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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #435 - ἀνήρ
- with reference to sex
- of a male
- of a husband
- of a betrothed or future husband
- with reference to age, and to distinguish an adult man from a boy
- any male
- used generically of a group of both men and women
ἀνήρ, ὁ, ἀνδρός, ἀνδρί, ἄνδρα, voc. ἄνερ: pl. ἄνδρες, -δρῶν, -δράσι [ᾰ], -dras:
I Aeol. dat. pl. ἄνδρεσι Alc. Supp. 14.8: late nom. sg. ἄνδρας Cat.Cod.Astr. 7.109.7: in Att. the Art. often forms a crasis with the Noun, ἁνήρ for ὁ ἀνήρ, τἀνδρός, τἀνδρί for τοῦ ἀνδρός, etc., ἅνδρες for οἱ ἄνδρες; the Ion. crasis is ὡνήρ, ὧνδρες, Hdt. 4.161, 134: also ἀνέρα, ἀνέρος, ἀνέρι, dual ἀνέρε, pl. ἀνέρες, ἀνέρας, ἄνδρεσσι. [ Poets mostly use ᾱ in arsi, ