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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:10

Then I fell at his feet to worship him. But he *said to me, "Do not do that; I am a fellow servant of yours and your brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus; worship God. For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Nave's Topical Bible - Angel (a Spirit);   Holy Spirit;   Homage;   Word of God;   Worship;   Thompson Chain Reference - Brethren;   Church;   Family;   Holy Spirit;   Names;   Spiritual;   Titles and Names;   Worship;   Worship, True and False;   The Topic Concordance - Jesus Christ;   Prophecy and Prophets;   Witness;   Worship;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Angels;   Titles and Names of the Holy Spirit;  
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Angel;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Angels;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Adoration;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Angel;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Adore;   Angels;   Censer;   Elijah;   Immanuel;   Incense;   Jesus Christ;   Old Testament;   Prophet;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Prophecy, Prophets;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Adoration;   Prophecy, Prophets;   Prophet;   Revelation, Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Angels;   Apocalypse;   Ascension;   Evil (2);   Feet;   Fire;   Gestures;   Holy Spirit;   Revelation, Book of;   Witness;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Angels;   13 To Worship, Serve;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Prophecy;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Angel;   Antichrist;  
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Attitudes;   Christ, Offices of;   Lake of Fire;   Messiah;   Revelation of John:;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Angels;  
Unselected Authors

Adam Clarke Commentary

Verse Revelation 19:10. I fell at his feet to worship him. — Great as this angel was, St. John could not mistake him either for Jesus Christ, or for God the Father; nor was his prostration intended as an act of religious worship. It was merely an act of that sort of reverence which any Asiatic would pay to a superior. His mistake was, the considering that he was under obligation to the angel for the information which he had now received. This mistake the angel very properly corrects, showing him that it was from God alone this intelligence came, and that to him alone the praise was due.

I am thy fellow servant — No higher in dignity than thyself; employed by the same God, on the same errand, and with the same testimony; and therefore not entitled to thy prostration: worship God-prostrate thyself to him, and to him give thanks.

The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. — As this is a reason given by the angel why he should not worship him, the meaning must be this: I, who have received this spirit of prophecy, am not superior to thee who hast received the testimony of Christ, to preach him among the Gentiles; for the commission containing such a testimony is equal to the gift of the spirit of prophecy. Or, the spirit of prophecy is a general testimony concerning Jesus, for he is the scope and design of the whole Scripture; to him gave all the prophets witness. Take Jesus, his grace, Spirit, and religion out of the Bible, and it has neither scope, design, object, nor end.

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These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". 1832.

Bridgeway Bible Commentary

Wedding feast of the Lamb (19:6-10)

God’s rule has been clearly demonstrated in the destruction of the anti-Christian world system and the triumph of his persecuted people. That triumph is now pictured in a heavenly wedding feast in which the redeemed are seen as the bride of Christ. They are clothed in pure white to indicate their heavenly purity (6-8).
The symbolism then changes. The redeemed, though pictured collectively as a bride, are pictured individually as those invited to share the wedding feast with Christ. John, overcome by the vision, is tempted to worship the angel who explained it to him. He is reminded that Jesus, not the angel, is the source of all these revelations (9-10).

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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Brideway Bible Commentary". 2005.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And 50fell down before his feet to worship him. And he saith unto me, See thou do it not: I am a fellow-servant with thee and with thy brethren that hold the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

This incident recorded here is of vast importance and significance. The background of its appearance in the vision, or perhaps the reason for God's giving this, may have been the tendency to worship angels which is said to have prevailed in some quarters in the primitive church. Moffatt, for example, quoted Clement of Alexandria as saying that, "angel worship had for some time fascinated the Asiatic churches here and there."[23] The impact of what is taught by this, however, far exceeds the bearing it has in forbidding angel worship.

And I fell down before his feet to worship him ... In this instance, John actually was so carried away by the marvelous visions that he had seen that he impetuously fell down to worship the glorious angel who had aided in the revelations. This, at once, was revealed as sinful.

And he saith unto me, See thou do it not ... This clearly indicated the sinfulness of what John did in falling down before him.

"I am a fellow-servant with thee and with thy brethren that hold the testimony of Jesus ..." This is exceedingly interesting, for it gives angelic testimony to the high rank of the apostle John. "They that hold the testimony of Jesus," as used here, is a reference to the Twelve Apostles. They alone, in the ultimate sense, held the testimony of Jesus; and that it is in that higher sense that the words were used here by the angel appears in the addition of the clause: "For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy." This forbids, therefore, understanding the brethren who hold the testimony of Jesus as merely the Christians of all ages who also, in a sense, are bearers of the glad tidings. The angel spoke of those Spirit-endowed people who were the chosen witnesses to bear the testimony through their writings in the New Testament to all generations. They were prophets; Christians are not prophets.

Even a glorious angel is merely one of God's servants, and therefore not to be worshipped by people. Worship is reserved for God alone. The acceptance of the worship by people on the part of Christ does not mean that other people may accept the worship of their fellows, but it identifies Christ as God come in the flesh.

I am thy fellow-servant ... Regarding the "service" which angels give to the redeemed, see in my Commentary on Hebrews, p. 31.

Worship God ... This means that only God is to be worshipped, either by an act of obeisance, prostration, or bowing down before the presence, or by any subjective adoration, the latter being not "worship" in the New Testament sense, but the emotional accompaniment of it. See thorough discussion of what worship actually is in my Commentary on Acts 208-211. If even one of the glorious angels of heaven may not be honored by a Christian's bowing before his presence, how much less may any religious prelate allow people to kiss his ring, or the hem of his garment, or prostrate themselves on their bellies as when the entire college of Cardinals so prostrate themselves before the Pope? Such reverence given to a mere human being is a sin.

