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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #3056 - λόγος
- of speech
- a word, uttered by a living voice, embodies a conception or idea
- what someone has said
- a word
- the sayings of God
- decree, mandate or order
- of the moral precepts given by God
- Old Testament prophecy given by the prophets
- what is declared, a thought, declaration, aphorism, a weighty saying, a dictum, a maxim
- the act of speaking, speech
- the faculty of speech, skill and practice in speaking
- a kind or style of speaking
- a continuous speaking discourse - instruction
- doctrine, teaching
- anything reported in speech; a narration, narrative
- matter under discussion, thing spoken of, affair, a matter in dispute, case, suit at law
- the thing spoken of or talked about; event, deed
- its use as respect to the MIND alone
- reason, the mental faculty of thinking, meditating, reasoning, calculating
- account, i.e. regard, consideration
- account, i.e. reckoning, score
- account, i.e. answer or explanation in reference to judgment
- relation, i.e. with whom as judge we stand in relation
- reason would
- reason, cause, ground
- In John, denotes the essential Word of God, Jesus Christ, the personal wisdom and power in union with God, his minister in creation and government of the universe, the cause of all the world's life both physical and ethical, which for the procurement of man's salvation put on human nature in the person of Jesus the Messiah, the second person in the Godhead, and shone forth conspicuously from His words and deeds.
verbal noun of λέγω
(B), with senses corresponding to λέγω (B) II and III (on the various senses of the word v. Theo Sm. pp.72,73 H., An.Ox. 4.327): common in all periods in Prose and Verse, exc. Epic, in which it is found in signf. derived from λέγω (B) 111, cf.infr. VI. 1 a:
I computation, reckoning (cf. λέγω (B) II).
1 account of money handled, σανίδες εἰς ἃς τὸν λ. ἀναγράφομεν IG 12.374.191; ἐδίδοσαν τὸν λ. ib.232.2; λ. δώσεις τῶν μετεχείρισας χρημάτων Hdt. 3.142, cf. 143; οὔτε χρήματα διαχειρίσας τῆς πόλεως δίδωμι λ. αὐτῶν οὔτε ἀρχὴν ἄρξας οὐδεμίαν εὐθύνας ὑπέχω νῦν αὐτῆς Lys. 24.26; λ. ἀπενεγκεῖν Arist. Ath. 54.1; ἐν ταῖς εὐθύναις τοῦ τοιούτου λ. ὑπεχέτω Pl. Lg. 774b; τὸν τῶν χρημάτων λ. παρὰ τούτων λαμβάνειν D. 8.47; ἀδικήματα εἰς ἀργυρίου λ. ἀνήκοντα Din. 1.60; συνᾶραι λόγον μετά τινος settle accounts with, Matthew 18:23, etc.; δεύτεροι λ. a second audit, Cod.Just. 220.127.116.11; ὁ τραπεζιτικὸς λ. banking account, Theo Sm.p.73 H.: metaph., οὐκ ἂν πριαίμην οὐδενὸς λ. βροτόν S. Aj. 477. public accounts, i. e. branch of treasury, ἴδιος λ., in Egypt, OGI 188.2, 189.3, 669.38; also as title of treasurer, ib.408.4, Str. 17.1.12; ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν λ. IPE 2.29 A (Panticapaeum); δημόσιος λ., = Lat. fiscus, OGI 669.21 (Egypt, i A.D.), etc. (but later, = aerarium, Cod.Just. 1.5.15); also Καίσαρος λ. OGI 669.30; κυριακὸς λ. ib.18.
2. generally, account, reckoning, μὴ φῦναι τὸν ἅπαντα νικᾷ λ. excels the whole account, i.e. is best of all, S. OC 1225 (lyr.); δόντας λ. τῶν ἐποίησαν accounting for, i.e. paying the penalty for their doings, Hdt. 8.100; λ. αἰτεῖν Pl. Plt. 285e; λ. δοῦναι καὶ δέξασθαι Id. Prt. 336c, al.; λαμβάνειν λ. καὶ ἐλέγχειν Id. Men. 75d; παρασχεῖν τῶν εἰρημένων λ. Id. R. 344d; λ. ἀπαιτεῖν D. 30.15, cf. Arist. EN 1104a3; λ. ὑπέχειν, δοῦναι, D. 19.95; λ. ἐγγράψαι Id. 24.199, al.; λ. ἀποφέρειν τῇ πόλει Aeschin. 3.22, cf. Eu. Luke 16:2, Hebrews 13:17; τὸ παράδοξον τῶν συμβεβηκότων ὑπὸ λόγον ἄγειν Plb. 15.34.2; λ. ἡ ἐπιστήμη, πολλὰ δὲ ὁ λ. the account is manifold, Plot. 6.9.4; ἔχων λόγον τοῦ διὰ τί an account of the cause, Arist. APo. 74b27; ἐς λ. τινός on account of, ἐς χρημάτων λ. Th. 3.46, cf. Plb. 5.89.6, LXX 2 Maccabees 1:14, JRS 18.152 (Jerash); λόγῳ c. gen., by way of, Cod.Just. 3.2.5. al.; κατὰ λόγον τοῦ μεγέθους if we take into account his size, Arist. HA 517b27; πρὸς ὃν ἡμῖν ὁ λ. Hebrews 4:13, cf. D.Chr. 31.123.
3. measure, tale (cf. infr. 11.1), θάλασσα.. μετρέεται ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν λ. ὁκοῖος πρόσθεν Heraclit. 31; ψυχῆς ἐστι λ. ἑαυτὸν αὔξων Id. 115; ἐς τούτου (sc. γήραος) λ. οὐ πολλοί τινες ἀπικνέονται to the point of old age, Hdt. 3.99, cf. 7.9. β; ὁ ξύμπας λ. the full tale, Th. 7.56, cf. Philippians 4:15; κοινῷ λ. νομίσαντα common measure, Pl. Lg. 746e; sum, total of expenditure, IG 42(1).103.151 (Epid., iv B.C.); ὁ τῆς οὐσίας λ., = Lat. patrimonii modus, Cod.Just. 18.104.22.168.
