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Easton's Bible Dictionary
The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is in Zechariah 7:1-7; 8:19 , from which it appears that during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts.
There was in addition to these the fast appointed by (Esther 4:16 ).
Public national fasts on account of sin or to supplicate divine favour were sometimes held.
There were also local fasts.
There are many instances of private occasional fasting (1 Samuel 1:7 : 20:34; 2 Samuel 3:35; 12:16; 1 Kings 21:27; Ezra 10:6; Nehemiah 1:4; Daniel 10:2,3 ). Moses fasted forty days (Exodus 24:18; 34:28 ), and so also did Elijah (1 Kings 19:8 ). Our Lord fasted forty days in the wilderness (Matthew 4:2 ).
In the lapse of time the practice of fasting was lamentably abused (Isaiah 58:4; Jeremiah 14:12; Zechariah 7:5 ). Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees for their hypocritical pretences in fasting (Matthew 6:16 ). He himself appointed no fast. The early Christians, however, observed the ordinary fasts according to the law of their fathers (Acts 13:3; 14:23; 2 co 6:5 ).
These dictionary topics are from M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain.
Easton, Matthew George. Entry for 'Fast'. Easton's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ebd/f/fast.html. 1897.