The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy ... We regret that the vast majority have failed utterly to understand this. "There is no way absolutely to determine whether John is speaking of the witness given by Christ himself, or whether the witness is about Christ."[24] Ladd thought that, "It is the witness borne by the church to Jesus."[25] Beasley-Murray interpreted it to mean the "testimony which Jesus gives."[26] All such explanations fall short. Bruce was nearer the truth when he wrote: "Here New Testament prophecy is meant, as in the similar statement regarding Old Testament prophecy in 1 Peter 1:10f.[27] This harmonizes completely with our view of it given in the fourth paragraph under Revelation 19:10. We see this clause as a qualifier of those whom the angel meant were his fellow-servants. He spoke of the Twelve Apostles, and this verse indicates that meaning, for the apostles alone were truly "prophets" of the New Testament.

Barclay's interesting comment on this is included here, not because it touches this vital meaning of the passage, but be cause it gives attention to the "double meaning" phenomenon often found in the New Testament.

This is the kind of double meaning of which the Greek language is capable; and it may well be that John intended the double meaning. The true prophet is the man who receives from Christ the message he brings to men, and whose words and works are at one and the same time an act of witness to Christ.[28]

We cannot accept the view that a true Christian, however effective his "witness," is in any sense a possessor of the "spirit of prophecy." The clause is a designator of the Twelve. We whole-heartedly agree with another of Barclay's comments on this verse, thus, "God alone must be worshipped. Any other intermediary than Jesus Christ between God and men must be utterly opposed."[29] Angels are above all people, who are made a "little lower" than the angels; and, if it is sinful to worship an angel, how far greater is the sin of worshipping people, or of invoking their names in prayer, or of bowing down in the presence of images consecrated to them?

Zerr, who is usually quite dependable, cannot be correct in his notion that, "There are some conditions when even a man may receive some form of worship."[30] One commentator even suggested that John got mixed up and forgot about relating this incident when he included it a second time in Revelation 22:8,9; and even J. W. Roberts wrote: "This scene is duplicated in Revelation 22:6ff."[31] No! This is not duplicated there, where a most important and significant difference will be pointed out and discussed.

[23] James Moffatt, op. cit., p. 465.

[24] James D. Strauss, op. cit., p. 237.

[25] George Eldon Ladd, op. cit., p. 251.

[26] G. R. Beasley-Murray, The Book of Revelation (Greenwood, South Carolina: The Attic Press, 1974), p. 276.

[27] F. F. Bruce, op. cit., p. 660.

[28] William Barclay, op. cit., p. 177.

[29] Ibid., p. 176.

[30] E. M. Zerr, Bible Commentary, Vol. 6 (Marion, Indiana: Cogdill Foundation, 1954), p. 339.

[31] J. W. Roberts, The Revelation of John (Austin, Texas: R. B. Sweet Company, 1974), p. 161.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I fell at his feet to worship him - At the feet of the angel. See the notes on Revelation 19:9. This is a common posture of adoration in the East. See Rosenmuller’s “Morgenland, in loco.” notes on 1 Corinthians 14:25. John was entirely overcome with the majesty of the heavenly messenger, and with the amazing truths that he had disclosed to him, and in the overflowing of his feelings he fell upon the earth in the posture of adoration. Or it may be that he mistook the rank of him who addressed him, and supposed that he was the Messiah whom he had been accustomed to worship, and who had first Revelation 1:0 appeared to him. If so, his error was soon corrected. He was told by the angel himself who made these communications that he had no claims to such homage, and that the praise which he offered him should be rendered to God alone. It should be observed that there is not the slightest intimation that this was the Messiah himself, and consequently this does not contain any evidence that it would be improper to worship him. The only fair conclusion from the passage is, that it is wrong to offer religious homage to an angel.

And he said unto me, See thou do it not - That is, in rendering the homage which you propose to me, you would in fact render it to a creature. This may be regarded as an admonition to be careful in our worship; not to allow our feelings to overcome us; and not to render that homage to a creature which is due to God alone. Of course, this would prohibit the worship of the Virgin Mary, and of any of the saints, and all that homage rendered to a created being which is due to God only. Nothing is more carefully guarded in the Bible than the purity and simplicity of worship; nothing is more sternly rebuked than idolatry; nothing is more contrary to the divine law than rendering in any way that homage to a creature which belongs of right to the Creator. It was necessary to guard even John, the beloved disciple, on that subject; how much more needful, therefore, is it to guard the church at large from the dangers to which it is liable.

I am thy fellow-servant - Evidently this was an angel, and yet he here speaks of himself as a “fellow-servant” of John. That is, he was engaged in the service of the same God; he was endeavoring to advance the same cause, and to honor the same Redeemer. The sentiment is, that in promoting religion in the world, we are associated with angels. It is no condescension in them to be engaged in the service of the Redeemer, though it seems to be condescension for them to be associated with us in anything; it constitutes no ground of merit in us to be engaged in the service of the Redeemer (compare Luke 17:10), though we may regard it as an honor to be associated with the angels, and it may raise us in conscious dignity to feel that we are united with them.

And of thy brethren - Of other Christians; for all are engaged in the same work.

That have the testimony of Jesus - Who are witnesses for the Saviour. It is possible that there may be here a particular reference to those who were engaged in preaching the gospel, though the language will apply to all who give their testimony to the value of the gospel by consistent lives.

Worship God - He is the only proper object of worship; he alone is to be adored.

