Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1722 - ἐν
- in, by, with etc.
poet. ἐνί, εἰν, εἰνί (Il. 8.199, etc.), forms used by and Lyric Poets as the metre requires, but only as f.l. in Trag., εἰν S. Ant. 1241; εἰνί E. Heracl. 893: Arc. and Cypr. ἰν IG 5(2).3.5, al., Inscr.Cypr. 135.9 H., al. PR WITH DAT. AND ACC. Radical sense, in, into. WITH DAT.
I OF PLACE,
1 in, νήσῳ ἐν ἀμφιρύτῃ Od. 1.50; ἐν δώμασ' ἐμοῖσιν Il. 6.221; ἐνὶ προθύροισιν 11.777; κοίλῃσ' ἐνὶ νηυσί Od. 2.27; with names of cities or islands, as ἐν Ἀθήνῃς, ἐν Τροίῃ, Il. 2.549, 162; ἡ ἐν Κερκύρᾳ ναυμαχία Th. 1.57; ἡ ἐν Σαλαμῖνι μάχη Isoc. 5.147 (but in Att. the Pris sts.omitted, as with Ἐλευσῖνι, Μαραθῶνι; where ἐν is used, it = in the district of.., ὲν Ἐλευσῖνι IG 22.1028.11, ἐμ Μαραθῶνι ib.1243.21): ἐν χερσὶν ἐμῇσι in my arms, Il. 22.426; ἐνὶ θυμῷ Od. 16.331, etc.; ἐν αὑτῷ εἶναι to be in one's senses, be oneself, ἔτ' ἐν σαυτῷ (v.l. - τοῦ) γενοῦ S. Ph. 950; also ἐν αὑτοῦ, cf. signf. 2. ἐν τοῖς ἰχθύσιν in the fish-market, Antiph. 125; ἐν τῷ μύρῳ Ar. Eq. 1375; so ἐν τοῖν δυοῖν ὀβολοῖν ἐθεώρουν ἄν in the two-obol seats, D. 18.28.
2. elliptic, in such phrases as ἐν Ἀλκινόοιο Od. 7.132, cf. Leg.Gort. 2.21, etc.; εἰν Ἀΐδαο Il. 22.389, Att. ἐν Ἅιδου (v. Ἅιδης): later ἐν τοῖς τινός PRLaws 38.1 (iii B. C.), Luke 2:49; ἐν ἡμετέρου Hdt. 1.35, 7.8. δ'; ἐμ Πανδίονος IG 22.1138.8; ἐν Δημοτιωνιδῶν ib.2.841b21; ἐν τῶν πόλεων ib. 12.56.14: mostly with pr.n., but sts. with Appellatives, as, ἐν ἀφνειοῦ πατρός Il. 6.47; ἐν ἀνδρὸς εὐσεβεστάτου E. IA 926; ἐν παιδοτρίβου, ἐν κιθαριστοῦ, at the school of.., Ar. Nu. 973, Pl. Tht. 206a; ἐν γειτόνων (v. γείτων) ἐν αὑτοῦ (αὑτῷ cod. Rav.) Ar. V. 642, cf. Men. Sam. 125; οὐκέτ' ἐν ἐμαυτοῦ ἦν Pl. Chrm. 155d; ἐν ὑμῶν αὐτῶν γένεσθε Lib. Or. 35.15.
3. in, within, surrounded by, οὐρανὸς ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι Il. 15.192; after Hom., of clothing, armour, etc., ἐν ἐσθῆτι Hdt. 2.159; ἐν πεπλώματι S. Tr. 613; ἐν ἔντεσι Pi. O. 4.24; ἐν ὅπλοισι in or under arms, Hdt. 1.13, etc.; also of particular kinds of arms, ἐν τόξοις, ἀκοντίοις, etc., equipped with them, dub.in X. Mem. 3.9.2; ἐν μαχαίρῃ PTeb. 16.14 (ii B. C.); ἐν μεγάλοις φορτίοις βαδίζειν καὶ τρέχειν X. Cyr. 2.3.14; ἐν βαθεῖ πώγωνι Luc. Salt. 5.
4. on, at or by, ἐν ποταμῷ Il. 18.521, Od. 5.466; ἐν ὄρεσσιν 19.205; οὔρεος ἐν κορυφῇς Il. 2.456; ἐν θρόνοις Od. 8.422; νευρὴ ἐν τόξῳ the string on the bow, Il. 15.463; ἐν [ξίφει] ἧλοι 11.29; κατεκλάσθη ἐνὶ καυλῷ ἔγχος was broken off at or by the shaft, 13.608; ἐν πέτροισι πέτρον ἐκτρίβων S. Ph. 296; ἐν οἴνῳ at wine, prob. in Call. Epigr. 23, Luc. Dem.Enc. 15.