4. esteem, consideration, value put on a person or thing (cf. infr. VI. 2 d), οὗ πλείων λ. ἢ τῶν ἄλλων who is of more worth than all the rest, Heraclit. 39; βροτῶν λ. οὐκ ἔσχεν οὐδέν ' A. Pr. 233; οὐ σμικροῦ λ. S. OC 1163: freq. in Hdt., Μαρδονίου λ. οὐδεὶς γίνεται 8.102; τῶν ἦν ἐλάχιστος ἀπολλυμένων λ. 4.135, cf. E. Fr. 94; περὶ ἐμοῦ οὐδεὶς λ. Ar. Ra. 87; λόγου οὐδενὸς γίνεσθαι πρός τινος to be of no account, repute with.., Hdt. 1.120, cf. 4.138; λόγου ποιήσασθαί τινα make one of account, Id. 1.33; ἐλαχίστου, πλείστου λ. εἶναι, to be highly, lowly esteemed, Id. 1.143, 3.146; but also λόγον τινὸς ποιεῖσθαι, like Lat. rationem habere alicujus, make account of, set a value on, Democr. 187, etc.: usu. in neg. statements, οὐδένα λ. ποιήσασθαί τινος Hdt. 1.4, cf. 13, Plb. 21.14.9, etc.; λ. ἔχειν Hdt. 1.62, 115; λ. ἴσχειν περί τινος Pl. Ti. 87c; λ. ἔχειν περὶ τοὺς ποιητάς Lycurg. 107; λ. ἔχειν τινός D. 18.199, Arist. EN 1102b32, Plu. Phil. 18 (but also, have the reputation of.., v. infr. VI. 2 e); ἐν οὐδενὶ λ. ποιήσασθαί τι Hdt. 3.50; ἐν οὐδενὶ λ. ἀπώλοντο without regard, Id. 9.70; ἐν σμικρῷ λ. εἶναι Pl. R. 550a; ὑμεῖς οὔτ' ἐν λ. οὔτ' ἐν ἀριθμῷ Orac. ap. Sch. Theoc. 14.48; ἐν ἀνδρῶν λ. [εἶναι] to be reckoned, count as a man, Hdt. 3.120; ἐν ἰδιώτεω λόγῳ καὶ ἀτίμου reckoned as.., Eus.Mynd. Fr. 59; σεμνὸς εἰς ἀρετῆς λ. καὶ δόξης D. 19.142.
II relation, correspondence, proportion,
1 generally, ὑπερτερίης λ. relation (of gold to lead), Thgn. 418 = 1164; πρὸς λόγον τοῦ σήματος A. Th. 519; κατὰ λόγον προβαίνοντες τιμῶσι in inverse ratio, Hdt. 1.134, cf. 7.36; κατὰ λ. τῆς ἀποφορῆς Id. 2.109; τἄλλα κατὰ λ. in like fashion, Hp. VM 16, Prog. 17: c. gen., κατὰ λ. τῶν πρόσθεν ib. 24; κατὰ λ. τῶν ἡμερῶν Ar. Nu. 619; κατὰ λ. τῆς δυνάμεως X. Cyr. 8.6.11; ἐλάττω ἢ κατὰ λ. Arist. HA 508a2, cf. PA 671a18; ἐκ ταύτης ἐγένετο ἐκείνη κατὰ λ. Id. Pol. 1257a31; cf. εὔλογος: sts. with ὁ αὐτός added, κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λ. τῷ τείχεϊ in fashion like to.., Hdt. 1.186; περὶ τῶν νόσων ὁ αὐτὸς λ. analogously, Pl. Tht. 158d, cf. Prm. 136b, al.; εἰς τὸν αὐτὸν λ. similarly, Id. R. 353d; κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λ. in the same ratio, IG 12.76.8; by parity of reasoning, Pl. Cra. 393c, R. 610a, al.; ἀνὰ λόγον τινός, τινί, Id. Ti. 29c, Alc. 2.145d; τοῦτον ἔχει τὸν λ. πρὸς.. ὃν ἡ παιδεία πρὸς τὴν ἀρετήν is related to.. as.., Procl. in Euc. p.20 F., al.
2. Math., ratio, proportion (ὁ κατ' ἀνάλογον λ., λ. τῆς ἀναλογίας, Theo Sm. p.73 H.), Pythag. 2; ἰσότης λόγων Arist. EN 113a31; λ. ἐστὶ δύο μεγεθῶν ἡ κατὰ πηλικότητα ποιὰ σχέσις Euc. 5 Def. 3; τῶν ἁρμονιῶν τοὺς λ. Arist. Metaph. 985b32, cf. 1092b14; λόγοι ἀριθμῶν numerical ratios, Aristox. Harm. p.32 M.; τοὺς φθόγγους ἀναγκαῖον ἐν ἀριθμοῦ λ. λέγεσθαι πρὸς ἀλλήλους to be expressed in numerical ratios, Euc. Sect.Can. Proëm.: in Metre, ratio between arsis and thesis, by which the rhythm is defined, Aristox. Harm. p.34 M.; ἐὰν ᾖ ἰσχυροτέρα τοῦ αἰσθητηρίου ἡ κίνησις, λύεται ὁ λ. Arist. de An. 424a31; ἀνὰ λόγον analogically, Archyt. 2; ἀνὰ λ. μερισθεῖσα [ἡ ψυχή] proportionally, Pl. Ti. 37a; so κατὰ λ. Men. 319.6; πρὸς λόγον in proportion, Plb. 6.30.3, 9.15.3 (but πρὸς λόγον ἐπὶ στενὸν συνάγεται narrows uniformly, Sor. 1.9, cf. Diocl.Fr. 171); ἐπὶ λόγον IG 5(1).1428 (Messene).
3. Gramm., analogy, rule, τῷ λ. τῶν μετοχικῶν, τῆς συγκοπῆς, by the rule of the participles, of syncope, Choerob. in Theod. 1.75 Gaisf., 1.377 H.; εἰπέ μοι τὸν λ. τοῦ Αἴας Αἴαντος, τουτέστι τὸν κανόνα An.Ox. 4.328.
