the Fifth Sunday of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #18 - ἀγαθός
- of good constitution or nature
- useful, salutary
- good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy
- excellent, distinguished
- upright, honourable
[ᾰγ], ή, όν, Lacon. ἀγασός Ar. Lys. 1301, Cypr. ἀζαθός GDI 57: —
I of persons,
1. well-born, gentle, opp. κακός, δειλός, οἷά τε τοῖς ἀγαθοῖσι παραδρώωσι χέρηες Od. 15.324, cf. Il. 1.275; ἀφνειός τ' ἀ. τε Il. 13.664, cf. Od. 18.276; πατρὸς δ' εἴμ' ἀγαθοῖο, θεὰ δέ με γείνατο μήτηρ Il. 21.109, cf. Od. 4.611; κακὸς ἐξ ἀ. Thgn. 190, cf. 57 sq.; πραῢς ἀστοῖς, οὐ φθονέων ἀγαθοῖς Pi. P. 3.71, cf. 2.96, 4.285; τίς ἂν εὔπατρις ὧδε βλάστοι; οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀ. κτλ. S. El. 1082; οἵ τ' ἀ. πρὸς τῶν ἀγενῶν κατανικῶνται Id. Fr. 84; τοὺς εὐγενεῖς γὰρ κἀγαθοὺς.. φιλεῖ Ἄρης ἐναίρειν ib. 649, cf. E. Alc. 600, al.: ἀγαθοὶ καὶ ἐξ ἀγαθῶν Pl. Phdr. 274a: — in political sense, aristocrats, esp. in the phrase καλοὶ κἀγαθοί (v. sub καλοκἀγαθός).
2. brave, valiant, since courage was attributed to Chiefs and Nobles, Il. 1.131, al.; τῷ κ' ἀγαθὸς μὲν ἔπεφν', ἀγαθὸν δέ κεν ἐξενάριξεν 21.280; cf. Hdt. 5.109, etc.
3. good, capable, in reference to ability, ἀ. βασιλεύς Il. 3.179; ἰητήρ 2.732; θεράπων 16.165, 17.388; πύκτης Xenoph. 2.15; ἰητρός Hp. Prog. 1; προβατογνώμων A. Ag. 795; ἄρχοντες Democr. 266: freq. with qualifying words, ἀ. ἐν ὑσμίνῃ Il. 13.314; βοὴν ἀ. 2.408, 563, al.; πύξ Od. 11.300; βίην Il. 6.478; γνώμην S. OT 687; πᾶσαν ἀρετήν Pl. Lg. 899b, cf. Alc. 1.124e; τέχνην Id. Prt. 323b; τὰ πολέμια, τὰ πολιτικά, Hdt. 9.122, Pl. Grg. 516b, etc.: more rarely c. dat., ἀ. πολέμῳ X. Oec. 4.15: with Preps., ἄνδρες ἀ. περὶ τὸ πλῆθος Lys. 13.2; εἴς τι Pl. Alc. 1.125a; πρός τι Id. R. 407e: c. inf., ἀ. μάχεσθαι Hdt. 1.136; ἱππεύεσθαι 1.79; ἀ. ἱστάναι good at weighing, Pl. Prt. 356b.
4. good, in moral sense, first in Thgn. 438, cf. Heraclit. 104, S. El. 1082, X. Mem. 1.7.1, Pl. Ap. 41d, etc.; ψυχῆς ἀγαθῆς πατρὶς ὁ ξύμπας κόσμος Democr. 247: freq. with other Adjs., ὁ πιστὸς κἀ. S. Tr. 541; δικαίων κἀ. ib. 1050: — ironical, τὸν ἀ. Κρέοντα Id. Ant. 31.
5. ὦ ἀγαθέ, my good friend, as a term of gentle remonstrance, Pl. Prt. 311a, etc.
6. ἀ. δαίμων, v. sub δαίμων; ἀ. τύχη, v. sub τύχη; ἀ. θεός = Lat. bona dea, Plu. Caes. 9, Cic. 19.
II of things,
1 good, serviceable, Ἰθάκη.. ἀ. κουροτρόφος Od. 9.27, etc.; ἀ. τοῖς τοκεῦσι, τῇ πόλει X. Cyn. 13.17: c. gen., εἴ τι οἶδα πυρετοῦ ἀ. good for it, Id. Mem. 3.8.3; ἑλκῶν Thphr. HP 9.11.1.
2. of outward circumstances, αἰδὼς οὐκ ἀ. κεχρημένῳ ἀνδρὶ παρεῖναι Od. 17.347; εἰπεῖν εἰς ἀγαθόν to good purpose, Il. 9.102; ὁ δὲ πείσεται εἰς ἀ. περ for his own good end, 11.789; οὐκ ἀγαθὸν πολυκοιρανίη 2.204: — ἀγαθόν [ἐστι ], c. inf., it is good to do so and so[*] Il. 7.282, 24.130, Od. 3.196, etc.