For the testimony of Jesus - The meaning here seems to be, that this angel, and John, and their fellow-servants, were all engaged in the same work that of bearing their testimony to Jesus. Thus, in this respect, they were on a level, and one of them should not worship another, but all should unite in the common worship of God. No one in this work, though an angel, could have such a pre-eminence that it would be proper to render the homage to him which was due to God alone. There could be but one being whom it was proper to worship, and they who were engaged in simply bearing testimony to the work of the Saviour should not worship one another.

Is the spirit of prophecy - The design of prophecy is to bear testimony to Jesus. The language does not mean, of course, that this is the only design of prophecy, but that this is its great and ultimate end. The word “prophecy” here seems to be used in the large sense in which it is often employed in the New Testament - meaning to make known the divine will (see the notes on Romans 12:6), and the primary reference here would seem to be to the preachers and teachers of the New Testament. The sense is, that their grand business is to bear testimony to the Saviour. They are all - whether angels, apostles, or ordinary teachers - appointed for this, and therefore should regard themselves as “fellow-servants.” The design of the angel in this seems to have been, to state to John what was his own specific business in the communications which he made, and then to state a universal truth applicable to all ministers of the gospel, that they were engaged in the same work, and that no one of them should claim adoration from others. Thus understood, this passage has no direct reference to the prophecies of the Old Testament, and teaches nothing in regard to their design, though it is in fact undoubtedly true that their grand and leading object was to bear testimony to the future Messiah. But this passage will not justify the attempt so often made to “find Christ” everywhere in the prophecies of the Old Testament, or justify the many forced and unnatural interpretations by which the prophecies are often applied to him.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". 1870.

Chuck Smith Bible Commentary

After these things ( Revelation 19:1 )

After the destruction of Babylon religious and commercial, chapter seventeen and eighteen.

I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God ( Revelation 19:1 ):

The judgment of the earth, as far as God's wrath being poured out, has been completed on Babylon. We have one final little battle here to take place in chapter nineteen. The vials have all now been dispensed upon the earth of the judgment and the wrath of God. Now, the time has come for the Lord Jesus Christ Himself to return in power and great glory and establish God's kingdom upon the earth. And because of this there is great rejoicing in heaven. That great multitude, I expect personally to be a part of that multitude. I expect to be there in that heavenly scene declaring, "Alleluia, salvation and glory and honor and power unto the Lord our God."

For true and righteous are his judgments ( Revelation 19:2 ):

All the way through we have had this affirmation that the judgments of God are true and righteous. And I think that this has been declared all the way through, because this is one of the areas that Satan constantly challenges concerning God, the fairness of God's judgments when he deals and meats out His judgments upon man. There are always those who are ready to challenge the fairness of it. There are always those that say, "What about the people that haven't heard? What about little babies?" and so forth. God is going to be fair and just. This is the declaration that is made all through the period of judgment, "true and righteous are thy judgments, O Lord".

The concept that Satan brought to Eve in the Garden of Eden was that God was not fair, that God was trying to hold her back from something that was beneficial, that God was somehow trying to protect Himself. He had His own self interest at heart when He told Eve not to eat of the tree. That God is holding back something good and He really isn't fair to you was the insinuation behind Satan's remarks. All the way along the fairness of God's judgment has been challenged.

I don't know what God is going to do in a lot of cases. I do know that whatever He does will be absolutely fair. "True and righteous are thy judgments, O Lord." Never worry about the righteousness of God's judgments. You can be worried about the righteousness of my judgments. I sometimes make snap judgments. I sometimes judge without having all the facts in hand, and so my judgments are often wrong. And I have to apologize sometimes for my judgments. That is something that God will never have to do, apologize. It will never happen. "True and righteous are thy judgments, O Lord."

for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication ( Revelation 19:2 ),

That is spiritually in chapter seventeen, that great religious system that corrupted the earth. Who was it; Marx, that said, "Religion is the opium of the people?" I agree one hundred percent. I think that religion is a tremendous curse upon the earth. I have a hard time stomaching religious people. I believe that religion is vastly different from Christianity. I believe that religion is man's endeavor to reach God. And it is the various ways by which men are attempting to reach God. Christianity teaches that God is reaching down to man; exactly the opposite of religious thoughts, man trying to reach God.

In Christianity you have a God that is reaching out to man. That is why religions fail. You can't start with a finite base and reach to infinity. That is why Christianity is successful. It is no problem for the infinite God to reach to finite man. Religions tell you that you have to do certain things in order to please God. You have to accomplish certain works in order to be accepted by God. Christianity tells you that your righteousness is as filthy rags. You just have to come on the basis of God's grace and love for you and cast yourself upon His mercy, but that God is merciful. But there is really no good work that you can offer to God that would be acceptable in His sight, but He will accept you just as you are if you will just cast yourself upon His mercy and just ask for His mercy and grace. "Whoever comes to me I will in no wise cast out" ( John 6:37 ).

So, the great religious system, spiritual fornication is that endeavor to worship God in an unprescribed way. How does God tell us to worship Him? "God is a spirit and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth" ( John 4:24 ). And if you try to worship God in an unprescribed way, setting up little idols or whatever, which God has forbidden, that is spiritual fornication. That is worship of God in unprescribed ways. That is religion. That is letting religion enter in. God wants a loving relationship, not religion. He doesn't want you to be religious. He wants you to have a relationship with Him, a loving relationship, not a legal relationship.

So, God has judged the false religious system that corrupted the earth with her spiritual fornication.

He has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand ( Revelation 19:2 ).