5. in the number of, amongst, freq.in Hom., ἐν Δαναοῖσι, προμάχοισι, μέσσοισιν, νεκύεσσι, Il. 1.109, 3.31, 7.384, Od. 12.383, al.; οἴη ἐν ἀθανάτοισιν Il. 1.398; and with Verbs of ruling, ἐν δ' ἄρα τοῖσιν ἦρχ' 13.689; ἀνδράσιν ἐν πολλοῖσι.. ἀνάσσων Od. 19.110; φῦλον ἐν ἀνθρώποισι ματαιότατον Pi. P. 3.21; ἐν τοῖς οἰκείοισιν ἀνὴρ χρηστός S. Ant. 661; ἐν γυναιξὶν ἄλκιμος E. Or. 754: — for ἐν τοῖς c. Sup., V. ὁ. in the presence of, ἐν πᾶσι Od. 2.194; πτωχὸς ὢν ἐν ἐσθλοῖσιν λέγειν E. Fr. 703; λέγοντες ἐν τῷ δήμῳ Pl. R. 565b; μακρηγορεῖν ἐν εἰδόσι Th. 2.36; ἔλεγον ἐν τοῖς τριάκοντα Lys. 12.6; ἐν τοῖς ὄχλοις εἰπεῖν Isoc. 3.21; λέγειν ἐν ἀνδράσιν (of a woman) Lys. 32.11; of a trial, διαγωνίζεσθαι, διαδικάζεσθαι ἔν τισι, Pl. Grg. 464d, Lg. 916b; προὐκαλούμην ἐν τοῖς αὐτοῖς δικασταῖς Antipho 6.23.
6. in one's hands, within one's reach or power, νίκης πείρατ' ἔχονται ἐν ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι Il. 7.102; δύναμις γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν Od. 10.69 (comp. the Homeric phrases θεῶν ἐν γούνασι κεῖται Il. 17.514; ἐν γὰρ χερσὶ τέλος πολέμου 16.630); freq. in Hdt. and Att., ἔστιν ἔν τινι, c. inf., it depends on him to.., rests with him to.., ἔστιν ἐν σοὶ ἢ.. ἤ.. Hdt. 6.109, cf. 3.85, etc.; ταῦτα δ' ἐν τῷ δαίμονι καὶ τῇδε φῦναι χἁτέρᾳ S. OC 1443; ἐν σοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν Id. OT 314; ἐν σοὶ δ' ἐσμὲν καὶ ζῆν καὶ μή E. Alc. 278; ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τὰ πράγματα ἐγένετο Th. 1.74; ἐν τῷ θεῷ τὸ τέλος ἦν, οὐκ ἐμοί D. 18.193; also ἐν τούτῳ εἰσὶν πᾶσαι αἱ ἀποδείξεις depend on this, Pl. Prt. 354e; ἐν τούτῳ λύεται ἡ ἀπορία ἢ ἄλλοθι οὐδαμοῦ ib. 321e; ἔν γ' ἐμοί so far as rests with me, S. OC 153 (lyr.); ἐν δὲ σοὶ λελείψομαι E. Hipp. 324; also ἐν ἐμοί in my judgement, S. OC 1214 (lyr.); ἐν θεοῖς καλά in the eyes of the gods, Id. Ant. 925.
7. in respect of, ἐν πάντεσσ' ἔργοισι δαήμονα φῶτα Il. 23.671; ἐν γήρᾳ σύμμετρός τινι in point of age.., S. OT 1112; ἐν ἐμοὶ θρασύς in my case, towards me, Id. Aj. 1315; ἐν θανοῦσιν ὑβριστής ib. 1092; ἡ ἐν τοῖς ὅπλοις μάθησις Pl. La. 190d; also οὐδὲν δεινὸν μὴ ἐν ἐμοὶ στῇ stop with me, Id. Ap. 28b.
8. in a pregnant construction with Verbs of motion, into; implying both motion to and subsequent position in a place, ἐν κονίῃσι χαμαὶ πέσεν fell [to the dust and lay] in it, Il. 4.482, etc.; βάλον ἐν κονίῃσι 5.588; νηῒ δ' ἐνὶ πρύμνῃ ἔναρα θῆκ' 10.570; ἐν χερσὶ τιθέναι 1.441, etc.; ἐν χερσὶ βαλεῖν 5.574; ἐν στήθεσσι μένος βαλεῖν ib. 513; ἐν Τρωσὶν ὄρουσαν 16.258; ἐν χερσὶ πεσέειν 6.81; λέων ἐν βουσὶ θορών 5.161; ἐν δ' οἶνον ἔχευεν ἐν δέπαϊ χρυσέῳ Od. 20.261; ἐν τεύχεσσιν ἔδυνον Il. 23.131: in Trag. and Att., ἐν ποίμναις πίτνων S. Aj. 184 (lyr.), cf. 374 (lyr.); ἐν χωρίῳ ἐμπεπτωκώς Th. 7.87; ἡ ἐν τῷ Σπειραίῳ τῶν νεῶν καταφυγή Id. 8.11; ἐν τόπῳ καταπεφευγέναι Pl. Sph. 260c; ἐν ᾅδου διαπορευθείς Id. Lg. 905b; ῥιπτοῦντες σφᾶς ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ Arr. An. 1.19.4; later, with Verbs of coming and going, διαβάντες ἐν τῇ Σάμῳ Paus. 7.4.3, cf. LXX To. 5.5, Arr. Epict. 1.11.32, etc.: τὸν ἐν Σικελίᾳ πλοῦν is f.l. in Lys. 19.43 codd.
