience to the precept at Exodus 16:23.

  3. That they were watching him. The context favors the idea that Jesus was invited for the purpose of being watched--a carrying out of the Pharisaic purpose declared at Luke 11:53,54.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-14.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

To eat bread; to dine or to sup. This seems to have been an entertainment where there were many invited guests; as appears from allusions in Luke 14:3,7,12,15, &c. The whole conversation takes its turn from the circumstances of the occasion; the images and illustrations being drawn from entertainments and invitations to guests.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/luke-14.html. 1878.

Scofield's Reference Notes

until (See Scofield "Matthew 23:39").

Lord Jehovah. Psalms 118:26.

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Luke 14:1". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/luke-14.html. 1917.

James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

SABBATH WORKS AND WORDS

‘And it came to pass, as He went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched Him.’

Luke 14:1

Let us follow the Lord in spirit, and listen to the instruction that He gave to those who were gathered with Him at the board. Our subject calls us to notice two things in particular:—

I. His Sabbath works (Luke 14:1-6).—All His works may be summed up in one word—‘Who went about doing good’ (Acts 10:38). And the Sabbath was no exception. As the Father does good by carrying on His works of providence, so the Son His works of grace (John 5:16-17). See on the present occasion. He finds a poor man in the house suffering from dropsy. Without waiting for an application for help, He anticipates the sufferer’s wants (Isaiah 65:24; Psalms 59:10). He anticipates also the thoughts of the murmurers’ hearts (Luke 14:3; Matthew 9:4; Hebrews 4:12-13; Revelation 2:23). He performs the good deed of healing (Exodus 15:26; Jeremiah 17:14). He justifies Himself at the expense of His enemies (Luke 14:5-6; Romans 3:9). They were really annoyed with Christ, because He did good upon the Sabbath (1 John 3:12-13; cf. John 10:32-33).

II. His Sabbath words (Luke 14:7-11).—Like His works, they were always good. He always turned the conversation to what was important and edifying (Ephesians 4:29). Thus was He the faithful and true Witness (John 18:37). One is inclined to be silent in the presence of the wicked (Psalms 39:1-2), but not so Christ. See on the present occasion how He improves the opportunity. From the feast He leads their thoughts to the gospel feast (Luke 14:16). From their taking seats at table He teaches them humility (Luke 14:8-11). Christ’s eye is upon us in the commonest actions (Psalms 139:2). He sees us take our place at table, and remarks upon it. He bids us esteem others better than ourselves (Philippians 2:3; 3 John 1:9). Pride goes before a fall (Luke 14:9; Proverbs 29:23). Before honour there must be humility (Luke 14:10; Proverbs 15:33; Proverbs 25:6-7).

Let us not fail to lay these things to heart. I fear that with many of us Sunday words and Sunday deeds are not what they should be. How much time is lost in idleness or foolish talking! Let us listen to the words of the Apostle, when he calls us to be followers of Christ (Ephesians 5:1-2; Ephesians 5:4; Ephesians 5:16).

—Bishop Rowley Hill.

Illustration

‘All God’s people always had the institution of the Sabbath. There was first of all the patriarchal Sabbath instituted of God, which was the life of the family, and for this patriarchal or family life God instituted the seventh day as a day of rest. This was followed by the Jewish or national institution, with additional ceremonial observances. And then, last of all, followed the Christian Sunday, which included the family and the national life, and also the whole world. First, the seventh day, then the Sabbath and the ceremonial observances, and then, last of all, the Lord’s Day. The Sabbath, under the Jewish régime, became almost a purely ceremonial observance; it overlapped everything, even to absurdity. So the institution of the Lord’s resting day had been over-larded by effete, absurd, and exacting ceremonials. Then comes our Lord and Master, and gives us very definitely the law about the Christian day of rest—the Lord’s Day.’

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Bibliographical Information
Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/luke-14.html. 1876.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

1 And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.

Ver. 1. They watched him] Gr. παρατηρουμενοι, They superstitiously and maliciously observed him. (Aristot. lib. ii. Rhet.) Accipit pro eo quod est ulciscendi tempus captare. They watched as intently as a dog doth for a bone; they pried as narrowly into his actions as Laban did into Jacob’s stuff.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-14.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Luke 14:1. One of the chief Pharisees A member of the great council, or sanhedrim, who had a country-seat in Perea. The higher courts among the Jews allowed some recess to their members. This person's invitation to our Lordwas insidious; for we are told that they watched him.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/luke-14.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Several particulars are here worthy of our observation and imitation.

