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Bible Encyclopedias

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Judging; Judgment

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juj´ing , juj´ment : Often in the Old Testament for "to act as a magistrate" ( Exodus 18:13 ; Deuteronomy 1:16 ; Deuteronomy 16:18 , etc.), justice being administered generally by "elders" (Exodus 18:13-27 ), or "kings" (1 Samuel 8:20 ) or "priests" (Deuteronomy 18:15 ); applied to God as the Supreme Judge (Psalm 9:7 , Psalm 9:8 ; Psalm 10:18 ; Psalm 96:13 ; Micah 4:3 , etc.; Psalm 7:8 : "Yahweh ministereth judgment," vividly describes a court scene, with Yahweh as Judge).

Often in the New Testament, ethically, for (1) "to decide," "give a verdict," "declare an opinion" (Greek krı́nō ); (2) "to investigate," "scrutinize" (Greek anakrı́nō ); (3) "to discriminate," "distinguish" (Greek diakrı́nō ). For (1), see Luke 7:43 ; Acts 15:19 ; for (2) see 1 Corinthians 2:15 ; 1 Corinthians 4:3 ; for (3) see 1 Corinthians 11:31 ; 1 Corinthians 14:29 m. Used also forensically in Luke 22:30 ; Acts 25:10 ; and applied to God in John 5:22 ; Hebrews 10:30 . The judgments of God are the expression of His justice, the formal declarations of His judgments, whether embodied in words (Deuteronomy 5:1 the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American) "statutes"), or deeds ( Exodus 6:6 ; Revelation 16:7 ), or in decisions that are yet to be published (Psalm 36:6 ). Man's consciousness of guilt inevitably associates God's judgments as declarations of the Divine justice, with his own condemnation, i.e. he knows that a strict exercise of justice means his condemnation, and thus "judgment" and "condemnation" become in his mind synonymous (Romans 5:16 ); hence, the prayer of Psalm 143:2 , "Enter not into judgment"; also, John 6:29 , "the resurrection of judgment" (the King James Version "damnation"); 1 Corinthians 11:29 , "eateth and drinketh judgment" (the King James Version "damnation").

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Judging; Judgment'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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