Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:16

And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, "KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Horse;   Jesus Continued;   Meteorology and Celestial Phenomena;   Vision;   Scofield Reference Index - Armageddon;   Day (of Christ);   Day (of Jehovah);   Thompson Chain Reference - Christ;   Divine;   Divinity;   Divinity-Humanity;   King of Kings;   Name;   Wonderful;   The Topic Concordance - Jesus Christ;   Name;   War/weapons;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Christ, the King;   Excellency and Glory of Christ, the;   Garments;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Thigh;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Crown;   Jesus christ;   King;   Kingdom of god;   Prophecy, prophet;   Revelation, book of;   Throne;   War;   Word;   World;   Wrath;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Armageddon;   Dead Sea Scrolls;   Exaltation;   Jesus Christ;   King, Christ as;   Nahum, Theology of;   War, Holy War;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Name of God;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Antichrist;   Armageddon;   Cherub (1);   War;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Army;   King, Christ as;   Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Lord;   Thigh;   Vesture;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ascension;   Ascension (2);   Attributes of Christ;   Clothes;   Eschatology;   King;   King of Kings and Lord of Lords;   Lord;   Mediator;   Name ;   Prince;   Revelation, Book of;   Supremacy;   Thigh;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Glory;   Horse;   Prophets, the;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Name;   Names titles and offices of christ;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Thigh;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Name;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Christ, Offices of;   God, Names of;   King, Christ as;   Peter, Simon;   Revelation of John:;   Thigh;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for June 25;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

On his vesture and on his thigh a name written - Dr. Dodd has well observed on this passage, that "it appears to have been an ancient custom among several nations to adorn the images of their deities, princes, victors at public games, and other eminent persons, with inscriptions, expressing either the character of the persons, their names, or some other circumstance which might contribute to their honor; and to that custom the description here given of Christ may possibly have some allusion.

"There are several such images yet extant, with an inscription written either on the garment, or on one of the thighs, or on that part of the garment which was over the thigh; and probably this is the meaning of the apostle. And as these inscriptions are placed on the upper garment, Grotius seems very justly to have explained the words επι το ἱματιον, by his imperial robe, that his power in this victory might be conspicuous to all. But as a farther confirmation of this sense of the passage it may not be improper here to describe briefly several remarkable figures of this sort, which are still extant." This description I shall give from my own examination.

  1. Herodotus, Euterpe, lib. ii. p. 127, edit. Gale, speaking of the actions of Sesostris, and of the images he set up in the countries which he conquered, has the following words: Εισι δε περι Ιωνιην δυο τυποι εν πετρῃσι εγκεκολαμμενοι τουτου του ανδρος, κ. τ. λ. "Two images likewise of this man are seen in Ionia, on the way that leads from Ephesus to Phocaea, and from Sardis to Smyrna. The figure is five palms in height; in his right hand he holds a dart, in his left a bow, armed after the manner of the Egyptians and Ethiopians. On a line drawn across the breast, from one shoulder to the other, are these words, written in Egyptian hieroglyphics: Εγω τηνδε την χωρην ωμοισι τοισι εμοισι εκτησαμην· 'I obtained this country by these my shoulders;'" i.e., by my own power.
  • In the Etruria Regalis of Dempster, in the appendix at the end of vol. ii., there is a beautiful female figure of brass, about twelve inches high, the hair gracefully plaited, and the head adorned with a diadem. She has a tunic without sleeves, and over that a sort of pallium. On the outside of the right thigh, close to the tunic, and probably on it, in the original, is an inscription in Etruscan characters. What these import I cannot say. Dempster has given a general explanation of the image in the appendix to the above volume, p. 108. The plate itself is the eighty-third of the work.
  • There are two other images found in the same author, vol. i., p. 91, tab. xxiv.; the first is naked, with the exception of a short loose jupe, or petticoat, which goes round the loins, and over the left arm. On the left thigh of this image there is an inscription in Etruscan characters. The second has a similar jupe, but much longer, which extends to the calf of the leg, and is supported over the bended left arm. Over the right thigh, on this vesture, there is an Etruscan inscription in two lines.
  • Montfaucon, Antiquite Expliquee, vol. iii., part 2, p. 268, has introduced an account of two fine images, which are represented tab. CLVII. The first is a warrior entirely naked, except a collar, one bracelet, and boots. On his left thigh, extending from the groin to a little below the knee, is an inscription in very ancient Etruscan characters, in two lines, but the import is unknown.
  • The second is a small figure of brass, about six inches long, with a loose tunic, which is suspended from the left shoulder down to the calf of the legs. On this tunic, over the left thigh, is an inscription (perhaps) in very ancient Latin characters, but in the Etruscan language, as the learned author conjectures. It is in one line, but what it means is equally unknown.
    1. In the same work, p. 269, tab. CLVIII., another Etruscan warrior is represented entirely naked; on the left thigh is the following words in uncial Greek letters, ΚΑΦΙΣΟΔΩΡΟΣ, and on the right thigh, ΑΙΣΧΛΑΜΙΟΥ, i.e., "Kaphisodorus, the son of Aischlamius." All these inscriptions are written longitudinally on the thigh.
    2. Gruter, vol. iii., p. DCCCCLXXXIX, sub. tit. Affectus Servorum et Libertinorum inter se, et in suos, gives us the figure of a naked warrior, with his left hand on an axe, the end of whose helve rests on the ground, with the following inscription on the inside of his left thigh, longitudinally written, as in all other cases: -
    A. Poblicius. D. L. Antioc.

