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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words
"to keep back, deprive" (apo, "from," hustereo, "to be lacking"), is used in James 5:4 , "is kept back by fraud" (some mss. have apostereo, "to defraud"). The word is found in a papyrus writing of A.D. 42, of a bath insufficiently warmed (Moulton and Milligan, Vocab.). The Law required the prompt payment of the laborer, Deuteronomy 24:15 .
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Fraud'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ved/f/fraud.html. 1940.
the Second Week of Advent