3. morally good, πρῆξις Democr. 177; ἔργα Emp. 112.2, cf. Romans 2:7, etc.
4. ἀγαθόν, τό, good, blessing, benefit, of persons or things, ὦ μέγα ἀ. σὺ τοῖς φίλοις X. Cyr. 5.3.20; φίλον, ὃ μέγιστον ἀ. εἶναί φασι Id. Mem. 2.4.2, cf. Ar. Ra. 74, etc; as term of endearment for a baby, blessing!, treasure!, Men. Sam. 28: — ἀγαθόν τινα δεδρακέναι, πεποιηκέναι confer a benefit on.., Th. 3.68, Lys. 13.92; ἐπ' ἀγαθῷ τινος for one's good, Th. 5.27, X. Cyr. 7.4.3; ἐπ' ἀ. τοῖς πολίταις Ar. Ra. 1487; οὐκ ἐπ' ἀ. for no good end, Th. 1.131; ἐπ' οὐδενὶ ἀ. τῆς Ἑλλάδος X. HG 5.2.35: — in pl., ἡ ἐπ' ἀγαθοῖς γεναμένη (sic) κατασπορά PFlor. 21.10 (iii A.D.): — τὸ ἀ. or τἀ., the good, Epich. 171.5, cf. Pl. R. 506b, 508e, Arist. Metaph. 1091a31, etc.: — in pl., ἀγαθά, τά, goods of fortune, treasures, wealth, Hdt. 2.172, Lys. 13.91, X. Mem. 1.2.63, etc.; ἀγαθὰ πράττειν fare well, Ar. Av. 1706; also, good things, dainties, Thgn. 1000, Ar. Ach. 873, etc.: good qualities, τοῖς ἀ., οἷς ἔχομεν ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ Isoc. 8.32, cf. Democr. 37; good points, of a horse, εἰ τἄλλα πάντα ἀ. ἔχοι, κακόπους δ' εἴη X. Eq. 1.2.
III Comp. and Sup. are usu. supplied from other stems, viz. Comp. ἀμείνων, ἀρείων βελτίων, κρείσσων (κάρρων), λωΐων (λὥων), βέλτερος, λωΐτερος, φέρτερος: — Sup. ἄριστος, βέλτιστος, κράτιστος, λώϊστος (λῷστος), βέλτατος, κάρτιστος, φέρτατος, φέριστος: — later, reg. Comp. ἀγαθώτερος LXX Jd. 11.25, LXX Jd. 15.2, D.S. 8 Fr. 12, Plot. 5.5.9, Diod.Rh. p.53.9H.: Sup. ἀγαθώτατος D.S. 16.85, Hld. 5.15, etc. (-ότατος POxy. 1757.26 (ii A.D.)). Adv. usually εὖ, q.v.: ἀγαθῶς Hp. Off. 9, Arist. Rh. 1388b6, LXX 1 Kings 20:7. (Etym. dub. (ὅτι ἄγει ἡμᾶς ἐπὶ τὸν ὀρθὸν βίον Stoic. 3.49); perh. cognate with ἄγαμαι, hence admirable.)
ἀγαθός, (ή, (akin to ἄγαμαι to wonder at, think highly of, ἀγαστός admirable, as explained by Plato, Crat., p. 412 c. (others besides; cf. Donaldson, New Crat. § 323)), in general denotes"perfectus, ... qui habet in se ac facit omnia quae habere et facere debet pro notione nominis, officio ac lege" (Irmisch ad Herodian, 1, 4, p. 134), excelling in any respect, distinguished, good. It can be predicated of persons, things, conditions, qualities and affections of the soul, deeds, times and seasons. To this general significance can be traced back all those senses which the word gathers from the connection in which it stands;
1. of a good constitution or nature: γῆ, Luke 8:8; δένδρον, Matthew 7:18, in sense equivalent to 'fertile soil,' 'a fruitful tree,' (Xenophon, oec. 16, 7 γῆ ἀγαθή, ... γῆ κακῇ, an. 2, 4, 22 χώρας πολλῆς καί ἀγαθῆς οὔσης). In Luke 8:15 ἀγαθή καρδία corresponds to the figurative expression good ground, and denotes a soul inclined to goodness, and accordingly eager to learn saving truth and ready to bear the fruits (καρπούς ἀγαθούς, James 3:17) of a Christian life.