1 plea, pretext, ground, ἐκ τίνος λ.; A. Ch. 515; ἐξ οὐδενὸς λ. S. Ph. 731; ἀπὸ παντὸς λ. Id. OC 762; χὠ λ. καλὸς προσῆν Id. Ph. 352; σὺν ἀφανεῖ λ. Id. OT 657 (lyr., v.l. λόγων) ; ἐν ἀφανεῖ λ. Antipho 5.59; ἐπὶ τοιούτῳ λ. Hdt. 6.124; κατὰ τίνα λ.; on what ground ? Pl. R. 366b; οὐδὲ πρὸς ἕνα λ. to no purpose, Id. Prt. 343d; ἐπὶ τίνι λ.; for what reason ? X. HG 2.2.19; τὸν λ. τοῦτον this ground of complaint, Aeschin. 3.228; τίνι δικαίῳ λ.; what just cause is there? Pl. Grg. 512c; τίνι λ.; on what account? Acts 10:29; κατὰ λόγον ἂν ἠνεσχόμην ὑμῶν reason would that.., ib.18.14; λ. ἔχειν, with personal subject, εἶχον ἄν τινα λ. I (i.e. my conduct) would have admitted of an explanation, Pl. Ap. 31b; τὸν ὀρθὸν λ. the true explanation, ib. 34b. plea, case, in Law or argument (cf. VIII. I), τὸν ἥττω λ. κρείττω ποιεῖν to make the weaker case prevail, ib. 18b, al., Arist. Rh. 1402a24, cf. Ar. Nu. 1042 (pl.); personified, ib. 886, al.; ἀμύνεις τῷ τῆς ἡδονῆς λ. Pl. Phlb. 38a; ἀνοίσεις τοὺς λ. αὐτῶν πρὸς τὸν θεόν LXX Exodus 18:19; ἐχειν λ. πρός τινα to have a case, ground of action against.., Acts 19:38.
2. statement of a theory, argument, οὐκ ἐμεῦ ἀλλὰ τοῦ λ. ἀκούσαντας prob. in Heraclit. 50; λόγον ἠδὲ νόημα ἀμφὶς ἀληθείης discourse and reflection on reality, Parm. 8.50; δηλοῖ οὗτος ὁ λ. ὅτι.. Democr. 7; οὐκ ἔχει λόγον it is not arguable, i.e. reasonable, S. El. 466, Pl. Phd. 62d, etc.; ἔχει λ. D. 44.32; οὐδεὶς αὐτὰ καταβαλεῖ λ. E. Ba. 202; δίκασον.. τὸν λ. ἀκούσας Pl. Lg. 696b; personified, φησὶ οὗτος ὁ λ. ib. 714d, cf. Sph. 238b, Phlb. 50a; ὡς ὁ λ. (sc. λέγει) Arist. EN 1115b12; ὡς ὁ λ. ὁ ὀρθὸς λέγει ib. 1138b20, cf. 29; ὁ λ. θέλει προσβιβάζειν Phld. Rh. 1.41, cf.1.19 S.; οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἀκούσειε λόγου ἀποτρέποντος Arist. EN 1179b27; λ. καθαίρων Aristo Stoic. 1.88; λόγου τυγχάνειν to be explained, Phld. Mus. p.77 K.; ὁ τὸν λ. μου ἀκούων my teaching, John 5:24; ὁ προφητικὸς λ., collect., of VT prophecy, 2 Peter 1:19 : pl., ὁκόσων λόγους ἤκουσα Heraclit. 108; οὐκ ἐπίθετο τοῖς ἐμοῖς λ. Ar. Nu. 73; of arguments leading to a conclusion (ὁ λ.), Pl. Cri. 46b; τὰ Ἀναξαγόρου βιβλία γέμει τούτων τῶν λ. Id. Ap. 26d; λ. ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρχῶν, ἐπὶ τὰς ἀρχάς, Arist. EN 1095a31; συλλογισμός ἐστι λ. ἐν ᾧ τεθέντων τινῶν κτλ. Id. APr. 24b18; λ. ἀντίτυπός τε καὶ ἄπορος, of a self-contradictory theory, Plot. 6.8.7. ὁ περὶ θεῶν λ., title of a discourse by Protagoras, D.L. 9.54; ὁ Ἀχιλλεὺς λ., name of an argument, ib. 23; ὁ αὐξόμενος λ. Plu. 2.559b; καταβάλλοντες (sc. λόγοι), title of work by Protagoras, S.E. M. 7.60; λ. σοφιστικοί Arist. SE 165a34, al.; οἱ μαθηματικοὶ λ. Id. Rh. 1417a19, etc.; οἱ ἐξωτερικοὶ λ., current outside the Lyceum, Id. Ph. 217b31, al.; Δισσοὶ λ., title of a philosophical treatise (= Dialex.); Λ. καὶ Λογίνα, name of play of Epicharmus, quibble, argument, personified, Ath. 8.338d. in Logic, proposition, whether as premiss or conclusion, πρότασίς ἐστι λ. καταφατικὸς ἢ ἀποφατικός τινος κατά τινος Arist. APr. 24a16. rule, principle, law, as embodying the result of λογισμός, Pi. O. 2.22, P. 1.35, N. 4.31; πείθεσθαι τῷ λ. ὃς ἄν μοι λογιζομένῳ βέλτιστος φαίνηται Pl. Cri. 46b, cf. c; ἡδονὰς τοῖς ὀρθοῖς λ. ἑπομένας obeying right principles, Id. Lg. 696c; προαιρέσεως [ἀρχὴ] ὄρεξις καὶ λ. ὁ ἕνεκά τινος principle directed to an end, Arist. EN 1139a32; of the final cause, ἀρχὴ ὁ λ. ἔν τε τοῖς κατὰ τέχνην καὶ ἐν τοῖς φύσει συνεστηκόσιν Id. PA 639b15; ἀποδιδόασι τοὺς λ. καὶ τὰς αἰτίας οὗ ποιοῦσι ἑκάστου ib. 18; [ τέχνη] ἕξις μετὰ λ. ἀληθοῦς ποιητική Id. EN 1140a10; ὀρθὸς λ. true principle, right rule, ib. 1144b27, 1147b3, al.; κατὰ λόγον by rule, consistently, ὁ κατὰ λ. ζῶν Pl. Lg. 689d, cf. Ti. 89d; τὸ κατὰ λ. ζῆν, opp. κατὰ πάθος, Arist. EN 1169a5; κατὰ λ. προχωρεῖν according to plan, Plb. 1.20.3.
3. law, rule of conduct, ᾧ μάλιστα διηνεκῶς ὁμιλοῦσι λόγῳ Heraclit. 72; πολλοὶ λόγον μὴ μαθόντες ζῶσι κατὰ λόγον Democr. 53; δεῖ ὑπάρχειν τὸν λ. τὸν καθόλου τοῖς ἄρχουσιν universal principle, Arist. Pol. 1286a17; ὁ νόμος.. λ. ὢν ἀπό τινος φρονήσεως καὶ νοῦ Id. EN 1180a21; ὁ νόμος.. ἔμψυχος ὢν ἑαυτῷ λ. conscience, Plu. 2.780c; τὸν λ. πρόχειρον ἔχειν precept, Phld. Piet. 30, cf. 102; ὁ προστακτικὸς τῶν ποιητέων ἢ μὴ λ. κοινός M.Ant. 4.4.