Note, 1. The freedom of our Lord's conversation with men: he delighted in human society, and was of a sociable temper; we do not find, that whenever he was invited to a dinner, he disdained to go, not so much for the pleasure of eating, as for the opportunity of conversing and doing good.

Note, 2. The house he goes into, and is entertained in, one of the chief Pharisees', who were some of his chiefest enemies; a great instance of our Lord's humanity, humility, and self-denial, in that he refused not the conversation of those whom he knew did not affect him; teaching us to love our enemies, and not to shun conversing with them, that thereby we may gain an opportunity of being reconciled to them.

Note, 3. The day when our Saviour dined publicly at the Pharisee's house, among the lawyers and Pharisees; it was on the sabbath day.

Learn hence, that it is not simply unlawful for us to entertain our friends and neighbors with a plentiful meal on the Lord's day; it must be acknowledged, that feasting upon any day is one of those lawful things which is difficulty managed without sin, but more especially upon that day, that it does not unfit us for the duties of the sabbath. However, our Lord's example in going to a public dinner amongst lawyers and Pharisees evidently shows the lawfulness of feasting on that day, provided we use the same moderation in eating and drinking that he did, and improve the opportunity as a season for doing good, as he has taught us by his example.

Note, 4. How, contrary to all the laws of behavior, the decency of conversation, and the rules of hospitality, the Pharisees watched him, making their table a snare to catch him, hoping they might hear something from him, or see something in him for which they might accuse him: He entered into the house of the Pharisees to eat bread, and they watched him.

Note, 5. Our Saviour chose the sabbath day as the fittest season to work his miraculous cures in; in the Pharisee's house he heals a man who had the dropsy, on the sabbath day. Christ would not forbear doing good, nor omit any opportunity of helping and healing the distressed though he knew his enemies the Pharisees would carp and cavil at it, calumniate and reproach him for it; it being the constant guise of hypocrites, to prefer ceremonial and ritual observation, before necessary and moral duties.

Note, 6. How our Saviour defends the lawfulness of his act in healing the diseased man, from their own act in helping a beast out of the pit on the sabbath day: as if Christ had said, "Is it lawful for you on the sabbath day to help a beast? And is it sinful for me to heal a man?"

Note, lastly, how the reason and force of our Saviour's argument silenced the Pharisees; convincing them, no doubt, but we read nothing of their conversion: the obstinate and malicious are much harder to be wrought upon than the ignorant and scandalous; it is easier to silence such men than to satisfy them; to stop their mouths than to remove their prejudices; for obstinacy will hold the conclusion, though reason cannot maintain the premises: They could not answer him again to those things.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/luke-14.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

1.] ἐν τῷ ἐλθ. αὐτ., viz. during the πορεύεσθαι, ch. Luke 13:33.

τ. ἀρχ. [ τ.] φ., of the chief men of the Pharisees; or, if the τῶν be omitted, of the Pharisees who were rulers. Though the Pharisees had no official rulers as such, they had men to whom they looked up, as Hillel, Schammai, Gamaliel, &c. (Meyer.)

φ. ἄρτ.] The Jews used to give entertainments on the Sabbath, see Nehemiah 8:9-12; Tobit 2:1. The practice latterly became an abuse,—‘Hodiernus dies sabbati est: hunc in præsenti tempore otio quodam corporaliter languido et fluxo et luxurioso celebrant Judæi.’ Aug(94) in Psalms 91:1, Enarr. § 2, vol. iv. Again, ‘observa diem Sabbati, non Judaicis deliciis …’ in Psalms 32:2, Enarr. ii. § 6.

καί, usual after ἐγένετο: not ‘also,’ or ‘even.’

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-14.html. 1863-1878.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

The Lord Jesus dineth with a Pharisee. He healeth a Man of the Dropsy. He puts forth a Parable. Describes his Gospel under the Similitude of a great Supper; and adds a blessed Discourse.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/luke-14.html. 1828.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 14:1. ἐν τῷ ἐλθεῖν, when He was coming) by invitation. See Luke 14:12.— ἀρχόντων, of the chiefs) The Pharisees had their own chiefs, and these also numerous, possessing pre-eminent authority; which, however, Jesus did not regard with fear. See Luke 14:12, at the beginning. [— ἦσαν παρατηρούμενοι αὐτὸν, they were craftily watching Him) The spiritual Sabbath is grossly profaned by crafty and wicked thoughts.—V. g.]

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-14.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

LUKE CHAPTER 4

Luke 14:1-6 Christ healeth the dropsy on the sabbath, and

justifieth his doing so.

Luke 14:7-11 He recommends humility,

Luke 14:12-14 and hospitality toward the poor.

Luke 14:15-24 The parable of the marriage supper, and of the

guests, who making excuses were excluded, and their

rooms filled by others.

Luke 14:25-33 He advises those who are willing to be his disciples to

examine beforehand their resolution in case of persecutions.

Luke 14:34-35 The unprofitableness of salt, when it hath lost its savour.

Ver. 1-6. We have before observed the freedom of our Saviour’s converse; sometimes he will dine with publicans, sometimes with Pharisees, becoming all things to all men that he might gain some. Christians certainly have the same liberty; the matter is not in whose houses we are, but what we do or say, how we behave ourselves there. In his going to a Pharisee’s house, he gives us a great precedent of humanity and self-denial, for the Pharisees were his great enemies, and we shall observe no great kindness showed to him in the invitation of him. Whether this Pharisee be called

one of the chief of the Pharisees because he was a member of the sanhedrim, or a ruler of a synagogue, or because he was one of the eldest and greatest repute, is not worth the inquiry. Thither Christ went

to eat bread, that is, to take a meal with him. It is a phrase often used to signify dining, or supping, for they ordinarily under the notion of bread understood all manner of victuals.

It was

on the sabbath day. In the mean time, the evangelist tells us,

they watched him, to wit, whether they might hear any thing from him, or see any thing in him, whereof they might accuse him.

It happened

there was a man which had the dropsy, whether casually, or brought thither on purpose by the Pharisees, the Scripture saith not; he was not there without a Divine direction, to give Christ an occasion of a miracle, and further to instruct people in the true doctrine of the sabbath.

Christ upon the sabbath begins us a discourse proper for the day, asking the Pharisees if it were

lawful to heal on the sabbath day. They make him no reply. Christ healeth him, then preacheth a doctrine to them, which he had twice before inculcated, in the case of a man who had a withered hand, Matthew 12:10, and of the woman whom Satan had bound, of which we heard, Luke 13:11, viz. That works of mercy are lawful on the sabbath day. Then he justifieth his fact by the confession of their own practice, in lifting up beasts fallen into pits on the sabbath day. His argument is this: If it be lawful on the sabbath day to relieve a beast, it is much more lawful to relieve a man: but you do the former. The evangelist reports them put to silence, but saith nothing of their conviction. It is an easier thing to stop malicious persons’ mouths than to remove their prejudices. Malice will ordinarily hold the conclusion, when the reason of the soul infected with it is not able to justify the premises.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-14.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

в субботу См. пояснение к 13:10. Христа, исцеляющего в субботу, Лука показывает чаще, чем любой другой евангелист. По-видимому, Христос понимал субботу как день для совершения дел милосердия.

наблюдали за Ним У фарисея были далеко не благородные побуждения для приглашения Его на трапезу.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/luke-14.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

On the sabbath-day; Jesus Christ was on a journey, and had no home. It was proper that he should take food where he was invited. He went to take such refreshment as his physical wants on that day required, and to do good to those who might be present. This affords no justification to visiting, or making dining-parties on the Sabbath.

They watched him; to see if he would not do something for which they might accuse him.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/luke-14.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And it came about, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees on a sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him.’

The description here is unusual for there were no rulers of the Pharisees. It may, however, merely signify that the man was both a ruler of the Jews, and also a Pharisee. Or it may suggest some privileged position among the Pharisees. The former is most probable. But Luke’s aim in speaking of the Pharisee as ‘a ruler of the Pharisees’ may be in order to suggest that that we are to see this house as like ‘the ruler’s house’ (Luke 12:36). And he is possibly to be seen as comparing with the householder of the parable in the chiasmus parallel (Luke 12:39) whose servants were expected to fulfil their duties (Luke 12:35-40).