    Ti. Barbius. Q. P. L. Tiber.

    1. The rabbins say, that "God gave to the Israelites a sword, on which the ineffable name יהוה Yehovah was inscribed; and as long as they held that sword the angel of death had no power over them." Shemoth Rabba, sec. 51, fol. 143, 2. Bemidbar Rabba, sec. 12, fol. 214, 2.
    In the latter tract, sec. 16, fol. 232, 3, and in Rab. Tanchum, fol. 66, mention is made of the guardian angels of the Israelites, who were clothed with purple vestments, on which was inscribed המפורש שם shem hammephorash, the ineffable name. See more in Schoettgen.
    1. But what comes nearer to the point, in reference to the title given here to Christ, is what is related of Sesostris by Diodorus Siculus, lib. i. c. 55, p. 166, edit. Bipont, of whom he says: "Having pushed his conquests as far as Thrace, he erected pillars, on which were the following words in Egyptian hieroglyphics: Τηνδε την χωραν ὁπλοις κατεστρεψατο τοις ἑαυτου Βασιλευς Βασιλεων, και Δεσποτης Δεσποτων, Σεσοωσις· " This province, Sesoosis, (Sesostris), King of Kings and Lord of Lords, conquered by his own arms. This inscription is conceived almost in the words of St. John. Now the Greek historian did not borrow the words from the apostle, as he died in the reign of Augustus, about the time of our Lord's incarnation. This cannot be the same inscription mentioned above by Herodotus, the one being in Ionia, the other in Thrace: but as he erected several of those pillars or images, probably a nearly similar inscription was found on each.
    2. This custom seems to have been common among the ancient Egyptians. Inscriptions are frequently found on the images of Isis, Osiris, Anubis, etc., at the feet, on the head, on the back, on the girdle, etc., etc. Eight of those ancient images in my own collection abound with these inscriptions.
  • Osiris, four inches and a quarter high, standing on a thrones all covered over with hieroglyphics exquisitely engraved.
  • Anubis, six inches high, with a tiara, on the back of which is cut ΛΕΓΟΡΝΥΘ, in uncial Greek characters.
  • The Cercopithecus, seven inches long, sitting on a pedestal, and at his feet, in the same characters, ΧΑΔΕΟ .
  • An Isis, about eight inches high, on her back ΔΡΥΓΟ .
  • Ditto, seven inches, beautifully cut, standing, holding a serpent in her left hand, and at her feet ΕΤΑΠΥΓΙ .
  • Ditto, five inches and a quarter, round whose girdle is ΠΙΕΥΧΥΔΙ ; but part of this inscription appears to be hidden under her arms, which are extended by her side.
  • Ditto, five inches high, hooded, with a loose stola, down the back of which are seven lines of Greek uncial characters, but nearly obliterated.
  • Ditto, four inches high, with a girdle going round the back immediately under the arms, the front of which is hidden under a sort of a stomacher; on the part that appears are these characters, ΧΕΝΛΑ . These may be all intended as a kind of abrasaxas or tutelary deities; and I give this notice of them, and the inscriptions upon them, partly in illustration of the text, and partly to engage my learned and antiquarian readers in attempts to decipher them. I would have given the Etruscan characters on the other images described above, but have no method of imitating them except by an engraving.
  • As these kinds of inscriptions on the thigh, the garments, and different parts of the body, were in use among different nations, to express character, conduct, qualities, and conquests, we may rest assured that to them St. John alludes when he represents our sovereign Lord with an inscription upon his vesture and upon his thigh; and had we not found it a custom among other nations, we should have been at a loss to account for its introduction and meaning here.

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    Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-19.html. 1832.

    Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

    And he hath on his vesture - That is, this name was conspicuously written on his garment - probably his military robe.

    And on his thigh - The robe or military cloak may be conceived of as open and flowing, so as to expose the limbs of the rider; and the idea is, that the name was conspicuously written not only on the flowing robe, but on the other parts of his dress, so that it must be conspicuous whether his military cloak were wrapped closely around him, or whether it was open to the breeze. Grotius supposes that this name was on the edge or hilt of the sword which depended from his thigh.

    A name written - Or a title descriptive of his character.