9. πίνειν ἐν ποτηρίῳ to drink from a cup, Luc. DDeor. 6.2; ἐν ἀργύρῳ πίνειν Id. Merc.Cond. 26; ἐν μικροῖς D.L. 1.104.
10. ἄργυρος ἐν ἐκπώμασι silver in the form of plate, Plu. 2.260a; ἐμ φέρνῃ, ἐν θέματι, as a dowry, pledge, PPetr. 1p.37, PTeb. 120.125 (i B. C.).
11. in citations, ἐν τοῦ σκήπτρου τῇ παραδόσει in the passage of the Il. describing this, Th. 1.9, cf. Pl. Tht. 147c, Phlb. 33b.
II OF STATE, CONDITION or POSITION:
1 of outward circumstances, ἐν πολέμῳ Od. 10.553; ἐν δαιτί Il. 4.259; ἐν καρὸς αἴσῃ 9.378; ἐν μοίρῃ Od. 22.54; οὑμὸς ἐν φάει βίος E. Ph. 1281; ἐν γένει εἶναί τινι to be related to.., S. OT 1016; of occupations, pursuits, ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ εἶναι to be engaged in philosophy, Pl. Phd. 59a, cf. R. 489b; οἱ ἐν ποιήσι γενόμενοι poets, Hdt. 2.82; οἱ ἐν τοῖς πράγμασι ministers of state, Th. 3.28; οἱ ἐν τέλει the magistrates, Id. 7.73, etc.; τοὺς ἐν ταῖς μοναρχίαις ὄντας Isoc. 2.5; ὁ ἐν ταῖς προσόδοις PPetr. 1p.62; ὁ μάντις ἦν ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ in the practice of it, S. OT 562.
2. of inward states, of feeling, etc., ἐν φιλότητι, ἐν δοιῇ, Il. 7.302, 9.230; ἐν φόβῳ γενέσθαι Pl. R. 578e; οὐκ ἐν αἰσχύνῃ τὰ σά E. Ph. 1276; ἐν σιωπῇ τἀμά Id. Ion 1397; ἐν ὀργῇ ἔχειν τινά to make him the object of one's anger, Th. 2.21; ἐν ἔριδι εἶναι ibid.; ἐν αἰτίᾳ σχεῖν τινά to blame him, Hdt. 5.106; ἐν αἰτίᾳ βαλεῖν S. OT 656 (lyr.); ἐν αἰτίᾳ εἶναι to have the blame, X. Mem. 2.8.9, etc.; οἱ ἐν ταῖς αἰτίαις D. Ephesians 2:14.
3. freq. with neut. Adj., ἐν βραχεῖ, = βραχέως, S. El. 673; ἐν τάχει, = ταχέως, Id. OT 765, etc.; ἐν καλῷ ἐστί, = καλῶς ἔχει, E. Heracl. 971; ἐν ἀσφαλεῖ [ ἐστί ] Id. IT 762; ἐν εὐμαρεῖ [ ἐστί ] Id. Hel. 1227; ἐν ἐλαφρῷ ποιήσασθαι Hdt. 3.154; ἐν ἴσῳ, = ἴσως, ἐν ὁμοίῳ, = ὁμοίως, Th. 2.53: less freq. in pl., ἐν ἀργοῖς, = ἀργῶς, S. OT 287; ἐν κενοῖς, = κενῶς, Id. Aj. 971: with a Subst., ἐν δίκᾳ, = δικαίως, opp. παρὰ δίκαν, Pi. O. 2.16, cf. S. Tr. 1069, Ar. Eq. 258, Pl. R. 475c, al.; ἦσαν οὐκέτι ὁμοίως ἐν ἡδονῇ ἄρχοντες Th. 1.99, cf. Pl. Epin. 977b.
III OF THE INSTRUMENT, MEANS or MANNER, ἐν πυρὶ πρήσαντες Il. 7.429; δῆσαι ἐνὶ δεσμῷ 5.386, cf. Od. 12.54, etc.; but in most cases the orig. sense may be traced, to put in the fire and burn, in fetters and bind, etc.; so ἐν πόνοις δαμέντα A. Pr. 425 (lyr.); ἔζευξα πρῶτος ἐν ζυγοῖσι κνώδαλα ib. 462; ἔργον ἐν κύβοις Ἄρης κρινεῖ Id. Th. 414; also ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν or ἐν ὄμμασιν ὁρᾶσθαι, ἰδέσθαι,
1. to see with or before one's eyes, i.e. have the object in one's eye, Il. 3.306, Od. 10.385, etc.; ἔν τε τῇ ὄψει διαγιγνώσκειν καὶ ἐν τῇ ἀκοῇ Pl. Tht. 206a; also ἐν ὠσὶ νωμῶν ὄρνιθας A. Th. 25; also ἐν λιταῖς by prayers, S. Ph. 60; ἐν δόλῳ by deceit, ib. 102; ἐν λόγοις by words, A. Ch. 613 (lyr.); ἀπέκτειναν ἐν τῇ προφάσει ταύτῃ Lys. 13.12, cf. Antipho 5.59; ψαύειν ἐν κερτομίοις γλώσσαις S. Ant. 961 (lyr.); ἐν τοῖς ὁμοίοις νόμοις ποιήσαντες τὰς κρίσεις Th. 1.77; esp. with Verbs of showing, σημαίνειν ἐν ἱεροῖς καὶ οἰωνοῖς X. Cyr. 8.7.3; τὰ πραχθέντα.. ἐν.. ἐπιστολαῖς ἴστε ye know by letters, Th. 7.11; ἐν τῇδε ῥάβδῳ πάντα ποιήσεις Ezek. Exag. 132, cf. PMag.Osl. 1.108.