2. useful, salutary: δόσις ἀγαθή (joined to δώρημα τέλειον) a gift which is truly a gift, salutary, James 1:17; δόματα ἀγαθά, Matthew 7:11; ἐντολή ἀγαθός a commandment profitable to those who keep it, Romans 7:12, according to a Greek scholium equivalent to εἰς τό συμφέρον ἐισηγουμένη, hence, the question in Romans 7:13: τό οὖν ἀγαθόν ἐμοί γέγονε θάνατος; ἀγαθός μερίς the 'good part,' which insures salvation to him who chooses it, Luke 10:42; ἔργον ἀγαθόν (differently in Romans 2:7, etc.) the saving work of God, i. e. substantially, the Christian life, due to divine efficiency, Philippians 1:6 (cf. the commentaries at the passage); εἰς ἀγαθόν for good, to advantage, Romans 8:28 (Sir. 7:13; πάντα τοῖς ἐυσεβέσι εἰς ἀγαθά ... τοῖς ἁμαρτωλοῖς εἰς κακά, Sir. 39:27; τό κακόν ... γίγνεται εἰς ἀγαθόν, Theognis 162); good for, suited to something: πρός οἰκοδομήν, Ephesians 4:29 (cf. Winers Grammar, 363 (340)) (Xenophon, mem. 4, 6, 10).
3. of the feeling awakened by what is good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy: ἡμέραι ἀγαθάς 1 Peter 3:10 (Psalm 33:13
4. excellent, distinguished: so τί ἀγαθόν, John 1:46 (John 1:47).
5. upright, honorable: Matthew 12:34; Matthew 19:16; Luke 6:45; Acts 11:24; 1 Peter 3:11, etc.; πονηροί καί ἀγαθοί, Matthew 5:45; Matthew 22:10; ἀγαθός καί δίκαιος, Luke 23:50; καρδία ἀγαθή καί καλή, Luke 8:15 (see καλός, b.); fulfilling the duty or service demanded, δοῦλε ἀγαθέ καί πιστέ, Matthew 25:21, 23; upright, free from guile, particularly from a desire to corrupt the people, John 7:12; preeminently of God, as consummately and essentially good, Matthew 19:17 (Mark 10:18; Luke 18:19); ἀγαθός θησαυρός in Matthew 12:35; Luke 6:45 denotes the soul considered as the repository of pure thoughts which are brought forth in speech; πίστις ἀγαθός the fidelity due from a servant to his master, Titus 2:10 (WH marginal reading omits); on ἀγαθόν ἔργον, ἀγαθά ἔργα, see ἔργον. In a narrower sense, benevolent, kind, generous: Matthew 20:15; 1 Peter 2:18; μνεία, 1 Thessalonians 3:6 (cf. 2 Macc. 7:20); beneficent (Xenophon, Cyril 3, 3, 4; טוב, Jeremiah 33:11; Psalm 34:9; Cicero, nat. deor. 2, 25, 64 "optimus i. e.beneficentissimus), Romans 5:7, where the meaning is, Hardly for an innocent man does one encounter death; for if he even dares hazard his life for another, he does so for a benefactor (one from whom he has received favors); cf. Winer's Grammar, 117 (111); (Gifford in the Speaker's Commentary, p. 123). The neuter used substantively denotes:
1. a good thing, convenience, advantage, and in partic.
a. in the plural, external goods, riches: Luke 1:53; Luke 12:18f. (Sir. 14:4; Wis. 7:11); τά ἀγαθά σου comforts and delights which thy wealth procured for thee in abundance, Luke 16:25 (opposed to κακά, as in Sir. 11:14); outward and inward good things, Galatians 6:6, cf. Wieseler at the passage.
b. the benefits of the Messianic kingdom: Romans 10:15; τά μέλλοντα ἀγαθῶν, Hebrews 9:11; Hebrews 10:1.
2. what is upright, honorable, and acceptable to God: Romans 12:2; ἐργάζεσθαι τό ἀγαθόν Romans 2:10; Ephesians 4:28; πράσσειν, Romans 9:11; (2 Corinthians 5:10); διώκειν, 1 Thessalonians 5:15; μιμεῖσθαι, 3 John 1:11; κολλᾶσθαι τῷ ἀγαθῷ Romans 12:9; τί με ἐρωτᾷς περί τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, Matthew 19:17 G L T Tr WH, where the word expresses the general idea of right. Specifically, what is salutary, suited to the course of human affairs: in the phrase διάκονος εἰς τό ἀγαθόν Romans 13:4; of rendering service, Galatians 6:10; Romans 12:21; τό ἀγαθόν σου the favor thou conferrest, Philemon 1:14. ("It is to be regarded as a peculiarity in the usage of the Sept. that טוב good is predominantly (?) rendered by καλός.... The translator of Genesis uses ἀγαθός only in the neuter, good, goods, and this has been to a degree the model for the other translators. ... In the Greek O. T., where οἱ δίκαιοι is the technical designation of the pious, οἱ ἀγαθοί or ὁ ἀγαθός does not occur in so general a sense. The ἀνήρ ἀγαθός is peculiar only to the Proverbs (Proverbs 13:22, 24; Proverbs 15:3); cf. besides the solitary instance in 1 Kings 2:32. Thus, even in the usage of the O. T. we are reminded of Christ's words, Mark 10:18, οὐδείς ἀγαθός εἰ μή εἷς ὁ Θεός. In the O. T. the term 'righteous' makes reference rather to a covenant and to one's relation to a positive standard; ἀγαθός would express the absolute idea of moral goodness" (Zezschwitz, Profangraec. u. Biblical Sprachgeist, Leipz. 1859, p. 60). Cf. Tittm., p. 19. On the comparison of ἀγαθός see B. 27 (24).)