4. thesis, hypothesis, provisional ground, ὡς ἂν εἰ λέγοι λόγον maintain a thesis, Pl. Prt. 344b; ὑποθέμενος ἑκάστοτε λ. provisionally assuming a proposition, Id. Phd. 100a; τὸν τῆς ὁμοιότητος λ. hypothesis of equivalence, Arist. Cael. 296a20.
5. reason, ground, πάντων γινομένων κατὰ τὸν λ. τόνδε Heraclit. 1; οὕτω βαθὺν λ. ἔχει Id. 45; ἐκ λόγου, opp. μάτην, Leucipp. 2; μέγιστον σημεῖον οὗτος ὁ λ. Meliss. 8; [ἐμπειρία] οὐκ ἔχει λ. οὐδένα ὧν προσφέρει has no grounds for.., Pl. Grg. 465a; μετὰ λόγου τε καὶ ἐπιστήμης θείας Id. Sph. 265c; ἡ μετα λόγου ἀληθὴς δόξα (ἐπιστήμη) Id. Tht. 201c; λόγον ζητοῦσιν ὧν οὐκ ἔστι λ. proof, Arist. Metaph. 1011a12; οἱ ἁπάντων ζητοῦντες λ. ἀναιροῦσι λ. Thphr. Metaph. 26.
6. formula (wider than definition, but freq. equivalent thereto), term expressing reason, λ. τῆς πολιτείας Pl. R. 497c; ψυχῆς οὐσία τε καὶ λ. essential definition, Id. Phdr. 245e; ὁ τοῦ δικαίου λ. Id. R. 343a; τὸν λ. τῆς οὐσίας ib. 534b, cf. Phd. 78d; τὰς πολλὰς ἐπιστήμας ἑνὶ λ. προσειπεῖν Id. Tht. 148d; ὁ τῆς οἰκοδομήσεως λ. ἔχει τὸν τῆς οἰκίας Arist. PA 646b3; τεθείη ἂν ἴδιον ὄνομα καθ' ἕκαστον τῶν λ. Id. Metaph. 1006b5, cf. 1035b4; πᾶς ὁρισμὸς λ. τίς ἐστι Id. Top. 102a5; ἐπὶ τῶν σχημάτων λ. κοινός generic definition, Id. de An. 414b23; ἀκριβέστατος λ. specific definition, Id. Pol. 1276b24; πηγῆς λ. ἔχον Ph. 2.477; τὸ ᾠὸν οὔτε ἀρχῆς ἔχει λ. fulfils the function of.., Plu. 2.637d; λ. τῆς μίξεως formula, i. e. ratio (cf. supr. II) of combination, Arist. PA 642a22, cf. Metaph. 993a17.
7. reason, law exhibited in the world-process, κατὰ λόγον by law, κόσμῳ πάντα καὶ κατὰ λ. ἔχοντα Pl. R. 500c; κατ τὸν <αὐτὸν αὖ> λ. by the same law, Epich. 170.18; ψυχῆς τὸ πᾶν τόδε διοικούσης κατὰ λ. Plot. 2.3.13; esp. in Stoic Philos., the divine order, τὸν τοῦ παντὸς λ. ὃν ἔνιοι εἱμαρμένην καλοῦσιν Zeno Stoic. 1.24; τὸ ποιοῦν τὸν
λόγος, λόγου, ὁ (λέγω) (from Homer down), the Sept. especially for דָּבָר, also for אֹמֶר and מִלָּה; properly, a collecting, collection (see λέγω) — and that, as well of those things which are put together in thought, as of those which, having been thought i. e. gathered together in the mind, are expressed in words. Accordingly, a twofold use of the term is to be distinguished: one which relates to speaking, and one which relates to thinking.
I. As respects speech:
1. a word, yet not in the grammatical sense (equivalent to vocabulum, the mere name of an object), but language, vox, i. e. a word which, uttered by the living voice, embodies a conception or idea; (hence, it differs from ῤῆμα and ἔπος (which see; cf. also λαλέω, at the beginning)): Hebrews 12:19; ἀποκριθῆναι λόγον, Matthew 22:46; εἰπεῖν λόγῳ, Matthew 8:8 (Rec. λόγον (cf. εἶπον, 3 a. at the end)); Luke 7:7; λαλῆσαι πέντε, μυρίους, λόγους, 1 Corinthians 14:19; διδόναι λόγον εὔσημον, to utter a distinct word, intelligible speech, 1 Corinthians 14:9; εἰπεῖν λόγον κατά τίνος, to speak a word against, to the injury of, one, Matthew 12:32; also εἰς τινα, Luke 12:10; to drive out demons λόγῳ, Matthew 8:16; ἐπερωτᾶν τινα ἐν λόγοις ἱκανοῖς, Luke 23:9; of the words of a conversation, ἀντιβάλλειν λόγους, Luke 24:17.
2. what someone has said; a saying;
a. universally: Matthew 19:22 (T omits); Mark 5:36 (cf, Buttmann, 302 (259) note);
b. of the sayings of God; α. equivalent to decree, mandate, order: Romans 9:28; with τοῦ Θεοῦ added, 2 Peter 3:5, 7 (Rst G Tr text); ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐγένετο πρός τινα (a phrase frequent in the O. T.), John 10:35. β. of the moral precepts given by God in the O. T.: Mark 7:13; (Matthew 15:6 L Tr WH text); Romans 13:9; Galatians 5:14 (cf. οἱ δέκα λόγοι (Exodus 34:28; Deuteronomy 10:4 (cf. ῤήματα,
3. discourse (Latinoratio);
a. the act of speaking, speech: Acts 14:12; 2 Corinthians 10:10; James 3:2; διά λόγου, by word of month, Acts 15:27; opposed to δἰ ἐπιστολῶν, 2 Thessalonians 2:15; διά λόγου πολλοῦ, Acts 15:32; λόγῳ πολλῷ, Acts 20:2; περί οὗ πολύς ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος, of whom we have many things to say, Hebrews 5:11; ὁ λόγος ὑμῶν, Matthew 5:37; Colossians 4:6; λόγος κολακείας, 1 Thessalonians 2:5. λόγος is distinguished from σοφία in 1 Corinthians 2:1; from ἀναστροφή, 1 Timothy 4:12; from δύναμις, 1 Corinthians 4:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:5; from ἔργον, Romans 15:18; 2 Corinthians 10:11; Colossians 3:17; from ἔργον καί ἀλήθεια, 1 John 3:18 (see ἔργον, 3, p. 248a bottom); οὐδενός λόγου τίμιον, not worth mentioning (λόγου ἄξιον, Herodotus 4, 28; cf. German der Rede werth), i. e. a thing of no value, Acts 20:24 T Tr WH (see II. 2 below).