Jesus found Himself at opposition with the religious forces of His day and it was the religious people who prompted the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. It was the religious leaders that insisted that the Roman government put Him to death. Jesus Christ was a threat to the religious leaders as He would be to all religious leaders. He is a threat to them, because He tells you, you don't have to be religious to be accepted by God. God loves you and receives you just as you are on the basis of His grace, love and mercy. So, Jesus was at odds with the religious leaders of His day and they are the ones that prompted His crucifixion. It was the religious leaders that prompted the persecution against the church in its beginning and throughout history.

There is even at the present time, one of the leaders of the YWAM program who has been charged in Greece with a charge of proselytizing, because he gave a Bible to a Greek sixteen-year old boy, and he has been charged in the Greek courts with proselytizing. And of course, this proselytizing law was prompted by the Greek Orthodox Church, and he has been sentenced to spend three and a half years in jail in Greece. He is an American citizen and his base is in Sunland, California. He is in charge of the Anastausus Ship, but he is facing a jail sentence of three and a half years in Greece because He gave a Bible to a sixteen-year old Greek boy and the boy accepted Jesus Christ as His Savior. Now, this law that has the backing of the Greek Orthodox Church, or it was instituted because of the Greek Orthodox Church against proselytization, is the law that they used to charge him.

In Egypt it is a capital offense to lead a Muslim to a faith in Jesus Christ. One of our pastors, Imad, spent some time in the Egyptian jail. He was a medical doctor there. He had a great desire to bring his brothers, Egyptian brothers to the knowledge of Jesus Christ. He wrote several tracts and was instrumental in leading several Muslims from their religion to a real relationship with God in Jesus Christ. And as a result was thrown in jail in Egypt and was then released because of the family influence, and told to get out of the country for his own welfare or he would be put to death if he stayed. So, he is one of our pastors here, but that is what religion does. Religion is threatened by life, by spiritual life.

So, God has judged that religious system and has avenged the blood of His servants at her hands. A lot of the persecution against the Christian has come from religion, religious leaders.

And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever ( Revelation 19:3 ).

That is of the judgment against Babylon.

And the twenty-four elders [representing the church] and the four beasts [cherubim] fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia ( Revelation 19:4 ).

Here we find the term "Alleluia" used really for the first in the New Testament and it is used four times here. It is a Hebrew word that has become universal, "Allel", "u", "yah", which means, "praise to Jehovah" or Yahweh.

And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great ( Revelation 19:5 ).

So here is the praise being given to God and now the encouragement for that praise coming from the throne of God.

And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as a voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth ( Revelation 19:6 ).

Imagine the millions upon millions of Christians that will be gathered in that glorious assembly and when the voice of the Lord comes exhorting us to praise God and give glory to Him, and in our response to it that tremendous praise, crescendo of praise that will arise. And John heard it as the voice of many waters or rushing waters and the voice of mighty thunderings.

Glory. I can hardly wait.

Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready ( Revelation 19:7 ).

So the marriage feast of the Lamb will take place here on the earth. But now He is ready to return and establish His kingdom and take us unto Himself and the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife, or bride, has made herself ready.

And to her [that is the bride of Christ, the church] was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of the saints ( Revelation 19:8 ).

What is the righteousness of the saints? Paul, the apostle said as he was recounting to the Philippians his past credits as a Jew, "Hebrew of the Hebrews, circumcised the seventh day, the tribe of Benjamin, a Pharisee, concerning zeal persecuting the church", but he said, "Those things that were gain to me", those credits that I had, those brownie points, "I counted loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Jesus Christ, for whom I suffer the loss of all things and count them but refuse that I may know Him and be found in Him, not having my own righteousness which was of the Law", circumcised seventh, eighth day and so forth, not having that righteousness which was of the law, "but now having the righteousness which was of Christ through faith" ( Philippians 3:5-9 ).

So, it is the righteousness of Jesus Christ that is imparted to me through my faith in Jesus Christ. God accounts my faith for righteousness. So, I will be clothed in linen, pure and white and clean. And the fine linen is the righteousness of the saints. That righteousness that God puts on my account because I believe in Jesus Christ. So it is imputed righteousness given to you by your faith in Christ. It is not a righteousness of works. It isn't that you have been faithful in your devotions, and you have witnessed to so many people, and read so many chapters of the Bible, and spent so many hours in prayer, and you have done all of the religious devotional things, not that at all. I am accounted righteous by God because I believe and trust in Jesus Christ. There is the basis for my righteousness. That is good. If my righteousness were dependent upon my keeping the Law, or keeping rules or regulations-

Let's say that we said that every day you should be reading five chapters out of the Bible. Every day you should be spending twenty minutes on your knees in prayer. Every day you should witness to at least two people. Every day-and we set up these rules for righteousness. Then you may be very good all week long, and you put your little star behind each of the categories each evening. Yes, all my gold stars, but Friday you blow it and you didn't get your prayer time in. Too bad, your unrighteousness Friday night. Just hope the Lord doesn't come Friday night. You might get left. No. My righteousness is not on such a tenuous thing as my faithfulness to devotions or works or whatever. My righteousness is something God accounts and imputes to me because of my faith in Jesus Christ. Thank God.

And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God ( Revelation 19:9 ).

Now the Lord in the end here is really putting a lot of emphasis upon the fact that these are true sayings. Over and over we will find this repeated as we approach the end of the book, these are the true sayings of God. You can believe this. You can trust in this that these are the true sayings of God.