2. of a personal instrument, ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια Matthew 9:34.
OF TIME, ὥρῃ ἐν εἰαρινῇ Il. 16.643; ἐν νυκτί Hdt. 6.69, X. Smp. 1.9; ἐν χρόνῳ μακρῷ S. Ph. 235, OC 88; ἐν τούτῳ (sc. τῷ χρόνῶ)
1. in this space of time, Hdt. 1.126, etc.; ἐν ᾧ (sc. χρόνῳ) during the time that, S. Tr. 929, etc. (also ἐν οἷς Arist. Mu. 391a2); ἐν ὅσῳ Th. 3.28; ἐν ταῖς σπονδαῖς in the time of the truce, X. An. 3.1.1; ἐν τῇ ἑορτῇ Th. 7.73 (but in some phrases the ἐν is omitted, as μυστηρίοις in the course of the mysteries, Ar. Pl. 1013; τραγῳδοῖς at the performance of.., Aeschin. 3.36). ἐν ἄρχοντι Μητροδώρῳ during the archonship of M., IG 7.1773 (Thebes, ii A. D.); ἐν ἄρχοντι Σύλλᾳ ib.3.113.
2. in, within, ἐν ἡμέρῃ Hdt. 1.126; ἐν ἔτεσι πεντήκοντα Th. 1.118; ἐν τρισὶ μησί X. HG 1.1.37, etc.; μυρίαις ἐν ἁμέραις in, i.e. after, countless days, E. Ph. 305 (lyr.); ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς νοσῆσαι Procop. Arc. 9.35.
1. generally, ἐν δυσὶ σταδίοις within two stadia, D.S. 20.74, cf. 19.39, dub. in Th. 6.1.
2. with gen. of price, ἐν δύο ταλάντων LXX 3 Ki. 16.24.
3. amounting to, προῖκα ἐν δραχμαῖς ἐννακοσίαις BGU 970.14 (ii A. D.), etc. WITH Acc., into, on, for, Arc. ἰν, νόμος ἰν ἄματα πάντα IG 5 (2).5; γράψαι ἐν χάλκωμα ib.511; ἐν πελτοφόρας ἀπεγράψατο ib.7.210 (Aegosthenae), etc.; also poet., ἐν πάντα νόμον Pi. P. 2.86.
WITHOUT CASE, AS ADVERB, in the phrase ἐν δέ..,
1 and therein, Il. 9.361; ἐν μέν.. ἐν δέ Od. 13.244.
2. and among them, Il. 2.588, etc.; in Hdt., mostly ἐν δὲ δή.. 3.39, 5.95; or ἐν δὲ καί.. 2.43, 172, 176.
3. and besides, moreover (not in Att. Prose), S. Aj. 675, OT 181 (lyr.), al.; ἐν δ' ὑπέρας τε κάλους τε πόδας τ' ἐνέδησεν ἐν αὐτῇ Od. 5.260.
4. ἔνι, = ἔνεστι, ἔνεισι, Il. 20.248, etc.
POSITION: ἐν freq. stands between its Subst. and the Adj. agreeing therewith, Il. 22.61, B. 5.41, etc.: without an Adj., τῷ δ' ἐν ἐρινεός ἐστι μέγας Od. 12.103: most freq. in Hom. in the form ἐνί, which is then written by anastrophe ἔνι, Il. 7.221, Od. 5.57; in Pi. between Subst. and gen., χόρτοις ἐν λέοντος O. 13.44, al.--One or more independent words sts. come between the Pr and its dat., as in Od. 11.115; also in Prose,
prep. (the most freq. of all in NT), c. dat. (= Heb. בְּ , Lat. in, c. abl.).
I. Of place, c. dat. rei, pers., in, within, on, at, by, among: ἐν τ . πόλει , Luke 7:37; τ . ὀφθαλμῷ , Matthew 7:3; τ . κοιλία , Matthew 12:40; τ . ὄρει , 2 Peter 1:18; τ . θρόνῳ , Revelation 3:21; τ . δεξιᾷ τ . θεοῦ , Romans 8:34; ἐν ὑμῖν , Luke 1:1; of books, ἐν τ . βιβλίῳ , Galatians 3:10; τ . νόμῳ , Matthew 12:5, al.; ἐν τοῖς τ . Πατρός μου , in my Father's house (RV; cf. M, Pr., 103), Luke 2:49; trop., of the region of thought or feeling, ἐν τ . καρδίᾳ . (-αις ), Matthew 5:28, 2 Corinthians 4:6, al.; τ . συνειδήσεσιν , 2 Corinthians 5:11; after verbs of motion, instead of εἰς (constructio prægnans, a usage extended in late Gk. beyond the limits observed in cl.; cf. B1., § 41, 1; M, Th., 12), ἀποστέλλω . . . ἐν , Matthew 10:16; δέδωκεν ἐν τ . χειρί (cf. τιθέναι ἐν χερσί , Hom., Iliad., i, 441, al.), John 3:35; id. after verbs of coming and going (not in cl.), εἰσῆλθε , Luke 9:46; ἐξῆλθεν , Luke 7:17.