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ἀγαθός , -ή , -όν ,
[in LXX chiefly for H2869;]
in general, good, in physical and in moral sense, used of persons, things, acts, conditions, etc., applied to that which is regarded as "perfect in its kind, so as to produce pleasure and satisfaction, ... that which, in itself good, is also at once for the good and the advantage of him who comes in contact with it" (Cremer, 3): γῆ , Luke 8:8; δένδρον , Matthew 7:18; καρδία , Luke 8:15; δόσίς , James 1:17; μερίς , Luke 10:42; ἔργον (freq. in P1.), Philippians 1:6; ἐλπίς , 2 Thessalonians 2:16; θησαυρός , Matthew 12:35; μνεία , 1 Thessalonians 3:6 (cf. 2 Maccabees 7:20); as subst., τό ἀ ., that which is morally good, beneficial, acceptable to God, Romans 12:2; έργάζεσθαι τό ἀ ., Romans 2:10, Ephesians 4:28; πράσσειν , Romans 9:11, 2 Corinthians 5:10; διώκειν , 1 Thessalonians 5:13; μιμεῖσθαι , 3 John 1:11; κολλᾶσθαι τῷ ἀ ., Romans 12:9; ἐρωτᾶν περί τοῦ ἀ ., Matthew 19:17; διάκονος είς τό ἀ ., Romans 13:4; τό ἀ . σου , thy favour, benefit, Philemon 1:14; pl., τὰ ἀ ., of goods, possessions, Luke 12:18; of spiritual benefits, Romans 10:15, Hebrews 9:11 Hebrews 10:1. ἀ . is opp. to πονηρός , Matthew 5:45 Matthew 20:15; κακός , Romans 7:19; φαῦλος , Romans 9:11, 2 Corinthians 5:10 (cf. MM, VGT, s.v.).
SYN.: καλός G2570, δίκαιος G1342. κ . properly refers to goodliness as manifested in form: ἀ . to inner excellence (cf. the cl. καλὸς G2570 κἀγαθὸς and ἐν καρδίᾳ G2588 κ . καί ἀ ., Luke 8:15). In Romans 5:7, where it is contrasted with δ ., ἀ . implies a kindliness and attractiveness not necessarily possessed by the δίκαιος , who merely measures up to a high standard of rectitude (cf. ἀγαθωσύνη G19).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The comparative βελτίων (in the LXX about 20 times for the commoner κρείσσων) occurs in the fragmentary P Petr III. 42 H (8) f.15 (middle of iii/B.C.) ( = Witkowski Epp..2, p. 16). In a votive inscription discovered at Cos (Paton and Hicks, 92), Nero is described as ἀγαθὸς θεός (cf. Deissmann LAE, p. 349). For ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, see 57 in the same collection ( = CIG 2510)—Τύχᾳ Ἀγαθᾷ καὶ Ἀγαθῷ Δαίμονι καὶ τῶ (ι) δάμω (ι), etc., etc. One other phrase is worth quoting : P Oxy II. 298.14 (i/A.D.) ἐὰν ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ παραγένῃ, ";if you arrive happily,"; ib. III. 531.6 (ii/A.D.) ἕως ἐπ᾽ ἀγαθῷ πρὸς σὲ παραγένομαι, BGU III. 835.19 f. (beginning of iii/A.D.) εἰς τὴν ἐπ᾽ [ἀ ]γαθοῖς γεναμένης κατασποράν, P Flor I. 21.10 (A.D. 239) al. The neuter pl., as in Luke 12:19, may be illustrated by P Ryl I. 28.182 (iv/A.D.) ποὺς δεξιὸς ἐὰν ἅλληται, δεσπότης ἔσται πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν καὶ κτημάτων, ";if the right foot quiver, the man will be master of many blessings and possessions"; (Ed.).
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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