(It is true that the parallel is not wholly exact, but the implications are all there. Exactness was not possible when the master of the house in the parallel was either God or the Lord).

As the servants were in the lord’s house in the parallel parable, so Jesus has come into this man’s house and is surrounded by those who would claim to be His fellow-servants. And here He eats bread with them. But the fellow-servants who surrounded Him were Scribes and Pharisees who were all watching Him. In this last regard it is possible that the sick man had been put there deliberately, but not necessarily so. The situation may simply have been that Jesus was under general surveillance, just as the servants were in the parable. Indeed the Scribes and Pharisees were under surveillance too, although they may not have considered the fact. But certainly as the Servant of the Lord Jesus knew that He was always under God’s surveillance in order to see that He would do what was right.

The meal would be the main meal of the day following the synagogue service, a meal to which it was quite normal to invite guests. On the Sabbath there would be three meals, all of course cooked on the previous day (there were even instructions in the traditions of the elders on how and how not to keep it warm lest any ‘cooking’ occur on the Sabbath), but the midday meal was the main one. On other days there would only be two meals and the main meal would be towards evening. Being in the house of a leading Pharisee there would be jars of water set apart there which provided ‘clean’ water for the washing rites which all would be expected to observe.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/luke-14.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1.One of the chief Pharisees—That is, one who was a leading character among the Pharisees. The Pharisees were not an official class, but a sect; and their chief men were their eminent doctors or wise men. But such were often promoted to office, as this sect was very influential in public affairs. Alexander Jannaeus, one of the Jewish kings, opposed the Pharisees with all his power during his own life; but when he came to his death, he advised his surviving queen to submit herself entirely to their control. Obeying this advice, she was able to rule in peace. This chief Pharisee was very likely one of the Sanhedrim.

On the Sabbath day—The Jews made it a point of honour to the Sabbath day to take a much more sumptuous meal than upon any other day. They must feast thrice that day as a religious merit; for who so did should be saved from the three punishments: the sorrows of the Messiah, the pains of hell, and the wars of Gog and Magog. Jesus was a guest on this occasion, and rendered it a religions assembly. Those who cannot, like Jesus, render a Sabbath social gathering a profitable occasion, had better absent themselves.

They watched him—The standing point of debate, Will he heal upon the Sabbath day? was evidently before their minds.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-14.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The setting for what follows is secondary to the attitude of the Pharisees who were present. They had already decided to do away with Jesus ( Luke 11:53-54). Now the Pharisees and lawyers were watching Him like vultures waiting to pounce on their prey at the first opportunity ( Luke 14:3). Views of the Sabbath were a major source of disagreement between Jesus and the Pharisees (cf. Luke 6:1-5; Luke 6:11; Luke 13:10-17). Quite possibly this leading Pharisee, perhaps a member of the Sanhedrin, had set a trap for Jesus by inviting him to his house for a Sabbath meal. Jesus had already violated Sabbath traditions on at least seven different occasions ( Luke 4:31-39; Luke 6:1-5; John 5:1-9; Luke 6:6-10; Luke 13:10-17; John 9). Table fellowship implied friendship, but clearly this was hypocritical on this occasion.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/luke-14.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 14:1. One of the rulers of the Pharisees. Possibly a member of the Sanhedrin, but certainly one of the influential, leading men of the party.

On the Sabbath. The Jews gave feasts on the Sabbath, the food being prepared the day previous. The custom gave rise to great abuses, though doubtless the letter of the fourth commandment was observed. A number of guests were present, mainly Pharisees (Luke 14:3; Luke 14:7).

Were watching him. The Pharisees, since that class was last spoken of, were watching if He would do or say anything which would furnish a pretext for opposing Him. The hospitality was hostile.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-14.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 14:1. , etc.: the indication of place and time is very vague so as to lend plausibility to the suggestion that the introduction is extracted from the parabolic speeches, Luke 14:7-24 (Holtzmann, H. C.).— . ., the house is described as that of one of the rulers of the Pharisees, an inexact expression, as the Pharisees as such had no rulers, being all on a level. Omitting the article before . (as in [116]) we might take this word as in apposition and render: one of the rulers, Pharisees; rulers meaning the Sanhedrists, and Pharisees denoting their religious tendency (so Grotius, who therefore thinks the scene was in Jerusalem).— : feasting on Sabbath was common among the Jews, ex pietate et religione (Lightfoot), but the dishes were cold, cooked the day before.— , introducing the apodosis, and the main fact the suspicious observation of Jesus by those present at the meal ( ). Altogether a strange situation: Jesus the guest of a great man among the Pharisees, as if held in honour, yet there to be watched rather than treated as a friend; simple-hearted geniality on one side, insincerity on the other.