II. Of state, condition, form, occupation, etc.: ἐν ζωῇ , Romans 5:10; ἐν τ . θανάτῳ , 1 John 3:14; ἐν πειρασμοῖς , 1 Peter 1:6; ἐν εἰρήνῃ , Mark 5:25; ἐν δόξῃ , Philippians 4:19; ἐν πραΰτητι , James 3:13; ἐν μυστηρίῳ , 1 Corinthians 2:7; ἐν τ . διδαχῇ , Mark 4:2; of a part as contained in a whole, ἐν τ . ἀμπέλῳ , John 15:4; ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι , Romans 12:4; of accompanying objects or persons (simple dat. in cl.), with, ἐν αἵματι , Hebrews 9:25; ἐν δέκα χιλιάσιν , Luke 14:31 (cf. Judges 1:14, Acts 7:14); similarly (cl.), of clothing, armour, arms, ἐν στολαῖς , Mark 12:38; ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ , James 2:2; ἐν μαχαίρῃ , Luke 22:49; classify under III; ἐν ῥάβδῳ , 1 Corinthians 4:21 (cf. ἐν τόξοις , Xen., Mem., 3, 9, 2); of manner (cl.), ἐν τάχει (= λαχέως ), Luke 18:8 (cf. 131., § 41, 1); of spiritual influence, ἐν πνεύματι , Romans 8:9; ἐν Papyri ἀκαθάρτῳ , Mark 1:23; of the mystical relation of the Christian life and the believer himself, to God and Christ (cf. ICC, Ro., 160 f.; Mayor On Judges 1:1; M, Pr., 103): ἐν Χριστῷ (Ἰησοῦ ), ἐν κυρίῳ , Romans 3:24; Romans 6:11, 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 12:2, Galatians 2:17, Ephesians 6:21, Colossians 4:7, 1 Thessalonians 4:16, al.
III. Of the agent, instrument or means (an extension of cl. ἐν of instr.-v. LS, sv. III - corresponding to similar use of Heb. בְּ ), by, with: ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος (= cl. παρά , c. dat.), 1 Corinthians 6:2; ἐν τ . ἄρχοντι τ . δαιμονίων , Matthew 9:34; ἐν αἵματι , Hebrews 9:22; ἐν ὕδατι , Matthew 3:11, al.; ἐν μαχαίρᾳ ἀποκτενεῖ (cf. the absol. ἐν μ ., ἐν ῥάβδῳ supr., II, which some would classify here), Revelation 13:10 (cf. 68). Allied to this usage and distinctly Semitic are the following: ἠγόρασας . . . ἐν τ . αἵματι σου (cf. BDB, s.v., III, 3), Revelation 5:9; ὁμολογεῖν ἐν (= Aram. בּ אזדי ; cf. McNeile on Mt, l.c.; M, Pr., 104), Matthew 10:32, Luke 12:8; ὀμνύναι ἐν (= cl. acc, so James 5:12), Matthew 5:34, al.; also at the rate of, amounting to, Mark 4:8 (WH; vv. ll, εἱς , ἓν ), Acts 7:14 (LXX).
IV. Of time,
(a) in or drng a period: ἐν τ . ἡμέρᾳ (νυκτί ), John 11:9, al.; ἐν σαββάτῳ , Matthew 12:2, al.: ἐν τῷ μεταξύ , meanwhile, John 4:31;
(b) at the time of an event: ἐν τ . παρουσίᾳ , 1 Corinthians 15:23; ἐν τ . ἀναστάσει , Matthew 22:28;
(c) c. art. inf.,
(α ) pre. (so sometimes in cl., but not as in NT = ἕως ; v. M, Pr., 214) while: Matthew 13:4, k 6:48, Galatians 4:18, al.;
(β ) aor., when after: Luke 9:36, al.;
(d) within (cl.): Matthew 27:40.
V. In composition:
(a) with adjectives, it signifies usually the possession of a quality, as ἐνάλιος , ἔνδοξος ;
(b) with verbs, continuance in (seq. ἐν ) or motion into (seq. εἱς ), as ἐμμένω ἐμβαίνω .
(ii) Assimilation: ἐν becomes μ - before β , μ , π , φ , ψ ; ἐγ - before γ , κ , ξ , χ ; ἐλ - before λ . But in the older MSS of NT, followed by modern editions, assimilation is sometimes neglected, as in ἐνγράφω , ἐνκαινίζω , etc.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
It is impossible in our limits to deal exhaustively with the extended uses in late Greek of this ";maid-of-all-work"; among the prepositions. Most of these uses, so far as they touch upon points of interpretation in the NT, are referred to in Moulton’s Prolegomena (see Index s.v.), and the evidence there adduced from the Κοινή may be supplemented from the Dissertations by Kuhring and Rossberg (for full titles see ";Abbreviations";). As however these Dissertations are not readily accessible, it may be well with their aid to illustrate the developments of ἐν here, as far as our space permits.