b. equivalent to the faculty of speech: Ephesians 6:19; skill and practice in speaking: ἰδιώτης τῷ λγόω ἀλλ' οὐ τῇ γνώσει, 2 Corinthians 11:6; δυνατός ἐν ἔργῳ καί λόγῳ, Luke 24:19 (ἄνδρας λόγῳ δυνατούς, Diodorus 13, 101); λόγος σοφίας or γνώσεως, the art of speaking to the purpose about things pertaining to wisdom or knowledge, 1 Corinthians 12:8.
c. a kind (or style) of speaking: ἐν παντί λόγῳ, 1 Corinthians 1:5 (A. V. utterance).
d. continuous speaking, discourse, such as in the N. T. is characteristic of teachers: Luke 4:32, 36; John 4:41; Acts 4:4 (cf. Acts 3:12-26); Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 1:17; 1 Corinthians 2:1; plural, Matthew 7:28; Matthew 19:1; Matthew 26:1; Luke 9:26; Acts 2:40; δυνατός ἐν λόγοις καί ἔργοις αὐτοῦ, Acts 7:22. Hence, the thought of the subject being uppermost,
e. instruction: Colossians 4:3; Titus 2:8; 1 Peter 3:1; joined with διδασκαλία, 1 Timothy 5:17; with a genitive of the teacher, John 5:24; John 8:52; John 15:20; John 17:20; Acts 2:41; 1 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 1:18 (cf. 2 Corinthians 1:19); ὁ λόγος ὁ ἐμός, John 8:31, 37, 43, 51; John 14:23; τινα λόγῳ, with what instruction, 1 Corinthians 15:2 (where construe, εἰ κατέχετε, τίνι λόγῳ etc.; cf. Buttmann, §§ 139,58; 151,20); equivalent to κήρυγμα, preaching, with the genitive of the object: λόγος ἀληθείας, 2 Corinthians 6:7; James 1:18; ὁ λόγος τῆς ἀληθείας, Colossians 1:5; Ephesians 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:15; τῆς καταλλαγῆς, 2 Corinthians 5:19; ὁ λόγος τῆς σωτηρίας ταύτης, concerning this salvation (i. e. the salvation obtained through Christ) (cf. Winers Grammar, 237 (223); Buttmann, 162 (141)), Acts 13:26; ὁ λόγος τῆς βασιλείας (τοῦ Θεοῦ), Matthew 13:19; τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:18; ὁ τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ λόγος, the first instruction concerning Christ (cf. Buttmann, 155 (136); Winer's Grammar, 188 (177)), Hebrews 6:1. Hence,
4. in an objective sense, what is communicated by instruction, doctrine: universally, Acts 18:15; ὁ λόγος αὐτῶν, 2 Timothy 2:17; plural ἡμέτεροι λόγοι, 2 Timothy 4:15; ὑγιαίνοντες λόγοι, 2 Timothy 1:13; with a genitive of object added, τοῦ κυρίου, 1 Timothy 6:3; τῆς πίστεως, the doctrines of faith (see πίστις, 1 c. β.), 1 Timothy 4:6. specifically, the doctrine concerning the attainment through Christ of salvation in the kingdom of God: simply, Matthew 13:20-23; Mark 4:14-20; Mark 8:32; Mark 16:20; Luke 1:2; Luke 8:12; Acts 8:4; Acts 10:44; Acts 11:19; Acts 14:25; Acts 17:11; Galatians 6:6; Philippians 1:14; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 2 Timothy 4:2; 1 Peter 2:8; τόν λόγον, ὅν ἀπέστειλε τοῖς etc. the doctrine which he commanded to be delivered to, etc. Acts 10:36 (but L WH text omit; Tr brackets ὅν; cf. Winers Grammar, § 62, 3 at the end; Buttmann, § 131, 13); τόν λόγον ἀκούειν, Luke 8:15; John 14:24; Acts 4:4; 1 John 2:7; λαλεῖν, John 15:3 (see other examples under the word λαλέω, 5 under the end); ἀπειθεῖν τῷ λόγῳ, 1 Peter 2:8; 1 Peter 3:1; διδαχή πιστοῦ λόγου, Titus 1:9; with the genitive of the teacher: ὁ λόγου αὐτῶν, Acts 2:41; with the genitive of the author: τοῦ Θεοῦ, Luke 5:1; Luke 8:11, 21; Luke 11:28; John 17:6, 14; 1 Corinthians 14:36; 2 Corinthians 4:2; Colossians 1:25; 2 Timothy 2:9; Titus 1:3; Titus 2:5; Hebrews 13:7; 1 John 1:10; 1 John 2:5, 14; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 20:4; very often in the book of Acts: Acts 4:29, 31; Acts 6:2, 7; Acts 8:14; Acts 11:1, 19; Acts 12:24; Acts 13:5, 7, 44, 46; Acts 17:13; Acts 18:11; opposed to λόγος ἀνθρώπων (Buttmann, § 151, 14), 1 Thessalonians 2:13; λόγος ζῶν Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 1:23; ὁ λόγος τοῦ κυρίου, Acts 8:25; Acts 13:48 ((WH text Tr marginal reading Θεοῦ)); Acts 15:35; Acts 19:10, 20; 1 Thessalonians 1:8; 2 Thessalonians 3:1; τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Colossians 3:16; Revelation 3:8; with the genitive of apposition, τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, Acts 15:7; with the genitive of the object, τῆς χάριτος τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 14:3; Acts 20:32; δικαιοσύνης (see δικαιοσύνη, 1 a.), Hebrews 5:13; with the genitive of quality, τῆς ζωῆς, containing in itself the true life and imparting it to men, Philippians 2:16.
5. anything reported in speech; a narration, narrative: of a written narrative, a continuous account of things done, Acts 1:1 (often so in Greek writings from Herodotus down (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. IV.)); a fictitious narrative, a story, Matthew 28:15, cf. Matthew 28:13. report (in a good sense): ὁ λόγος the news concerning the success of the Christian cause, Acts 11:22; περί τίνος, Luke 5:15; rumor, i. e. current story, John 21:23; λόγον ἔχειν τίνος, to have the (unmerited) reputation of any excellence, Colossians 2:23 (so λόγον ἔχει τίς followed by an infinitive, Herodotus 5, 66; Plato, epin., p. 987b.; (see especially Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word A. III. 3))).
