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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words
lit., "a learner" (from manthano, "to learn," from a root math---, indicating thought accompanied by endeavor), in contrast to didaskalos, "a teacher;" hence it denotes "one who follows one's teaching," as the "disciples" of John, Matthew 9:14; of the Pharisees, Matthew 22:16; of Moses, John 9:28; it is used of the "disciples" of Jesus (a) in a wide sense, of Jews who became His adherents, John 6:66; Luke 6:17 , some being secretly so, John 19:38; (b) especially of the twelve Apostles, Matthew 10:1; Luke 22:11 , e.g.; (c) of all who manifest that they are His "disciples" by abiding in His Word, John 8:31; cp. John 13:35; 15:8; (d) in the Acts, of those who believed upon Him and confessed Him, John 6:1,2,7; 14:20,22,28; 15:10; 19:1 , etc.A "disciple" was not only a pupil, but an adherent; hence they are spoken of as imitators of their teacher; cp. John 8:31; 15:8 .
"a female disciple," is said of Tabitha, Acts 9:36 .
means "a fellow disciple" (sun, with, and No. 1), John 11:16 .Note: In Acts 1:15 , the RV translates the mss. which have adelphon, "brethren;" in 20:7, RV, "we," for AV, "disciples."
is used in the Active Voice, intransitively, in some mss., in Matthew 27:57 , in the sense of being the "disciple" of a person; here, however, the best mss. have the Passive Voice, lit., "had been made a disciple," as in Matthew 13:52 , RV, "who hath been made a disciple." It is used in this transitive sense in the Active Voice in Matthew 28:19; Acts 14:21 .
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Disciple'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ved/d/disciple.html. 1940.