We may begin with its encroachment in Hellenistic upon the use of the simple cases. Thus P Par 63xiii. 3 (B.C. 165) ἐνεσχημένους ἔν τισιν ἀγνοήμασιν may be compared with the Pauline Galatians 5:1 μὴ πάλιν ζυγῷ δουλείας ἐνέχεσθε, and in P Oxy III. 488.17 (ii/iii A.D.) παρέγραψεν. . πλέον τῆς ὑποστάσεώς μου ἐν ὅλῃ ἀρούρῃ μιᾷ καὶ πρὸς κατ᾽ ἔτος, ";registered more than my actual substance by one whole aroura and more each year,"; ἐν is added without materially altering the sense. For this ";usurping"; ἐν Kuhring (p. 12) also quotes P Oxy III. 487.17 (A.D. 156) τὰ ἐκκ (l. ἐκ) τῆς χρίας ἐν ἐμὺ ὀφλήματα ἀποδοῦναι, ";officia mea efficere."; In OGIS 56.7 (B.C. 237) ἐν τῶι ἐν Κανώπωι ἱερῶι, the prepositional phrase represents subj. gen., and in P Petr II. 2 (3).1 (B.C. 260) (= ib. III. 28 (c).1) εἰ ἔρρωσαι καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἄ ]λλοις ἀλύπως ἀπαλλάσσεις, it takes the place of the acc. of respect, if the restoration is to be trusted. On ἐν used in the LXX instead of an acc. after αἱρετίζω, εὐδοκῶ, etc., see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 47.
The question to the oracle P Fay 137.8 (i/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 69) χρημάτισόν μοι, ἦ μείνωι ἐν Βακχιάδι; ";Answer me, Shall I remain in Bacchias?"; may serve to illustrate the ordinary local use of ἐν, within the limits of some space, while the closely related idea of proximity is seen in P Tebt I. 60.88 (B.C. 118) παραδεί (σων) τῶν ἐν περιμέτρῳ τῆς κώ (μης). Interesting confirmation of the RV rendering of Luke 2:49 is afforded by P Oxy III. 523.8 (ii/A.D.) where a certain Antonius invites a friend to dine with him ἐν τοῖς Κλαυδ (ίου) Σαραπίω (νος), ";in the house of Claudius Serapion"; : cf. Rev Lxxxviii. 1 (iii/B.C.) ἐν τοῖς Ἀπολλωνίου τοῦ διοικητοῦ, P Tebt I. 12.3 (B.C. 118) ἐν τοῖς Ἀμεννέως, ";in A.’s office,";and ib. 27.27 (B.C. 113) ἐν τῶι Ὥρ ̣[ου ] βασιλικοῦ γραμματέως.
For ἐν denoting condition, state, we may cite Polycrates’ letter to his father P Petr II. 11 (1).8 (iii/B.C.) γράφε. . ἵνα εἰδῶμεν ἐν οἷς εἶ, and such passages as P Par 63.176 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 34) ἕτερός τις ἐμ βαρυ [τέ ]ραι κείμενος ἐξουσίαι, ";any other persons in high office,"; P Tebt I. 33.4 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 30) ἐν μίζονι ἀξιώματι κα [ὶ ] τιμῆι κείμενος, of a Roman senator, ib. 5.37 (B.C. 118) τὴν ἐν ἀφέσει γῆν, .165 τὴν ἐν ἀρετῆι κειμένην βα (σιλικὴν) γῆν. See also P Petr II. 39(g).16 ἐὰν ἐν δυνατῶι ᾖι. The preposition is used with the verb ἀνδραγαθέω to denote perseverance in a certain course of action in BGU IV. 1205.14 (B.C. 28) ἀνδραγάθι (= -ει) ἐν τῆι ἀριθμήσ [ι ] καὶ ἐ ̣ν ̣ [τ ]ῆι εἰσαγωγῆι, and similarly ib. 1206.13.
P Tebt I. 58.41 (B.C. 111) shows ἐν = ";in the number of";—ἐν οἷς εἰσιν οἱ διὰ τοῦ νομοῦ κω (μο)γρ (αμματεῖς) : cf. P Par 63.99 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 26) ἐν τοῖς ";συμπᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις "; καταριθμεῖσθαι κτλ., ";in the expression ‘all men’ are included,"; etc., and P Petr II. 4 (6).16 (B.C. 255–4) δινὸν γάρ ἐστιν ἐν ὄχλωι ἀτιμάζεσθαι, where the meaning is ";in the presence of"; — ";for it is a dreadful thing to be insulted before a crowd."; From this it is a natural transition to a usage which helps with several NT passages. Thus in P Tebt I. 5.227 (B.C. 118) we have τὰς δὲ πράζεις τῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς, where the editors translate ";but the executions in cases which come before the collectors,"; and in support of this rendering compare ib. 27.99 (B.C. 113) τὸ ἐν αὐτῶι ὀφειλόμενον πρὸς τὴν ἐπιγραφήν, ";the amount owing to the epigraphe in his department,"; ib. 72.832 (B.C. 114–3) ἃς (sc. ἀρούρας) ἐν Μαρρεῖ τοπογραμματεῖ, ib. 120.129 (B.C. 97 or 64) : cf. 1 Corinthians 6:2; 1 Corinthians 14:11, perhaps Judges 1:1. All are cases where παρά c. dat. might equally have been expected in a classical writer : cf. the variant reading in Matthew 21:25. A good parallel to Acts 17:31 is afforded by Syll 850.8 (B.C. 173–2) κριθέντω ἐν ἄνδροις τρίοις οὓς συνείλοντο.
