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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words

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A. Verb.

qûm (קוּם, Strong's #6965), "to arise, stand up, come about." This word occurs in nearly every Semitic language, including biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. It occurs about 630 times in biblical Hebrew and 39 times in biblical Aramaic.It may denote any movement to an erect position, such as getting up out of a bed (Genesis 19:33), or it can be used as the opposite of sitting or kneeling, as when Abraham "stood up from before his dead" ( Genesis 23:3). It can also refer to the result of arising, as when Joseph saw his sheaf arise and remain erect (Genesis 37:7).

qûm may be used by itself, with no direct object to refer to the origin of something, as when Isaiah says, "It shall not stand …" ( Isaiah 7:7). Sometimes qûm is used in an intensive mood to signify empowering or strengthening: "Strengthen thou me according unto thy word" ( Psalm 119:28). It is also used to denote the inevitable occurrence of something predicted or prearranged ( Ezekiel 13:6).

In a military context, qûm may mean "to engage in battle." In Psalm 18:38, for instance, God says, "I have wounded them that were not able to rise …" (cf 2 Samuel 23:10).

Qûm may also be used very much like amad to indicate the continuation of something—e.g., "Thy kingdom shall not continue" ( 1 Samuel 13:14). Sometimes it indicates validity, as when a woman's vow shall not "stand" (be valid) if her father forbids it ( Numbers 30:5). Also see Deuteronomy 19:15, which states that a matter may be "confirmed" only by the testimony of two or more witnesses. In some passages, qûm means "immovable"; so Eli's eyes were "set" ( 1 Samuel 4:15).

Another special use of qûm is "rise up again," as when a childless widow complains to the elders, "My husband's brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel …" ( Deuteronomy 25:7). In other words, the brother refuses to continue that name or "raise it up again."

When used with another verb, %$ may suggest simply the beginning of an action. When Scripture says that "[Jacob] rose up, and passed over the [Euphrates] river" (Gen. 31:21), it does not mean that he literally stood up—merely that he began to cross the river.

Sometimes qûm is part of a compound verb and carries no special meaning of its own. This is especially true in commands. Thus Genesis 28:2 could simply be rendered, "Go to Padan-aram," rather than, "Arise, go …" (KJV). Other special meanings emerge when qûm is used with certain particles. With 'êl "against," it often means "to fight against or attack": "A man riseth against his neighbor, and slayeth him …" ( Deuteronomy 22:26). This is its meaning in Genesis 4:8, the first biblical occurrence. With the particle ("against"), qûm means "make a formal charge against": "One witness shall not rise up against a man …" ( Deuteronomy 19:15). With I ("for"), qûm means "to testify in behalf of": "Who will rise up for me against the evildoers?" ( Psalm 94:16).The same construction can mean "to deed over," as when Ephron's field was deeded over (KJV, "made sure"— Genesis 23:17).

B. Noun.

mâqôm (מְקֹמָה, Strong's #4725), "place; height; stature; standing." The Old Testament contains three nouns related to qûm. The most important of these is mâqômwhich occurs 401 times in the Old Testament. It refers to the place where something stands (1 Samuel 5:3), sits ( 1 Kings 10:19), dwells ( 2 Kings 8:21), or is ( Genesis 1:9). It may also refer to a larger location, such as a country ( Exodus 3:8) or to an undetermined "space between" ( 1 Samuel 26:13). A "place" is sometimes a task or office ( Ecclesiastes 10:4). This noun is used to signify a sanctuary—i.e., a "place" of worship ( Genesis 22:3).

Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Arise'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​vot/​a/arise.html. 1940.
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