6. matter under discussion, thing spoken of, affair: Matthew 21:24; Mark 11:29; Luke 20:3; Acts 8:21; Acts 15:6, and often in Greek writings (Liddell and Scott, under A. VIII.); a matter in dispute, case, suit at law (as דָּבָר in Exodus 18:16; Exodus 22:8): ἔχειν λόγον πρός τινα, to have a ground of action against anyone, Acts 19:38, cf. Kypke at the passage; παρεκτός λόγου πορνείας ((cf. II. 6 below) זְנוּת (or דְּבַר עַל־) בִּלְתִּי מִלְּבַד, Delitzsch) Matthew 5:32; (
7. thing spoken of or talked about; event; deed (often so in Greek writings from Herodotus down): διαφημίζειν τόν λόγον, to blaze abroad the occurrence, Mark 1:45; plural Luke 1:4 (as often in the O. T.; μετά τούς λόγους τούτους, 1 Macc. 7:33).
II. Its use as respects the mind, alone, Latinratio; i. e.:
1. reason, the mental faculty of thinking, meditating, reasoning, calculating, etc.: once so in the phrase ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ, of the divine mind, pervading and noting all things by its proper force, Hebrews 4:12.
2. account, i. e. regard, consideration: λόγον ποιεῖσθαι τίνος, to have regard for, make account of a thing, care for a thins, Acts 20:24 R G (Job 22:4; Herodotus 1, 4. 13 etc.; Aeschylus, Prom. 231; Theocritus, 3, 33; Demosthenes, Josephus, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Plutarch, others (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. II. 1)); also λόγον ἔχειν τίνος, Acts, the passage cited Lachmann (Tobit 6:16 (15)) (cf. I. 3 a. above).
3. account, i. e. reckoning, score: δόσεως καί λήψεως (see δόσις, 1), Philippians 4:15 (where cf. Lightfoot); εἰς λόγον ὑμῶν, to your account, i. e. tropically, to your advantage, Philippians 4:17; συναίρειν λόγον (an expression not found in Greek authors), to make a reckoning, settle accounts, Matthew 18:23; Matthew 25:19.
4. account, i. e. answer or explanation in reference to judgment: λόγον διδόναι (as often in Greek authors), to give or render an account, Romans 14:12 R G T WH L marginal reading Tr marginal reading; also ἀποδιδόναι, Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 4:5; with the genitive of the thing, Luke 16:2; Acts 19:40 (R G); περί τίνος, Matthew 12:36; (Acts 19:40 L T Tr WH); τίνι περί ἑαυτοῦ, Romans 14:12 L text brackets Tr text; αἰτεῖν τινα λόγον περί τίνος, 1 Peter 3:15 (Plato, polit., p. 285 e.).
5. relation: πρός ὅν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος, with whom as judge we stand in relation (A. V. have to do), Hebrews 4:13; κατά λόγον, as is right, justly, Acts 18:14 (A. V. reason would (cf. Polybius 1, 62, 4. 5; 5, 110, 10)) (παρά λόγον, unjustly, 2 Macc. 4:36; 3Macc. 7:8).
6. reason, cause, ground: τίνι λόγῳ, for what reason? why? Acts 10:29 (ἐκ τίνος λόγου; Aeschylus Choeph. 515; ἐξ οὐδενός λόγου, Sophocles Phil. 730; τίνι δικαίῳ λόγῳ κτλ.; Plato, Gorgias, p. 512 c.); παρεκτός λόγου πορνείας (Vulg. excepta fornicationis causa) is generally referred to this head, Matthew 5:32; (Matthew 19:9 L WH marginal reading); but since where λόγος is used in this sense the genitive is not added, it has seemed best to include this passage among those mentioned in I. 6 above.
III. In several passages in the writings of John ὁ λόγος denotes the essential Word of God, i. e. the personal (hypostatic) wisdom and power in union with God, his minister in the creation and government of the universe, the cause of all the world's life both physical and ethical, which for the procurement of man's salvation put on human nature in the person of Jesus the Messiah and shone forth conspicuously from his words and deeds: John 1:1, 14; (1 John 5:7 Rec.); with τῆς ζωῆς added (see ζωή, 2 a.), 1 John 1:1; τοῦ Θεοῦ, Revelation 19:13 (although the interpretation which refers this passage to the hypostatic λόγος is disputed by some, as by Baur, Neutest. Theologie, p. 216f). Respecting the combined Hebrew and Greek elements out of which this conception originated among the Alexandrian Jews, see especially Lücke, Comm. üb.
d. Evang. des Johan. edition 3, i., pp. 249-294; (cf. especially B. D. American edition under the word
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λόγος , -ου , ὁ
I. Of that by which the inward thought is expressed, Lat. oratio, sermo, vox, verbum.
1. a word, not in the grammatical sense of a mere name (ἔπος , ὄνομα , ῥῆμα ), but a word as embodying a conception or idea: Matthew 8:8, Luke 7:7, 1 Corinthians 14:9; 1 Corinthians 14:19, Hebrews 12:19 al.
2. a saying, statement, declaration: Matthew 19:22 (T om.), Mark 5:36; Mark 7:29, Luke 1:29, John 2:22; John 6:60, Acts 7:29, al.; c. gen. attrib., Acts 13:15, Romans 9:9, Hebrews 7:28, al.; of the sayings, commands, promises, etc., of teachers, Matthew 7:24; Matthew 10:14, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:44, John 14:24, al.; λ . κενοί , Ephesians 5:6; ἀληθινοί , Revelation 19:9; πιστοί , Revelation 22:6; esp. of the precepts, decrees and promises of God, ὁ λ . τ . θεοῦ , the word of God: Mark 7:13, John 10:35, Romans 13:9, 1 Corinthians 14:36, Philippians 1:14, al.; absol., ὁ λ ., Matthew 13:21-22, Mark 16:20, Luke 1:2, Acts 6:4, Hebrews 4:12, al.
3. speech, discourse: Acts 14:12, 2 Corinthians 10:10, James 3:2; opp. to ἐπιστολή , 2 Thessalonians 2:15; disting. from σοφία , 1 Corinthians 2:1; ἀναστροφή , 1 Timothy 4:12; δύναμις , 1 Corinthians 4:19, 1 Thessalonians 1:5; ἔργον , Romans 15:18; οὐδενὸς λ . τίμιον (not worthy of mention), Acts 20:24; of the faculty of speech, Luke 24:19, 2 Corinthians 11:6; of the style of speech, Matthew 5:37, 1 Corinthians 1:5; of instruction, Colossians 4:3, 1 Peter 3:1; c. gen. pers., John 5:24; John 8:52, Acts 2:41, al.; ὁ λ . ὁ ἐμός , John 8:31; c. gen. obj. (τ .) ἀληθείας , 2 Corinthians 6:7, Colossians 1:5, James 1:18; τ . καταλλαγῆς , 2 Corinthians 5:19; τ . σταυρ õ υ , 1 Corinthians 1:18; of mere talk, 1 Corinthians 4:19-20, Colossians 2:23, 1 John 3:18; of the talk which one occasions, hence, repute: Colossians 2:23.