It is interesting to me how that God took such pains to protect the innocency of Jesus Christ at the crucifixion. Judas returned the money to the priests saying, "I betrayed innocent blood" ( Matthew 27:4 ). Pilate said, "I find no fault in Him. I have examined Him. I find no fault in Him" ( Luke 23:14 ). The thief said, "We are here because we deserve to be here, but this man has done nothing amiss"( Luke 23:41 ). God is making sure that you know that Jesus is innocent as He hangs there on the cross. It is not for His crime or guilt. It is for your sin that He is dying.

Now, as the Lord closes out His revelation to man, and as He begins to talk to us about the glories of this coming age, the marriage supper of the lamb. Blessed are those that are called to be a part in this. These are the true sayings of God. You can believe this. You can trust in this.

And I fell at His feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God ( Revelation 19:10 ):

Now, John like so many people, we want to worship the instrument that God uses to bring His knowledge or love or grace to us. One of the great dangers of being in any kind of ministry where God is using you, one of the great dangers of exercising any spiritual gift, is that people so often look at the instrument that God uses. They begin to admire the instrument. They begin to worship, in a sense, the instrument that God has used. And here is John falling on his knees before the angel that is giving him all of this revelation and he is so overawed and thrilled with what is in store for him he falls at his feet to worship him. And he says to him not to do that because he is a fellowservant, but to worship God.

You see it is a apart of man to need and want to worship something, and man seems to find it easier to worship an object that he can see rather than an object that he cannot see. And so this is the hang-up of man as Paul said in Romans one, "They worshipped and served the creature more than the creator." Man gets hung up and he stops short. He sees the glorious creation of God and he worships the creation, rather than the creator.

And so John is making the same mistake and the angel corrects him and says don't do that. I am a servant of God just like you are. You worship God. And if you are wise and involved in any kind of ministry at all when attention and adulation and these kinds of things come your way, you will be wise as the angel and say, "Don't worship me. Worship God." God doesn't want you taking credit for the work that He does, receiving glory for His work.

for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy ( Revelation 19:10 ).

That is prophecy centers around the person of Jesus Christ. That is what prophecy is about. That is what history is about. History is actually "His story." He is the center of it. It all focuses before Christ and after the year of our Lord, but He is center, the focal point of history. It is "His story". So, Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. It is all centered around Him. The Lord is not so interested in telling you who you are going to marry or what is going to happen to you next week, the spirit of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. The prophecy centers around the person of Jesus Christ. The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy, the witness of Jesus.

And I saw heaven open, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True ( Revelation 19:11 ),

We find that Jesus is called the faithful witness. And He is called the True witness. Then He is called the "True and faithful witness" in the third chapter of Revelation. So here He is sitting upon a white horse.

and in righteousness he doth judge and make war ( Revelation 19:11 ).

Again the righteousness of His judgment attested to.

His eyes were as a flame of fire ( Revelation 19:12 ),

Again speaking of that burning judgment.

and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God ( Revelation 19:12-13 ).

In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was light; and that light was the life of man. "And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth." ( John 1:14 ) And now again He comes as the Word of God.

And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses ( Revelation 19:14 ),

I will be a part of that army, as will you, because we are clothed in the fine linen white and clean, which is the righteousness of the saints.

And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword ( Revelation 19:15 ),

The Word of God is alive and powerful, sharper than any two-edged sword. Out of his mouth goes this sharp sword, His word.

that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treads the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS ( Revelation 19:15-16 ).

Now, this vesture dipped in blood is probably a reference to Isaiah sixty-three. It is not his own blood, but the blood of his enemies that he tramples as he tramples out the rebellious. Isaiah sixty-three says, "Who is this that comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, traveling in the greatness of his strength?" And that is the question the prophet asks and Jesus answers, "I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save." The prophet asks, "Why are you red in your apparel, and your garments like those that have been treading in the wine vat?"

It used to be that they put the grapes in the vat and then they would crush them with their feet. They would have a big dance and party, as they would crush all of the grapes, they would get the juice out of them. And you could imagine the grapejuice stains all over your clothes after having spent a day treading the wine vat therein. The wine vat actually with your feet pressing down all of these grapes, you can imagine what your clothes would look like.

"Why are you red in your apparel, and your garments like the ones that have been treading in the wine vat?" He answers, "I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in my anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed is come"( Isaiah 63:3-4 ).

So, He is coming to bring an end of man's rebellion. He is coming to trample the wine vat. There will be here upon the earth millions of people who have gathered together to war against Him at His coming. The whole Middle East area of Israel all the way through the land from the Valley of Megiddo clear on down to Edom will be crowded with the vast armies of the world. They will probably number into the hundreds of millions. There is a scripture that would indicate maybe two hundred million.

And that is when the blood will flow to the horses bridle all the way through the Valley of Megiddo clear on down to Edom through the valley of Jehoshaphat as they gather together against the Lord and His anointed. And there will the second Psalm come into play. "Why did the heathen rage and the people imagine a vain thing, for they have gathered together against the Lord and against His anointed, saying, Let us break His bands asunder, let us cast off His law from us; but He who sits in the heavens will laugh for He will have the nations in derision."

And so here we see Him, clothed in a vesture dipped in blood. And out of His mouth goes a sharp sword by which these rebellious armies are destroyed. That is He destroys them with His word.

Now, we are told that He was in the beginning with God and that He created all things. We look at the vast universe in which we live, the material universe, and we realize that He created it. How did He create it? He spoke it into existence. It is known as a divine feat in the theological term, which means the capacity of speaking things into existence. So, darkness covered the face of the deep and God said, "Let there be light," and there was light. He just said it, "Let there be light," and light existed.

