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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
BITTER HERBS ( merÃ´rÃ®m , Exodus 12:8 , Numbers 9:11 ). The bitter herbs of the modern Jewish Passover in Palestine are specially lettuce and endive. Other salads, such as parsley, cucumber, chicory, and water-cress, are also commonly eaten, indeed are prime favourites. The author of Lamentations 3:15 , in using the same word merÃ´rÃ®m (tr. [Note: translate or translation.] ‘bitterness’), doubtless had more bitter and less wholesome plants in his mind, perhaps the colocynth or Ecballium elaterium , the wild gourd of 2 Kings 4:39 . See, further, Passover.
E. W. G. Masterman.
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Hastings, James. Entry for 'Bitter Herbs'. Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hdb/b/bitter-herbs.html. 1909.