4. subject-matter, hence, teaching, doctrine: Acts 18:15, 2 Timothy 2:17, al.; esp. of Christian doctrine: Matthew 13:20-23 Mark 4:14-20; Mark 8:32 Luke 1:2, Acts 8:4, Galatians 6:6, 1 Thessalonians 1:6, al.; c. gen. pers., τ . θεοῦ , Luke 5:1, John 17:6, Acts 4:29, 1 Corinthians 14:36, 1 John 1:10, Revelation 6:9, al.; τ . Κυρίου , Acts 8:25, 1 Thessalonians 1:3, al.; τ . Χριστοῦ , Colossians 3:16, Revelation 3:8; c. gen. appos., Acts 15:7; c. gen. attrib., Hebrews 5:13.
5. a story, tale, narrative: Matthew 28:15, John 21:23, Acts 1:1; Acts 11:22; seq. περί , Luke 5:15.
6. That which is spoken of (Plat., al.; v. Kennedy, Sources, 124), matter, affair, thing: Matthew 21:24, Mark 1:45; Mark 11:29, Luke 20:3, Acts 8:21; of a matter in dispute, as a case or suit at law, Acts 19:38; pl. (1 Maccabees 7:33, al.), Luke 1:4.
II. Of the inward thought itself, Lat. ratio.
(a) of the mental faculty (Hdt., Flat., al.): κατὰ λόγον , Acts 18:14;
(b) a reason, cause: τίνι λόγῳ , Acts 10:29; παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας , Matthew 5:32; Matthew 19:9, WH, mg., R, mg.
(a) regard: Acts 20:24, Rec.;
(b) reckoning: Philippians 4:15; Philippians 4:17; συναίρειν (q.v.) λ ., Matthew 18:23; Matthew 25:19; in forensic sense, Romans 14:12, Hebrews 13:17, 1 Peter 4:5; c. gen. rei, Luke 16:2; seq. περί , Matthew 12:36, Acts 19:40, 1 Peter 3:15.
3. proportion, analogy: Philippians 2:16 (Field, Notes, 193 f.).
III. ὁ λ ., the Divine Word or Logos: John 1:1; John 1:14; τ . ζωῆς 1 John 1:1; τ . θεοῦ , Revelation 19:13 (v. Westc., Swete, CGT, in ll.; reff. in Artt., Logos, DB, DCG).
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It is hardly necessary to illustrate this common word in its ordinary sense of ";word,"; ";saying,"; but, as showing its developed meaning of ";speech in progress"; (cf. Proleg. p. 111), we may cite P Tor I. 1ii. 3 (B.C. 116) εἰς λόγους αὐτοῖς ἐλθόντος, ";collate cum ipsis sermone"; (Ed.), P Ryl II. 229.18 (A.D. 38) παρακάλεσον οὖν τὴν γυναῖκά σου τοῖς ἐμοῖς λόγοις ἵνα ἐπιμέληται τῶν χοιριδίων, ";urge your wife from me to look after the pigs"; (Edd.) : cf. the compound λογοποιοῦμαι in ib. 136.4 (A.D. 34) λογοποιουμένου μου πρὸς Ἀγχερίμφ [ι ]ν ̣, ";as I was talking to Ancherimphis,"; ib. 144.10 (A.D. 38) ἐλ [ογ ]οποησάμην πρὸς Ὀννῶφριν. . . ὑπὲρ οὗ ἔχω πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐνεχύρου, ";I entered into conversation with Onnophris concerning a pledge I have against him"; (Edd.). The noun is used of a magical ";invocation"; in P Par 574.1228 (iii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 113) λόγος λεγόμενος ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, and of a ";list"; in connexion with the distribution of public burdens in P Cairo Preis 18.12 (A.D. 339) ἔστ [ι ] δ ̣ε ̣, ὁ ̣ λ ̣[όγ ]ο ̣ς ̣ Α ̣υ ̣̓ρ ̣ήλιος. . . For the legal sense ";matter of dispute,"; ";suit at law,"; as in Acts 19:38, cf. P Tor I. 1iv. 21 (B.C. 116) καθ᾽ ὃ ἔφη δεῖν τοὺς ἀντιδίκους συνίστασθαι τὸν λόγον πρὸς τοὺς ἀποδομένους αὐτοῖς, ";quare aiebat adversarios debere litem instituere contra suos auctores"; (Ed.). When we pass to the uses of λόγος with more direct reference to the mind, we may compare with Acts 20:24 (see Field Notes, pp. 133, 252 ff.) such passages as P Magd 12.8 (B.C. 217) οὐδένα λόγον ἐποιήσαντο, ἀλλὰ ἐγβεβλήκασίν με ἐκ τῶν κληρῶν, ";ils n’en ont tenu aucun compte et m’ont au contraire expulsé des tenures"; (Ed.), P Par 26.31 (B.C. 163) (= Selections, p. 16) τοῦ δὲ τοῦ Ψινταέους υἱοῦ ἐκ τῆς Μέμφεως χωρισθέντος, οὐκέτι οὐδένα λόγον ἐποήσατο, ";but no sooner had the son of Psintaes departed from Memphis than he took no further account of the matter,"; and Cagnat IV. 134.15 (after B.C. 133) τῶν κατὰ τὸν βίον ἐλασσωμάτ [ων λ ]όγον ποιησάμενος.
See also P Hib I. 53.4 (B.C. 246) πειρῶ οὖν ἀσφαλῶς διεγγυᾶν ὡς πρὸς σὲ τοῦ λό [γ ]ου ἐσομένου, ";do you therefore endeavour to obtain good security, knowing that you will be held accountable"; (Edd.), P Tebt II. 325.22 (c. A.D. 145) τοῦ λόγου ἐσομένου ἐάν τι [παράνομ ]ον γένηται, ";but you will be held responsible for any violation of the law"; (Edd.).