Another abnormal use of ἐν = ";amounting to,"; as in Acts 7:14 (LXX), is seen in BGU III. 970.14 (ii/A.D.) προσηνένκαμεν αὐτῷ προοῖκα ἐν δραχμαῖς ἐννακοσίαις —a passage which also resembles, in its use with a numeral, the difficult ἐν (bis) of Mark 4:8 (WH). [Cannot the εἰς there be ";at all rates up to"; thirty-fold?] Cf. also BGU IV. 1050.8 (marriage-contract—time of Augustus) ἱμάτια γυναικεῖα ἐν ἀργυ (ρίου) δραχμαῖς ἑκατόν, P Oxy IV. 724.7 (A.D. 155) ἐξ ὧν ἔσχες τὴν πρώτην δόσιν ἐν δραχμαῖς τεσσαράκοντα, ib. I. 56.8 (A.D. 211) δανειζομένη. . . ἀργύριον ἔντοκον ἐν δραχμαῖς ἑξακισχειλίαις, and P Grenf II. 77.6 (iii/iv A.D.) (= Selections, p. 120) το ]ὺς μισθοὺς. . ὄντας ἐν δραχμαῖς τριακοσίαις τεσσαράκοντα. Similar are P Oxy IV. 708.4 (A.D. 188) γόμου. . ἐν (πυροῦ)(ἀρτάβαις) ᾽Β, BGU I. 72.11 (A.D. 191) ἐξέκοψαν πλεῖστον τόπον ἐν ἀρούραις πέντε : with which may be compared Ephesians 2:15 τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν, ";consisting in."; In P Lond 921.9 (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 134) γεγο ̣νέναι ἐν ̣ ἀμπέλῳ = ";to be planted with vines.";
A predicative use of ἐν is seen in P Hib I. 42.10 (B.C. 262) δώσομεν Λευκίωι ἐν ὀφειλήματι, ";as a debt,"; P Petr I. 12.14 (cf. II. p. 22) ὅσα δὲ Ἀξιοθέα προσενήνεγκται ἐμ φερνῆι, ";as dowry,"; and P Tebt I. 120.125 (B.C. 97 or 64) ὧν ἔχωι ἐν θέματι, ";as a pledge.";
The instrumental use of ἐν, as in Luke 22:49, 1 Corinthians 4:21, is now rescued from the list of Hebraisms (cf. Deissmann BS, p. 120) by ";its use in an original Greek document, free from all suspicion of Semitic influence,"; P Tebt I. 16.14 (B.C. 114) ἐν μαχαίρηι, ";armed with a sword"; : see the editors’ note where the following additional passages are cited, ib. 41.5 (c. B.C. 119) Μαρρείους. . σὺν ἄλλοις πλείοσι ἐν μαχαίραις παρ [α ]γινομένου, 45.17 (B.C.113), 46.15 (B.C. 113), P Par 11.4 (B.C. 157) : add P Tebt I. 48.19 (c. B.C. 113) Λύκος σὺν ἄλλοις ἐν ὅπλοις. See also Proleg. pp. 11 f., 61, and the Preface to the 3rd Edit. p. xvii. It should however be noted that Kuhring (p. 43 f.) thinks that ἐν in the above passages is sufficiently explained as ἐν of accompanying circumstances. A good ex. of causal ἐν is afforded by P Par 28.13 (c. B.C. 160) where the Twins describe themselves as διαλυόμεναι ἐν τῷ λιμῷ as compared with ib. 27.14 διαλυόμεναι τῷ λιμῷ, and ib. 26.9 ὑπὸ τῆς λιμοῦ διαλυόμεναι in similar documents. On the other hand, Syll 891.11 (ii/A.D.) quoting the LXX Deuteronomy 28:22 πατάξαι σε Κύριος ἐν ἀπορίᾳ drops the preposition, and cf. C. and B. ii. p. 609, No. 500 (i/B.C.) where φεισάμενον ἐν ἐπιδώσεσιν is followed by μὴ φεισάμενον ἀναλώμασιν. In Exp T xxviii. p. 322 f. Prof. H. A. A. Kennedy has collected a number of instances of this use of ἐν = ";because of,"; ";on account of,"; from the LXX and from the Pauline Epp., e. g. Psa. 30꞉11 [MT Psalms 31:11] ἠσθένησεν ἐν πτωχίᾳ ἡ ἰσχύς μου, ";my strength failed because of my wretchedness,"; Romans 1:24 ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῶν καρδιῶν, ";because of the lusts of their hearts,"; and 1 Corinthians 7:14 ἡγίασται γὰρ ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ἄπιστος ἐν τῇ γυναικί, ";for the unbelieving husband is sanctified on account of his wife."; See also Schmid Atticismus, iv. p. 449.