    King of kings, and Lord of lords - As in Revelation 17:5, so here, there is nothing in the original to denote that this should be distinguished, as it is, by capital letters. As a conspicuous title, however, it is not improper. It means that he is, in fact, the sovereign over the kings of the earth, and that all nobles and princes are under his control - a rank that properly belongs to the Son of God. Compare the notes on Ephesians 1:20-22. See also Revelation 19:12 of this chapter. The custom here alluded to of inscribing the name or rank of distinguished individuals on their garments, so that they might be readily recognized, was not uncommon in ancient times. For full proof of this, see Rosenmuller, Morgenland, vol. iii. pp. 232-236. The authorities quoted there are, Thevenot‘s Travels, vol. i. p. 149; Gruter, p. 989; Dempster‘s Etruria Regalis, t. ii. tab. 93; Montfaucon, Antiq. Expliq. t. iii. tab. 39. Thus Herodotus (vol. ii. p. 196), speaking of the figures of Sesostris in Ionia, says that, “Across his breast, from shoulder to shoulder, there is this inscription in the sacred characters of Egypt, ‹I conquered this country by the force of my arms.‘” Compare Cic. Verr. iv. 23; LeMoyne a.d. Jeremiah 23:6; Munter, Diss. a.d. Revelation 17:5, as referred to by Prof. Stuart, in loco.

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    Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-19.html. 1870.

    John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

    And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written,.... This name, afterwards expressed, is said to be written on his vesture, in allusion to the custom of persons of note and eminence having their names interwoven in their garments, and which was sometimes done in letters of gold, as Zeuxis hadF20Plin. Nat. Hist. l. 35. c. 9. ; and it is expressive of the conspicuousness of Christ's kingdom, which now will come with observation; his judgments, the administrations of his kingly office, will be manifest, and he will reign before his ancients gloriously: and its being said to be written on his thigh may mean either that it was upon that part of his garment which covered his thigh; or else that it was also on his sword, which he sometimes girt upon his thigh. Mr. Daubuz has given an instance out of Victor Vitensis, of Clementianus, a monk, who had written on his thigh,

    ""a manichee" disciple of Jesus Christ.'

    And this being done in Africa, he supposes it to be a Phoenician custom continued. It may here denote the perpetuity of Christ's name, power, and dominion, which will continue to the latest posterity, Psalm 72:17 which spring from the thigh; and it may denote the subjection of his people to him, signified by the putting the hand under the thigh, Genesis 24:2. And this name is

    King of kings and Lord of lords; which will well suit him now when he shall be openly King over all the earth; See Gill on Revelation 17:14.

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    Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-19.html. 1999.

    Geneva Study Bible

    16 And he hath on [his] vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    (16) The name agreeing to Christ according to the former qualities, expressed after the manner of the Hebrews.
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    Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-19.html. 1599-1645.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

    “His name written on His vesture and on His thigh,” was written partly on the vesture, partly on the thigh itself, at the part where in an equestrian figure the robe drops from the thigh. The thigh symbolizes Christ‘s humanity as having come, after the flesh, from the loins of David, and now appearing as the glorified “Son of man.” On the other hand, His incommunicable divine name, “which no man knew,” is on His head (Revelation 19:12), [Menochius].

    KING OF KINGS — Compare Revelation 17:14, in contrast with Revelation 19:17, the beast being in attempted usurpation a king of kings, the ten kings delivering their kingdom to him.

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    This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

    Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

    And on his thigh (και επι τον μηρον αυτουkai epi ton mēron autou). “Even upon his thigh.” Old word, here alone in N.T.

    King of kings, and Lord of lords (ασιλευς βασιλεων και Κυριος κυριωνBasileus basileōn kai Kurios kuriōn). The title already given to the Lamb in Revelation 17:14, but in reverse order. See the same idea in 1 Timothy 6:15.

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    The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
    Bibliographical Information
    Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

    Vincent's Word Studies

    On His thigh

    Some explain, on the garment where it covers the thigh to which the sword is bound. Compare Psalm 45:3. Others, partly on the vesture, partly on the thigh itself, where, in an equestrian figure, the robe drops from the thigh. According to the former explanation καὶ andis to be taken as explanatory or definitive of the words on His vesture. Others again suppose a sword on the hilt of which the name is inscribed. Expositors refer to the custom of engraving the artist's name on the thigh of a statue. Thus Cicero says: “A most beautiful statue of Apollo, on the thigh of which the name of Myron had been graven in tiny letters of silver” (“Against Verres,” iv., 43). Herodotus describes a figure of Sesostris, bearing across the breast from shoulder to shoulder the inscription written in the sacred character of Egypt: “With my own shoulders I conquered this land” (ii., 106). Rawlinson says that Assyrian figures are found with arrow-headed inscriptions engraved across them, and over the drapery as well as the body.

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    Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/revelation-19.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

    Wesley's Explanatory Notes

    And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh — That is, on the part of his vesture which is upon his thigh.

    A name written — It was usual of old, for great personages in the eastern countries, to have magnificent titles affixed to their garments.

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    These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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    Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-19.html. 1765.

    Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

    On his thigh; at his thigh; that is, upon the hilt of his sword.

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    Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/revelation-19.html. 1878.

    James Nisbet's Church Pulpit Commentary

    THE ALMIGHTY REDEEMER

    ‘And He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords.’