And in the Hebrew it is even more intensive. "Owr hayah owr hayah", "Light be and light was". God said, "Light be," and light was. I like that, God speaking into existence the world in which we live. And God said, "Let the waters above the firmament be separated from the waters below the firmament." And it was so. And God said, "Let the water bring forth and let the earth bring forth." And it was so. He spoke these things into existence; the power of the Word of God.

If we would only realize the power of the Word of God. The Word of God is alive and powerful, if we would only realize the power of the Word of God. We will in that day when He returns and all of the vast military might of the world gathered and assembled together to destroy Him at His coming and He just speaks the Word and it is all over. The battle is through. Oh, the power of the word of Jesus, the sword that goes forth out of His mouth. He destroys the assembled rebels who have gathered together against Him. I don't know exactly what He will say. It will be interesting to find out. I think that it might be just, "hey, you've had it." Like when this guy was breaking up with his girl, he said, "Can I have one final kiss?" She said, "You've had it."

On his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS,

And I saw an angel standing in the sun ( Revelation 19:17 );

You can't do that unless you are an angel. These angels are going to be interesting creatures to meet, aren't they? They have the capacity to stand in the sun. What is it, seven hundred and fifty million degrees Fahrenheit or something like that?

and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God ( Revelation 19:17 );

Now, we have just been rejoicing because we are coming to the marriage supper of the Lamb. There is going to be another supper, a supper prepared by God for all the birds.

That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and those that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great. And I saw the beast [that is the antichrist], and the kings of the earth [which have been drawn by the demonic forces], and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army ( Revelation 19:18-19 ).

The folly of Satan thinking that he would be able to fight against God. Well, the folly of men today that think that they are able to fight against God and to come out victorious. There are a lot of people today fighting against God. There are those who have set themselves deliberately and conscientiously to fight against God.

The humanists in their Humanist Manifesto have declared their intention of destroying God out of the minds and conscientiousness of men. To free men from the restraints that they may feel that have any kind of a Biblical base, so that you will not be feeling guilty over those things that are prohibited in the scriptures. But you can go ahead and do these things without pangs of conscience trying to destroy God out of our society, out of our lives. They will be gathered together at the inspiration of Satan.

And the [antichrist] the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and those that worshipped his image. These both [the two of them, the antichrist and his false prophet] were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone ( Revelation 19:20 ).

Otherwise, it is called in the scriptures, Gehenna, which is the final abode for the unrighteous dead. It is the place that Jesus said God prepared for Satan and his angels. And so the first two inhabitants of Gehenna will be the antichrist and his prophet and they will be the soul inhabitants, it would seem, for a thousand years. After a thousand years then they will be joined by Satan and the rest of the satanic beings or the angelic beings that joined with Satan in his rebellion against God. And then those men who have chosen to cast their lot with Satan in rebellion against God. Jesus describes it as a place of outer darkness where he said there will be weeping, wailing and gnashing of teeth.

Hell or Hades is located in the center part of the earth. The abusso or abyss is probably in the very center of the earth, because it is called and correctly translated "bottomless pit." And there is probably an area right in the center of the earth that is hollow and because of the rotation of the earth and gravitation and all you would be constantly falling. You would never hit the bottom. It would be a constant fall. It wouldn't have to be more than ten miles in diameter to hold all of the unrighteous from Adam until now. And of course all of our finest scientific equipment could not locate such a thing there in the heart of the earth.

the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse ( Revelation 19:21 ),

What is the sword? The word that goes forth out of His mouth.

which sword proceeds out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh ( Revelation 19:21 ).

So, vultures are invited from all over the earth to come and feast on the supper that God prepares.


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Bibliographical Information
Smith, Charles Ward. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Chuck Smith Bible Commentary". 2014.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

1. The praise of God in heaven 19:1-10

This pericope has strong ties to what precedes (Revelation 16:17 to Revelation 18:24). It is the concluding revelation concerning the fall of Babylon (the latter-day Egypt and Tyre) and Antichrist (the ultimate Pharaoh of the Exodus and King of Tyre). The praise in this section is in response to the angel’s invitation for those in heaven to rejoice (Revelation 18:20). [Note: Charles, 2:117-19; Wall, p. 219.] Revelation 19:9-10 conclude the section begun in Revelation 17:1-3. [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, p. 353.] The proleptic silence of ruined Babylon on earth now gives way in the narrative to enthusiastic rejoicing in heaven. [Note: Kiddle, p. 375.] This is the climactic expression of praise in Revelation (cf. Revelation 4:8; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:9-10; Revelation 5:12-14; Revelation 7:10; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 7:15-17; Revelation 11:15; Revelation 11:17-18; Revelation 15:3-4; Revelation 16:5-7).

The four songs in Revelation 19:1-5 look back to the judgment of Babylon, and the song in Revelation 19:9-10 looks forward to the marriage supper of the Lamb. The harlot dies, but the bride begins to enjoy new life. [Note: Thomas, Revelation 8-22, p. 355.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The wonder of this revelation and the certainty of its fulfillment seem to have overwhelmed John. He fell down to worship the angel because the angel had revealed these things to him (cf. Revelation 1:17; Acts 10:25). This was not proper, as the angel explained (cf. Revelation 22:9). Human beings should never worship angels (Colossians 2:18). The beast, who is not even an angel, will receive worship gladly (cf. Revelation 13:4; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 13:12; Revelation 13:15). How easy it is to fall into idolatry! The angel described himself as a fellow servant of God with John (cf. Hebrews 1:14). Angels, like humans, can only bear witness to the testimony borne by Jesus (cf. Revelation 1:2; Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 12:17; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:9; Revelation 22:20).