We have seen already (s.v. εἰς) that εἰς and ἐν can be transposed in late Greek, as when ἐν follows a verb of motionin P Par 10.3 (B.C. 145) ἀνακεχώρηκεν ἐν Ἀλεξανδρείᾳ : cf. the late gloss at John 5:4, and for LXX instances see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 25. As paving the way for this usage we may note such a passage as OGIS 90.13 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) τοὺς ἐν ταῖς φυλακαῖς ἀπηγμένους. . . ἀπέλυσε τῶν ἐνκεκλ (η)μένων, where the motion implied by the verb is accompanied by the thought of the rest following on that motion—the men were ";led off"; to prison and remained there until freed from the charges of which they had been convicted. See further Hatzidakis Einl. p. 210 f., and note that Thumb (Neue Jahrb. 1906, p. 253) commenting on Heitmüller’s proof (Im Namen Jesu, Göttingen 1903) that εἰς (τὸ) ὄνομα belonged, in various nuances, to Greek mercantile phraseology, while ἐν (τῷ) ὀνόματι was almost exclusively Jewish, though not foreign to the genius of Greek, observes that the promiscuity of εἰς and ἐν in Hellenistic explains the survival of the more literary archaizing ἐν by the side of the common εἰς.
The temporal use of ἐν to denote the period within which anything is done is naturally very common, e. g. Syll 177.15 (B.C. 303) ἐ [ν ] ἔτεσιν τρίσιν, P Eleph 20.27 (iii/B.C.) ἐν τοῖς καθήκουσιν χρόνοις, P Tebt II. 386.21 (B.C. 12) ἐκτίσω ἐν ἡμέραις τριάκοντα, P Oxy II. 275.40 (A.D. 66) ἕκαστα ποιήσω ἐν τῷ ἐνιαυτῷ ἑνί, and P Tebt II. 591 (ii/iii A.D.) ἐγὼ γὰρ ἠ (l. εἰ) μὴ συνκομίσω τὸν χόρτον ἐν τρίσι ἡμέραις (cf. John 2:21) οὐ δύναμε (l. -μαι) αὐτὰ καταλῖψαι.
For ἐν in adverbial phrases, see P Eleph 10.7 (B.C. 223–2) τῶν λοιπῶν ἐν ἑτοίμωι ὄντων, P Hib I. 47.35 (B.C. 256) ἀπόστειλον. . ἐν τάχει (cf. Luke 18:8, Romans 16:20, Revelation 1:1; Revelation 22:6).
The characteristically Lukan usage of ἐν τῷ followed by an inf. can no longer be ranked as a pure Hebraism, but belongs rather to the category of ";possible but unidiomatic"; Greek (see Proleg. pp. 14, 215, 249), though it should be noted that as yet no parallel has been found for it with the sense ";during"; : see P Par 63.95 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 26) τίς γὰρ οὕτως ἐστὶν ἀνάλητος (?) ἐν τῶι λογίζεσθαι; ";for who is so utterly wanting in reason ?"; and P Oxy IV. 743.35 (B.C. 2) where it is = διὰ τό : ἐν τῷ δέ με περισπᾶσθαι οὐκ ἠδυνάσθην συντυχεῖν Ἀπολλω (νίῳ), ";owing to my worries I was unable to meet A."; (Edd.).
In his monograph Die neutestamentliche Formel ";in Christo Jesu"; (Marburg, 1892) Deissmann has conclusively shown the originality of Paul’s use, though the idea of the mystic indwelling may rightly be traced to the Lord’s own teaching, see SH on Romans 6:11. The Psenosiris letter, P Grenf II. 73.3 (late iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 117), is addressed Ἀπόλλωνι. . ἀγαπητῷ ἀδελφῷ ἐν Κ (υρί)ῳ, and concludes with the prayer .21 f. ἐρρῶσθαί σε εὔχομαι ἐν Κ (υρί)ῳ Θ (ε)ῷ.
We may conclude with a few miscellaneous examples—P Petr I. 22 (1).4 τοῦ ἐν ταῖς προσόδοις, ";who controls the revenues"; (Ed.), P Lille I. 7.77 (iii/B.C.) ἃ ἐδεδώκειν ἐν φυ (λακῆι), ";had given me to keep,"; P Hib I. 113.15 (c. B.C. 260) ἐν Τοτοῆι Πάσιτος λογευτῆι ὧι μηθὲν ὑπάρχει, ";owed by Totoës son of Pasis, tax-collector, who has no property"; (Edd.), P Par 66.71 (iii/B.C.) λ [οι ]πά, ἀφ᾽ ὧν ἐν τοῖς γεωργο [ῖ ]ς κτλ., a curious usage which Smyly (P Petr III. p. 344) understands as = ";of this remainder (so much) is due from the cultivators,"; P Lond 1171.45 (B.C. 8) (= III. p. 179) ἀνθ᾽ ὧν τῶν ἐπάνωι ἐν ὑπερδαπανήμασι, ";under the head of deficits,"; and from the inscrr. Syll 178.11 (iv/B.C.) καθάπερ καὶ Φίλιππος ἔδωκεν ἐμ πατρικοῖς καὶ αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐκγόνοις, where Dittenberger notes, ";eodem iure ac si a patre hereditatem accepisset.";
In MGr ἐν has been supplanted by εἰς, though it survives as a prefix in such disguised forms as μπίνω, μπάζω, ντρέπομαι.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Eve of Ascension