[116] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-14.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

was the Hebrew expression for taking a meal; their frugality probably suggested this method of expression, bread being the principal part of their repast. (Calmet) --- What a contrast here between the actions of the Pharisees and those of our Saviour! They watched all his actions, in order to have an opportunity of accusing him, and of putting him to death; whilst he, on the contrary, seeks after nothing but the salvation of his enemies' souls. (Tirinus)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-14.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

it came to pass. A Hebraism. See on Luke 2:1.

as He went = in (Greek. en App-104.) His going. into. Greek. eis. App-104.

chief Pharisees = rulers of the Pharisees (App-120).

bread. Put by Figure of speech Synecdoche (of the Part) for any kind of food.

the sabbath day = a certain Sabbath.

watched = were engaged in watching.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-14.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.

And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees, [ tinos (Greek #5100) toon (Greek #3588) archontoon (Greek #758) toon (Greek #3588) Farisaioon (Greek #5330)] - rather, 'of one of the rulers of the Pharisees,' that is, one of the rulers who belonged to the sect of the Pharisees. The place and time, as usual in this portion of the present Gospel, are not indicated. See remarks prefixed to Luke 9:51.

To eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-14.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

1. One Sabbath day, Jesus went to eat a meal. The Pharisees had rigid ideas about working on the Sabbath, but they made it a day of feasting. They would say: “Greet the Sabbath with a good appetite; fill your table with fish, meat, and plenty of wine.” And people were watching. Jesus is a guest, but they watch closely, hoping to trap him.

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/luke-14.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

XIV.

(1) Into the house of one of the chief Pharisees.—Better, of the rulers of the Pharisees. The meaning of the phrase is probably more definite than that suggested by the English. The man was either a “ruler” in the same sense as Nicodemus (John 3:1), or the rich young man in Luke 18:18 - i.e., a member of the Sanhedrin (which seems most likely)—or else occupied a high position in the lay-hierarchy (if the phrase may be allowed) which had developed itself in the organisation of Pharisaism.

To eat bread on the Sabbath day.—Sabbath feasts were then, as at a later time, part of the social life of the Jews, and were often—subject, of course, to the condition that the food was cold—occasions of great luxury and display. Augustine speaks of them as including dancing and song, and the “Sabbath luxury” of the Jews became a proverb. On the motives of the Pharisee—probably half respect and half curiosity—see Notes on Luke 7:36.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-14.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath day, that they watched him.
as
7:34-36; 11:37; 1 Corinthians 9:19-22
chief
John 3:1; Acts 5:34
they
6:7; 11:53,54; 20:20; Psalms 37:32; 41:6; 62:4; 64:5,6; Proverbs 23:7; Isaiah 29:20; Isaiah 29:21; Jeremiah 20:10,11; Mark 3:2
Reciprocal: Exodus 18:12 - eat bread;  Matthew 11:19 - came;  Mark 3:4 - Is it;  Luke 7:36 - And he;  John 9:14 - GeneralHebrews 12:3 - contradiction

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-14.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

This narrative contains nothing more than a miracle which Christ performed, in order to correct the superstitious observance of the Sabbath. For he did not, intend, as some imagine, absolutely to abolish the Sabbath, but only to point out, that neither the works of God, nor the duties of charity, violate the holy rest which is enjoined by the law. Whether or not those very persons had purposely brought the dropsical man to that place cannot be known with certainty. He unquestionably could not be present at the table by accident, nor break into a private dwelling without the permission and consent of the owner. It is therefore probable, that he was placed there with the concealed design of tempting Christ, which, on their part, was as foolish an action as it was wicked; for they had already known by experience what Christ was accustomed to do, whenever a similar occasion presented itself.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Luke 14:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/luke-14.html. 1840-57.