"St John’s repeated reference to his temptation and the Angel’s rebuke (cf. xxii. 8f.) may well be due to his knowledge that such a tendency existed in the Churches to which he wrote." [Note: Swete, p. 248.]

Therefore the angel directed John to worship God (cf. Revelation 22:9; John 4:21-24). To emphasize the centrality of Jesus Christ in this testimony and to encourage worship of God, the angel said that the spirit of prophecy is the testimony of Jesus.

The last clause of the verse ("for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy") is capable of various interpretations. Some take the genitive "of Jesus" as objective, which yields two possible understandings. Perhaps the angel meant that testimony about Jesus is the common substance of all prophecy, that all prophecy ultimately reveals Him. [Note: Erdman, p. 148; David J. MacLeod, "Heaven’s Hallelujah Chorus: An Introduction to the Seven ’Last Things’ (Revelation 19:1-10)," Bibliotheca Sacra 156:621 (January-March 1999):83.] Alternatively the angel could have meant that the true spirit of prophecy always manifests itself in bearing witness to Jesus; prophecy that does not bear witness to Him is false prophecy. [Note: Morris, p. 228.] If the genitive is subjective, the angel meant that the testimony that Jesus has given is the essence of prophetic proclamation. [Note: Mounce, p. 342; Beasley-Murray, p. 276.] This last view seems preferable since it affords the best explanation of why John should not worship the angel: Jesus is the source of revelation, and angels just communicate it. Moreover the phrase "of Jesus" in the preceding clause also seems to be subjective.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". 2012.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And I fell at his feet to worship him,.... Being transported with the news he brought him of the marriage, or conversion of his countrymen the Jews, and struck with reverence and awe of the glory and majesty in which the angel appeared to him; and forgetting himself, that worship was only due to God, he behaved in this manner; which is not to be excused nor justified, as appears from the angel's words:

and he said unto me, see thou do it not; the words are in the original very short and concise, and are spoken in an abrupt manner, and in great haste; as fearing he would be guilty of idolatry, before he could speak all his mind, and use the arguments that were necessary to dissuade from it:

I am thy fellow servant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus; if this was one of the ministering spirits, he was a servant of the same Lord as John; and if he was a minister of the Gospel, he was still more literally a fellow servant of his, and of the apostles, and preachers of the Gospel; which is meant by the testimony of Jesus, that bearing testimony to the person, office, grace, obedience, sufferings, and death of Christ, and the glory following; and therefore being but a servant, and a servant in common with John and his brethren, was by no means to be worshipped; not the servant, but master; not the creature, but the Creator:

worship God and him only, even God the Father, Son, and Spirit; not the Father to the exclusion of the Son, the firstborn, whom all the angels are called upon to worship; nor of the Spirit, who is equally joined with the Father and Son in baptism, a part of religious worship, and in other parts of it also; but this excludes all creatures, angels, and men, things animate or inanimate, and images of them; the worshipping of which will now be no more, or at least will be quickly at an end.

For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy that is, the testimony of Jesus, or the Gospel which John and his brethren had, is the very spirit, life, and soul of the prophecy of this book; for as all the prophets bore witness to Christ, so does the Spirit of God in this; or the testimony which they had, and bore to Christ, was equal to the spirit of prophecy with which this angel was endowed; so that he and they were upon an equal foot; and he was no more a proper object of divine and religious adoration than they were.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". 1999.

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible

The Triumph of the Saints. A. D. 95.

      5 And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.   6 And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.   7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.   8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.   9 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.   10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

      The triumphant song being ended, and epithalamium, or marriage-song, begins, Revelation 19:6; Revelation 19:6. Here observe,

      I. The concert of heavenly music. The chorus was large and loud, as the voice of many waters and of mighty thunderings. God is fearful in praises. There is no discord in heaven; the morning stars sing together; no jarring string, nor key untuned, but pure and perfect melody.

      II. The occasion of this song; and that is the reign and dominion of that omnipotent God who has redeemed his church by his own blood, and is now in a more public manner betrothing her to himself: The marriage of the Lamb has come,Revelation 19:7; Revelation 19:7. Some think this refers to the conversion of the Jews, which they suppose will succeed the fall of Babylon; others, to the general resurrection: the former seems more probable. Now, 1. You have here a description of the bride, how she appeared; not in the gay and gaudy dress of the mother of harlots, but in fine linen, clean and white, which is the righteousness of saints; in the robes of Christ's righteousness, both imputed for justification and imparted for sanctification--the stola, the white robe of absolution, adoption, and enfranchisement, and the white robe of purity and universal holiness. She had washed her robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb; and these her nuptial ornaments she did not purchase by any price of her own, but received them as the gift and grant of her blessed Lord. 2. The marriage-feast, which, though not particularly described (as Matthew 22:4), yet is declared to be such as would make all those happy who were called to it, so called as to accept the invitation, a feast made up of the promises of the gospel, the true sayings of God,Revelation 19:9; Revelation 19:9. These promises, opened, applied, sealed, and earnested by the Spirit of God, in holy eucharistical ordinances, are the marriage-feast; and the whole collective body of all those who partake of this feast is the bride, the Lamb's wife; they eat into one body, and drink into one Spirit, and are not mere spectators or guests, but coalesce into the espoused party, the mystical body of Christ. 3. The transport of joy which the apostle felt in himself at this vision. He fell down at the feet of the angel, to worship him, supposing him to be more than a creature, or having his thoughts at the present overpowered by the vehemency of his affections. Here observe, (1.) What honour he offered to the angel: He fell at his feet, to worship him; this prostration was a part of external worship, it was a posture of proper adoration. (2.) How the angel refused it, and this was with some resentment: "See thou do it not; have a care what thou doest, thou art doing a wrong thing." (3.) He gave a very good reason for his refusal: "I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren which have the testimony of Jesus--I am a creature, thine equal in office, though not in nature; I, as an angel and messenger of God, have the testimony of Jesus, a charge to be a witness for him and to testify concerning him, and thou, as an apostle, having the Spirit of prophecy, hast the same testimony to give in; and therefore we are in this brethren and fellow-servants." (4.) He directs him to the true and only object of religious worship; namely, God: "Worship God, and him alone." This fully condemns both the practice of the papists in worshipping the elements of bread and wine, and saints, and angels, and the practice of those Socinians and Arians who do not believe that Christ is truly and by nature God, and yet pay him religious worship; and this shows what wretched fig-leaves all their evasions and excuses are which they offer in their own vindication: they stand hereby convicted of idolatry by a messenger from heaven.