    Revelation 19:16

    Who is this? It is the Lord Jesus Christ.

    I. The title here given to Christ denotes

    (a) His divinity.

    (b) His dominion.

    As long as such a Sovereign reigns in our hearts and guides our footsteps, we may feel assured that He will subdue all our foes, both temporal and spiritual, and bring us safely to His eternal kingdom. ‘Surely there is no enchantment against Jacob, neither is there any divination against Israel.’ The Lord His God is with him, and the shout of a King. The King of kings and the Lord of lords is among them. The gates of hell shall not prevail against Thee, nor shall any weapon formed against Thee prosper.

    II. The way in which that title is displayed.—The inscription of the title upon His thigh shows that the name was written upon the sword that hung upon His thigh. The meaning appears to be this: ‘His vesture dipped in blood’ denotes His past victories, and His sword hanging upon His thigh implies His being prepared for future exercise of His power.

    (a) Note His past victories.

    (b) His future triumphs. ‘All nations shall do Him service.’ We see not this promise yet fulfilled, but, amid much that is discouraging and would tend to damp our exertions, we perceive the triumphs of Christ’s spiritual kingdom steadily advancing.

    III. This subject has a dark side as well as a bright side, like the cloudy pillar, that while it foretells the triumphs of the gospel, it also predicts the destruction of those who neglect and despise it, and who oppose its progress.

    —Rev. Dr. E. J. Brewster.

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    Nisbet, James. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". Church Pulpit Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cpc/revelation-19.html. 1876.

    John Trapp Complete Commentary

    16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    Ver. 16. And on his thigh] Where his sword hangs, Psalms 45:3, to show that he will keep what he hath gained ( Vincere scis Hannibal, victoria uti nescis, said one), {a} or "on his thigh," qui filiabitur nomine eius, Psalms 72:17, the name of Christ shall endure for ever; it shall be begotten, as one generation is begotten of another; there shall be a succession of Christ’s name; "he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hands," Isaiah 53:10. Confer Genesis 46:26. Or, "on his thigh," that is, on his lower parts, his people. Christ "will make the place of his feet glorious," Isaiah 60:13, that is, the Church in their lowest condition.

    Lord of lords] This title the pope usurps; but what said Miconius in a letter to Calvin upon the view of the Church’s enemies? Gaudeo quod Christus Dominus est; alioqui totus desperassem, I am glad that Christ is Lord of lords, for else I should have been utterly out of hope.

    {a} Non minor est virtus quam quaerere, parta tueri

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    Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-19.html. 1865-1868.

    Sermon Bible Commentary

    Revelation 19:16

    Christ the Universal Sovereign.

    I. The title of the text testifies to Christ's permanent kingly qualities. The true king is not merely the man who reigns, but whose qualities mark him out for dominion. He is, as the title itself indicates, the best regulator, or, as we say in our Saxon speech, the man who can, the capable man, the man who can command, not merely because he can command the brute force which compels the weak to submit, but the wise and good qualities which make it a privilege to obey him, and who shows men what is fitting and best for them to do. Christ is the world's ideal King, the object of all its longings, whether they have been related in story or uttered in song. Its fabulous heroes or the true kings whom it has honoured most, almost deifying some of them, because of the good which they have conferred on their people, whether or not they existed as they are seen through the haze with which distance and romance have surrounded them—these men, so far as they were good, are but darkened and shadowy types of the all-perfect one. He combines in Himself all that was kingly in them, while He is exempt from all the imperfections by which their kingly character was marred.

    II. Then, again, the passage asserts His control over the mightiest and most exalted of men, for although His dominion is not so extensive as it is destined to become, and the title He bears has not as yet attained to its fullest significance, it is, nevertheless, true that even now He exercises control over the kings of the earth. Whether or not they recognise His authority, they are still under His dominion.

    III. This title foretells His universal dominion, and in so doing it does but chime with other Scriptures, which, however much they differ as to the means by which such a desirable consummation is to be accomplished, are one in the belief that the same Lord who governs in nature and in providence is yet to extend His dominion and be the acknowledged King over all the earth.

    W. Landels, Penny Pulpit, New Series, No. 313.

    References: Revelation 20:1-3.—Homilist, 3rd series, vol. vi., p. 162. Revelation 20:4-6.—Spurgeon, Sermons, vol. vii., No. 391. Revelation 20:11, Revelation 20:12.—Homiletic Magazine, vol. xiii., p. 70.



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    Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-19.html.

    Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae

    DISCOURSE: 2526

    CHRIST THE KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS

    Revelation 19:16. He hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    OF all the Apostles none seem to have been so highly favoured as John. While yet. Jesus was on earth, John was characterized above all others as the Disciple whom Jesus loved; and, after his exaltation to heaven, John was preserved in the world many years longer than any other Apostle, and was honoured with a multitude of visions declarative of the state of the Church to the remotest period of time. The vision contained in the context foretels the destruction of antichrist in the latter days, and the consequent establishment of Christ’s kingdom upon earth. The person riding upon a white horse as a mighty Conqueror, is the Lord Jesus Christ himself; who is before described as having “eyes like a flame of fire,” and “a sharp sword going forth out of his mouth [Note: Compare Revelation 19:12; Revelation 19:15. with Revelation 1:14; Revelation 1:16.];” who is beyond all doubt “the word of God [Note: Compare Revelation 19:13. with John 1:1; John 1:14.],” and whose name is truly “Wonderful;” being incomprehensible to any except himself and his eternal Father [Note: Compare Revelation 19:12. with Isaiah 9:6 and Matthew 11:27.]. In noticing that part of the description which is contained in the text, there are two things to be considered:

    I. The name by which he is called—

    The august title which is here given to Christ denotes,

    1. His universal dominion—

    [The kings and lords of this world have only a limited sway: they rule over a certain tract of country and a certain portion of mankind, but they are independent of each other. But Jesus Christ rules over them: they are all his vassals, and more entirely subject to his will than the meanest of their servants are to theirs. There is not a principality or power in earth, or heaven, or hell, that is not altogether dependent upon him. He has “a name given him that is above every name [Note: Philippians 2:9-11.];” “he is Heir and Lord of all [Note: Hebrews 1:2.];” “and he doth according to his will in the armies of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; nor can any stay his hand or say unto him, What doest thou [Note: Daniel 4:35.]?”

    It is true that there are many who are enemies to him, and rebels against his authority: but though they think to break his bands asunder and cast away his cords from them, he “has his hook in their nose and his bridle in their jaws,” and says to them, as he does to the sea, “Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further.” They all unwittingly fulfil his will, even while they labour most to counteract it: and, when they seem most to prevail against him, they accomplish only his secret purposes [Note: Exodus 9:16. Isaiah 10:5-7; Isaiah 10:15. His dominion over his Church in particular, might also be here opened, together with the manner in which he protects his people, and reigns in all their hearts Ephesians 1:20-23.].]

    2. His proper Godhead—

    [The name here given to Christ is that which belongs to the one supreme God [Note: Deuteronomy 10:17.], and to him alone [Note: 1 Timothy 6:15-16.] — — — And well may it be given to him, since there is not any other name of the Deity which he does not bear [Note: Isaiah 40:3. with Mark 1:1-3. The mighty God. Isaiah 9:6.] — — — Nor any attribute which he does not possess [Note: Eternity, Micah 5:2. Omnipresence, Matthew 28:20. Omniscience, John 21:17. Omnipotence, Matthew 28:18.] — — — Nor any honour peculiar to the Deity, which he does not receive [Note: Acts 7:59. John 14:1. John 5:23.] — — — We may be assured therefore that Jesus is not a mere subordinate King, but “God over all, blessed for evermore [Note: Romans 9:5.].”]

    While the text proclaims his name, it leads us very particularly to notice,

    II. The manner in which it is manifested—

    Whether the inscription of his name upon “his vesture” refer to any custom of that nature that obtained among great men or conquerors, we cannot say: but the inscription of it upon “his thigh” must certainly mean that his name was written upon his sword, which hung upon his thigh [Note: Psalms 45:3.]. Of the general import of the passage we have no doubt: his “vesture dipped in blood,” denoted his past victories [Note: Isaiah 63:1-4.], and his sword hanging upon his thigh, denoted his state of preparation for future triumphs; the inscription therefore altogether means,

    1. That he has manifested his power in his past victories—

    [Jesus has already given abundant proofs of his almighty power and universal dominion. Look at Pharaoh and his hosts; how vain was their opposition to him; how signal and complete their ruin! Behold the seven nations of Canaan; how they melted before him as snow before the meridian sun! See his once highly favoured people the Jews; how he has verified his word towards them, “wiping Jerusalem as a dish, and turning it upside down [Note: 2 Kings 21:13.].” Look at all his enemies in every age; Have they prevailed? Is not His cause still triumphant? and have not multitudes of his enemies already been made his footstool? Yes, not Julian only (the apostate), but thousands and tens of thousands have been forced to acknowledge the power of Jesus, and, with the affrighted Bethshemites, to cry, “Who shall stand before this holy Lord God [Note: 1 Samuel 6:20.]?” If then the “Lord is known by the judgments which he executeth [Note: Psalms 9:16.],” our blessed Saviour has made known in this very way his eternal power and Godhead.]

    2. That he will manifest it in his future victories—

    [There is a time coming when Jesus shall put forth his almighty power, and “subdue all nations to the obedience of faith.” In the words following our text, he declares how extensive shall be his victories, and that all who oppose him shall be as tow before the fire. His victories here will be easy, certain, terrible [Note: Isaiah 25:10-11. Psalms 7:11-13. Deuteronomy 32:41-42.]. But what if we look into the eternal world? O what proofs shall we there see of his irresistible, almighty power [Note: Psalms 11:6; Psalms 21:8-9.]! Let us be assured of this, that, though we be kings and lords, we must become his subjects; and that, if we will not bow to the sceptre of his grace, “we shall be broken in pieces, as a potter’s vessel.”]