In our documents, which are so often of a monetary character, λόγος = ";account"; in the sense of ";reckoning,"; ";score"; (cf. Philippians 4:15; Philippians 4:17) meets us constantly : e.g. the contract of apprenticeship, P Oxy II. 275.19, .21 (A.D. 66) (= Selections, p. 56), where so much is paid εἰς λόγον διατροφῆς, ";to account of maintenance,"; and so much εἰς λόγον ἱματισμοῦ, ";to account of clothing,"; P Oxy XII. 1441.7 (A.D. 197–200) β ̣α ̣σ ̣[ι ]λ (ικῆς)δ ὁμοίως ἐπὶ λόγ (ου) δραχμὰς δεκαόκτω, ";likewise upon State land on account eighteen drachmae"; (Edd.), P Fay 103.1 (iii/A.D.) λ [όγος ] ἀνλώματος τοῦ νεκροῦ, ";account of expenses for the corpse,"; and P Grenf II. 81 (a).9 (A.D. 403) οὐδένα λ [όγ ]ον ἔχω πρὸς σὲ περὶ τούτου, in connexion with the payment of the wages of a substitute. From this the transition is easy to such an expression as δίκαιον λόγ [ο ̣]ν ἔχει πρὸς σέ, ";iusta res est ei tecum,"; in P .Tand 16.3 (v/vi A.D.). For ὁ ἴδιος λόγος, the private account or purse of the sovereign, cf. P Amh II. 31.1 (B.C. 112), and more particularly Der Gnomon des Idios Logos, being BGU V. 1.
Λόγον διδόναι with reference to judgment, as in Romans 14:12, occurs in such a passage as BGU I. 164.21 (ii/iii A.D.) ὡς σοῦ μέλλοντος λόγον διδόναι τῷ λαμπροτάτῳ ἡγεμόνι, and λόγον ἀποδιδόναι (cf. Matthew 12:36, Luke 16:2, Hebrews 13:17) in ib. 98.25 (A.D. 211) κελεῦσαι αὐτὸν ἀχθῆναι ἐπὶ σὲ λόγον ἀποδώσοντα περὶ τούτ ̣ο ̣υ. See also the Christianized imprecations against violators of tombs cited by Ramsay (Luke, p. 396), one probably from Lycaonia and belonging to iv/A.D. , JHS xxii. (1902), p. 354 ὃς δ᾽ ἐὰν ἐπισβιάσητε, δώσει θεῷ λόγον, ";whosoever shall force an entrance, shall give account to God,"; and another from Laodicea, Athen. Mittheil. xiii. p. 249 (c. A.D. 400) ἤ τις δ᾽ ἔτερον ἐπενβάλῃ τῷ τάφῳ, κριτῇ τῷ ζῶντι λόγον ἔνδικον πο [ι ]ή [σει, ";and if any one shall lay another in the tomb, he shall render judicial account to the living Judge.";
Συναίρειν λόγον, as in Matthew 18:23; Matthew 25:19, ";an expression,"; according to Grimm-Thayer, ";not found in Grk. auth.,"; can now be cited from BGU III. 775.19 (ii/A.D.) τὰ ἤδη πρόλημα (l. –λημμα) ἀφὲς ἄχρης (l. –ις) ἂν γένομε ἐκῖ καὶ συνάρωμεν λόγον, and the middle from such passages as P Fay 109.6 (early i/A.D.) συνῆρμαι λόγον τῷ πατρί, ";I have settled accounts with (his?) father"; (Edd.), P Oxy I. 113.27 (ii/A.D.) ὅτι ἔδωκας αὐτῶι δήλωσόν μοι ἵνα συνάρωμαι αὐτῶι λόγον, ";let me know what you have given him that I may settle accounts with him"; (Edd.).
We may add a few common phrases —P Oxy XII. 1405 : .23 (iii/A.D.) οὐκ ἀνὰ λόγων (l. –ον) οὖν οὐδὲ πρὸς ̣ [τὸ ?] μέρος τῆς λειτουργίας, ";this is unreasonable and contrary to the just apportionment of the liturgy"; (Edd.), P Lond 1173.5 (A.D. 125) (= III. p. 208) ἐπ [έτρε ]ψάς [μ ]οι διὰ λόγον μηκέτι κατερ [γάζεσθαι, P Goodsp Cairo 4.8 (ii/B.C.)(= Selections, p. 24) εἰ ἔρρωσαι καὶ τἄλλα σοι κατὰ λόγον ἐστι ̣ν, εἴη ἂν ὡς αἱρούμεθα, ";if you are well and things in general are doing right, it will be as we desire,"; P Tebt I. 50.34 (B.C. 112–1) δι᾽ ἣν αἰτίαν ἐξησθενηκὼς ἐκ τοῦ μὴ κατὰ λόγον ἀπαντᾶν τὸν σπόρον, ";wherefore, because my crops did not meet my expectations I was impoverished"; (Edd.), P Rein 28.14 (end ii/B.C.) τοῦ ἡμίσους ] κατὰ λόγον, where κατὰ λόγον = ";in proportion,"; as in Syll 510.46 (ii/B.C.) τὸ πλέον ὀφει [λόμενον τῆς ] τιμῆς ὁ ἔγγυος ἀποτινέτω κατὰ λόγον, P Oxy VIII. 1121.16 (A.D. 295) οὐκ οἶδα τίνι λόγῳ ἢ πόθεν κεινηθέντες, ";I know not on what ground or with what impulse"; (Ed.) (cf. Acts 10:29), P Thead 22.5 (A.D. 342) οὐ [κ οἶ ]δα τίνι λόγ [ο ]υ καὶ ληστρικῷ τρόπῳ, and similarly in the illiterate P Gen I. 47.5 (iv/A.D.).
For the Divine Logos in heathen writers see Sophocles Lex. s.v. 10, and cf. Reitzenstein Zwei religionsgeschichtliche Fragen (1901), p. 47 ff., and the same writer’s Poimandres (1904) and Die Hellenistischen Mysterienreligionen (1910). Reference may also be made to Rendel Harris The Prologue to St. John’s Gospel (Cambridge, 1917), where it is argued that the doctrine of Christ as the ";Word"; grew out of an earlier doctrine of Christ as the ";Wisdom"; of God : cf. the somewhat extended use of λόγος in Hebrews 4:12 (Nairne CGT ad l.), and λόγος = ";reason"; in Epict. e.g. i. 3. 3 ὁ λόγος δὲ καὶ ἡ γνώμη κοινὸν πρὸς τοὺς θεούς (Sharp Epict, p. 127).
MGr λό (γ)ος, pl. λόγια, and note the curious stereotyped circumlocution for the personal pronoun τοῦ λόγου σου = ";thou"; (Thumb Handbook, p. 87).
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