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Henry, Matthew. "Complete Commentary on Revelation 19:10". "Matthew Henry Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible". 1706.

Harold Norris' Commentary on the Book of Revelation

CHAPTER 19:1-10 brings us to


Verse 1.

"The great multitude" joining in this chorus of rejoicing over the defeat of all evil is THE WHOLE CHURCH TRIUMPHANT IN HEAVEN. THE LAMB’S BRIDE of verses 7-9 is of course "THE CHURCH." "She has made herself ready" (verse 7). She has long been betrothed, and has been waiting for "the bridegroom." Now He has come. Clearly, the Lamb’s bride is THE CHURCH. The church which is made up of all those who have given their lives wholly to Christ. (Those who are called in the book of Revelation "THE MARTYRS"). Jesus had described the coming of His Kingdom as a wedding feast (Matthew 25:1-13). The Apostle Paul described the church as preparing herself as the bride of Christ--2 Corinthians 11:2. As in any wedding the attention is focused on the bride and her dress--John writes in verse 8 "She is clothed with fine linen, bright and pure--for fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints." Protestants hesitate to talk about "good deeds" for fear of being suspected of believing in salvation by works. But while good works do not redeem us and we depend entirely on Christ for redemption, yet we are saved for a purpose. Our salvation does not end in a privilege to be enjoyed, it issues (to use John’s language) "IN THE RIGHTEOUS DEEDS OF THE SAINTS." John describes the material from which the wedding gown of the church is formed as these good works. In closing our study of this section of the fall of Babylon let us look at TWO IMPORTANT LESSONS FROM JOHN’S VISION OF THE HALLELUJAH CHORUS IN CHAPTER 19:6.

II. MEDITATION--Revelation 17, 18, 19:1-10

We are accustomed to think of the Hallelujah chorus in the setting Handel has given us.

1. "Hallelujah, for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth."

This is the important fact which arises from the fall of Babylon and the marriage of the church to Christ.

In the light of this fact we should ask ourselves WHAT IS THE BIGGEST FACT OF LIFE FOR ME AT THIS MOMENT?
Is it my HOME?
or my WORK?

If so, there is something wrong with me.

For the great central important fact of life for a Christian is this--"THE LORD GOD OMNIPOTENT REIGNETH."

This involves freedom from our worries
--the defeat of sin
--the comfort of sorrow.

2. When we grasp the fact that "The Lord God omnipotent reigneth" then, as verse 7 has it:

John’s vision of the fall of the harlot and the marriage of the bride reminds us of Mary’s song in Luke 1:46-55 :

"He has shown strength with His arm, He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts, He has put down the mighty from their thrones, And exalted those of low degree."

Surely the members of the church of God have every reason to

The Hallelujah chorus is Introduced in verse 4 "And the 24 elders and the 4 living creatures fell down and worshipped God who is seated on the throne, saying, AMEN. HALLELUJAH!"

The 24 elders and the 4 living creatures symbolise the whole church and all mankind. John describes their worship in the two words "AMEN, HALLELUJAH". What do these words mean?

"Amen" means "So let it be." "God’s will be done."

"Hallelujah" means "Praise the Lord, the Almighty."

James Stewart suggests that these two words remind us of the four notes of all real worship.

The "Amen" of worship means firstly ACCEPTANCE of God’s Will; and secondly the COMMITMENT of ourselves to DO that will. The "Hallelujah" of worship means--a sense of FELLOWSHIP with God, and also a sense of JOY in the ASSURANCE of God’s victory. Our worship as Christians involves our acceptance of the will of God for our daily lives--and our commitment to do God’s will. The "Amen" is not a groan of resignation to God’s will but a shout of resolution.

And our worship involves the Hallelujah of praise and joy.

If we have lost our joy in the pressures of modern living with our cares and troubles--then we need to recapture in our worship the Hallelujah Spirit of Revelation 19:4

"Praise to the Holiest in the height, And in the depth be praise, In all His words most wonderful, Most sure in all His ways"

"Amen, Hallelujah!"--"For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth!"

There are immense personal implications in Revelation 19:1-21 : verse 6.

That God’s will is supreme in every sphere of life--and I am not.

That God is the power in the universe.

That God who acted in the past, and present, will also act in the future.

That God will bring the climax of creation and judgment--God is supreme and I am not.

Neither you nor I have the right to act as if we owned the world and its goods.

You and I must be God-centerd and not self-centerd.

God is supreme; and fate, material possessions and death itself is not supreme. To respond to the implications of the Hallelujah chorus is to sing and act accordingly.

"Reign over me, Lord Jesus! Oh make my heart Thy throne. It shall be Thine, dear Saviour It shall be Thine alone."

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