    Infer—

    1. How deeply are we concerned to know whether Christ be our King!

    [We must not imagine that he is our King, merely because we profess ourselves his subjects. We must inquire, Whether we have been translated from the kingdom of Satan, and brought as strangers into the kingdom of Christ [Note: Colossians 1:13.]? We must also inquire, Whether we are living in obedience to him? For there is nothing more certain, than that “his servants and subjects we are to whom we obey [Note: Romans 6:16. John 15:14.].” If we are not his, there can be no doubt whose we are: and therefore we should labour to ascertain the point, and to have our evidence clear that “we are Christ’s.”]

    2. How awful will it be to be found amongst his enemies!

    [“We may be sure, whoever we are, that he will overcome at last:” his name is a pledge of universal conquest [Note: Revelation 17:14. Luke 19:27.]. And how terrible will be the wrath of the Lamb [Note: Revelation 6:16.]! O let us kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and we perish from the way [Note: Psalms 2:12.].]

    3. How secure are all his faithful subjects!

    [Other kings may be subdued; but He never can: other kings may bring the heaviest calamities upon their subjects; He will bring nothing to them but peace and joy. “None can harm us, if we be his followers.” “If He be for us, none can be effectually against us.” “Let the children of Zion therefore be joyful in their King [Note: Psalms 149:2.]:” yea, to all his subjects we will say, with David, “The Lord is King over all the earth; sing ye praises with understanding [Note: Psalms 47:7.].”]

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    Simeon, Charles. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/shh/revelation-19.html. 1832.

    Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

    The same name as in Revelation 17:14 1 Timothy 6:15; See Poole on "Revelation 17:14", See Poole on "1 Timothy 6:15"; denoting the sovereign power and authority which he had. This he always had, but he now comes forth openly to manifest it; therefore this name is said to be

    written on his vesture and on his thigh, that all might take notice of it.

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    Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-19.html. 1685.

    Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

    на бедре Его Христос будет нести знамя, которое будет на Нем поверх Его одежд, спускаясь до бедра, и на нем будет красиво написано имя, прославляющее абсолютную, верховную власть Христа над всеми человеческими правителями (см. пояснение к 17:14).

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    MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-19.html.

    Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

    King of kings, and Lord of lords; indicating his universal and supreme dominion. The supremacy of the Lord Jesus Christ, and his determination to crush his enemies and save his friends, are most clearly revealed in the Bible; and in his manifestations of himself, all will see that he is a just God and an almighty Saviour.

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    Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-19.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

    Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

    And he hath on his garment and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS; AND LORD OF LORDS.

    KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS ... This makes it mandatory to view the similar passage in 1 Timothy 6:15 as also being a plain reference to the Lord Jesus Christ. See comment on that reference in this series.

    This superlative title does not refer to what Christ will become after this so-called "battle." "He will conquer the monster and the kings because he is already King of kings and Lord of lords."[49] This section teaches:

    That Christ is reigning; he is reigning through the power of his word; he is reigning in every heart that will yield to the gospel. When he comes in the clouds of his glory (with his angels, as here), the final stroke will be delivered.[50]

    See the dissertation on "The King of Kings and Lord of Lords" in my Commentary on 1Timothy, pp. 229-234.

    [49] Ibid.

    [50] Frank L. Cox, Revelation in 26 Lessons (Nashville: The Gospel Advocate Company, 1956), p. 113.

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    Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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    Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

    Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

    ‘And he has on his garment and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS.’

    We may read ‘on his garment, even on his thigh’ showing precisely where the name is portrayed. It is necessarily here, for to be on hand or forehead would be to mark Him as one of the redeemed, and He is the Redeemer. The name may be on the thigh because that is where oaths were once confirmed (Genesis 24:2; Genesis 24:9), thus emphasising His faithfulness to His covenant with His own. Alternately it may be because the sword was girded there (Psalms 45:3; Song of Solomon 3:8) and His name is another sword. His name speaks for itself. He is Lord of all and sovereign over all creation.

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    Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/revelation-19.html. 2013.

    Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

    In verse sixteen a fourth name was inscribed on the Rider--King of Kings and Lord of Lords. This was the highest title to be conferred. It symbolized the position and power over all kings and rulers of all rank in the heathen world, all of whom must yield to the invincible Word of God. This stage of the vision was in repetition of chapter 11:15: The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ. It was the sublime apocalypse of the conquering Lord, and his victorious church. The conquest of "the kingdoms of this world" was spiritual, not literal; and it was to be accomplished by the spread of the gospel and expansion of Christianity over the heathen world, as stated in Matthew 24:31 and as prophesied in the second Psalm.

    The names and insignia attached to the Rider comport with the Psalm prophecy and with all the divine offices of the Christ Rider. His insignia were: the white horse, the diadems, the blood-dipped garments, the flaming eyes, and the inscribed name, unknown to men. His divine works were: to judge, to wage war, t o smite with a verbal sword, to tread the winepress of God's wrath, and to rule with the inflexible iron rod of the inexorble law of the Christ.

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    Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-19.html. 1966.

    Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

    The robe is a symbol of majesty, and the thigh suggests power. Evidently the name appeared on the part of Christ"s robe that covered His thigh, which would be most conspicuous. This interpretation takes the "and" (Gr. kai) ascensively, meaning "even," specifying the location of the name more exactly. The title "King of kings" is one that Persian and later rulers of empires ascribed to themselves (cf. Ezra 7:12), but only the Messiah qualifies for it in its true sense (cf. Deuteronomy 10:17; Daniel 4:37 LXX). [Note: Moffatt, 5:468-69; Wall, p229.]

    People living on earth at the time of the Second Coming will see Jesus Christ return ( Matthew 24:30). The more important passages on the second coming of Christ are Deuteronomy 30:3; Psalm 2; Isaiah 63:1-6; Daniel 2:44-45; Daniel 7:13-14; Matthew 24-25; Mark 13; Luke 21; Acts 1:11; Romans 11:26; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:1-4; 2 Thessalonians 1:7 to 2 Thessalonians 2:12; 2 Peter 2:1 to 2 Peter 3:17; Jude 1:14-15; and Revelation 1:7; and Revelation 19:11-21. [Note: For a concise review of the major revelation in each of these passages, see John F. Walvoord, "Christ"s Coming to Reign," Bibliotheca Sacra123:491 (July-September1966):195-203.] What a contrast this coming is with the Lord Jesus" first coming: as a baby, in humility and obscurity, riding a donkey into Jerusalem rather than a horse, coming to die rather than to reign.

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    Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-19.html. 2012.

    Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

    Revelation 19:16. And he hath on his garment and on his thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords. The name mentioned in Revelation 19:12 was probably written on the forehead. The place of this name is different. It seems to have been written on the garment where it covers the thigh to which the sword is bound (Psalms 45:3). For the name itself comp. chap. Revelation 17:14. What was there indicated in prophecy is here realized. The warfare of the Lord is ended: ‘All kings shall fall down before Him: all nations shall serve Him’(Psalms 72:11).

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    Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-19.html. 1879-90.

    E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

    KING . . . LORDS. See Revelation 17:14. Here at length we have the final fulfillment of Psa 2

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    Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-19.html. 1909-1922.

    Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

    And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    'His name written on His vesture and thigh' was partly on the vesture, partly on the thigh itself, where, in an equestrian figure, the robe drops. The thigh was touched in taking an oath, as the seat of strength: it symbolizes Christ's humanity, as, sprung from the loins of David, according to His covenant, and now the glorified "Son of man." His incommunicable divine name, "which no man knew," is on His head, Revelation 19:12 (Menochius). KING OF KINGS. Contrast Revelation 17:14; Revelation 17:17, the beast being in usurpation a king of kings, the ten kings delivering their kingdom to him.

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    Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

    Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

    And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.
    on his vesture
    12,13
    KING
    17:14; Psalms 72:11; Proverbs 8:15,16; Daniel 2:47; Philippians 2:9-11; 1 Timothy 6:15
    Reciprocal: Genesis 27:29 - Let people;  Numbers 24:7 - his king;  Numbers 24:19 - Of Jacob;  Deuteronomy 10:17 - Lord of lords;  Joshua 22:22 - Lord God;  2 Chronicles 9:26 - reigned over;  Ezra 7:12 - Artaxerxes;  Job 12:18 - GeneralPsalm 89:27 - higher;  Psalm 98:6 - the king;  Psalm 99:4 - strength;  Psalm 136:3 - the Lord;  Psalm 145:1 - my God;  Psalm 145:12 - make known;  Isaiah 9:6 - the government;  Isaiah 33:22 - the Lord is our king;  Jeremiah 12:12 - the sword;  Jeremiah 30:21 - governor;  Jeremiah 48:15 - saith;  Daniel 2:21 - he removeth;  Daniel 2:37 - the God;  Daniel 7:27 - dominions;  Daniel 8:25 - stand;  Daniel 9:25 - the Prince;  Micah 5:2 - that is;  Zephaniah 3:15 - the king;  Zechariah 14:16 - the King;  Matthew 4:9 - I give;  Matthew 25:34 - the King;  Matthew 28:18 - All;  John 3:31 - is above;  John 4:1 - the Lord;  John 12:13 - the King;  Acts 2:30 - he;  Acts 4:26 - kings;  Acts 10:36 - he is;  Romans 10:12 - Lord;  Romans 13:1 - there;  1 Corinthians 1:2 - our Lord;  Colossians 4:1 - ye;  1 Timothy 1:17 - the King;  James 2:7 - worthy;  Revelation 1:5 - and the prince;  Revelation 15:3 - saints

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    Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-19.html.

    Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

    Revelation 19:16. — This lengthened description closes with a grand assertion of His glory, "He has upon His garment and upon His thigh a Name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords."{*"He is publicly, officially, and intrinsically King of kings and Lord of Lords." — "Synopsis of the Books of the Bible," vol. 5, p. 635, Morrish ed.} His garment, His outward character and ways as beheld by others, bears the title expressive of universal dominion. Instead of the sword on the thigh (Psalms 45:3), the Name here mentioned is written on it. The sword is in His mouth; the Name on the thigh. There one would naturally look for the sword, instead of which they read the pre-eminent dignity of Christ as Monarch of all who reign; and Lord of all lesser ruling authorities. In Revelation 17:14 the same titles are applied to the Lord; there, however, stated in inverse order, "Lord of lords" preceding "King of kings." No pen can do justice in the attempt to set forth the glorious Personage of these verses. In the interpretation of symbol and literal statement care is needed, but there is no real difficulty. Seize upon the circumstance, the occasion, and the reason of war; that actual peoples on earth are found in open, daring, armed rebellion against the authority of God, whether exercised morally or governmentally; further, that the nations on earth and the saints issuing from Heaven are literal armies, and in purpose, aims, and projects opposed. The foregoing considerations may help one out of the vague and uncertain into what is real and about to happen, and in which we all shall have our part.

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    Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-19.html.

    E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

    King of kings and Lord of lords. King indicates supreme authority and lord means one who governs the conduct of others. Jesus was given these two titles because He had overcome all who opposed him. Having the title attached to his vesture (clothing) was on the principle of decorations given men who have distinguished themselves in the service of their country.

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    Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-19.html. 1952.

    Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

    Revelation 19:16

    Revelation 19:16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    And he hath on his vesture, and on his thigh a name written KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

    The Lord Jesus Christ is King of Saints, { Revelation 15:3} King of Sion, { Psalm 149:1-2} and King of Nations, { Jeremiah 10:7-10} the only potentate. { 1 Timothy 6:15} And he shall be King in all the earth, { Zechariah 14:9} And the Kingdoms of this world shall become the Kingdom of Christ and his saints. { Revelation 11:15; Daniel 7:27-28}

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    Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-19.html.

    Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

    Revelation 19:16. And has upon his garment and upon his thigh a name written: A King of kings, and a Lord of lords. Upon the garment and the thigh, stands for, upon the garment in the region of the thigh. The thigh is brought into view here as the place where commonly, though not in this case, the sword is to be found. The sword was spoken of in the words immediately before. Precisely because it was not found here, the name is mentioned and takes its place. If the sword had been there, it would have conveyed the same import. The sword of the warrior and the ruler is everywhere the symbol of his personality and of his whole position. In Psalms 45:3-4, "Gird thy sword on thy thigh, O hero, thy glory and thy majesty. And in this thy glory ride prosperously," &c., not merely is the sword placed in connection with the thigh, but also along with the sword and in it the glory and the majesty. "The sword is, indeed, a proper sword, but the Psalmist, viewing it with the eyes of the Spirit, sees in it a symbol of his glory and majesty, so that he is girded with the sword as if it were these, since they use it, and manifest themselves by it. The sword, spiritually considered, is always as the man is who carries it; and the matter at once presents to the spiritual mind a quite different aspect." On the expression: a King of kings, and a Lord of lords, comp. ch. Revelation 17:14, where Christ is also denominated thus with respect immediately to the ten kings, 1 Timothy 6:15. In ch. Revelation 17:14 the fundamental passages were given in the inverse order; here they are put right.

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    Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-19.html.

    Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

    16.On his vesture’ thigh—On his vesture overspreading his thigh.

    King’ lords—Great sovereigns, like those of Persia, who had kings and viceroys for their vassals, were accustomed to display this title. But none but He who here wears it is entitled to its universal extent. The arts and forces of war are now in the hands of our Christian civilization. This began to be the fact when Charlemagne subdued the savage Saxons, and brought the peace and unity upon which the modern civilized system has been based. It was the fact when Charles Martel drove back the tide of Mohammedan invasion. Christian preeminence is now slowly, yet with increasing rapidity, spreading Europeanism over Asia, and invading, from all sides, the “dark continent” of Africa. And the Protestant power is through every decade overmastering the forces of the papacy. Who does not know that a higher Christian civilization, either by war or peace, must overspread America within a century or two more? All this because Messiah shepherds the nations with a rod of iron.

     

     

     

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    Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-19.html. 1874-1909.

    The Expositor's Greek Testament

    Revelation 19:16. “And on his garment and (i.e., even) upon his thigh”; on that part of the robe covering his thigh, he has a title of honour written. Some Greek statues appear to have had a name written thus upon the thigh (Cicero mentions one of Apollo marked in small silver letters, Verr. iv. 43). Messiah, like many of the Assyrian monarchs, bears a double name. King of kings, a Persian (Æsch. Persæ, 24; Ezra 7:12) and Parthian title of royalty, which is the Apocalypse is the prerogative of messiah as the true Emperor was applied to Marduk as the conqueror of chaos and the arbiter of all earthly monarchs (cf. Zimmern in Schrader, 373 f.).

     

     

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    Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:16". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-19.html. 1897-1910.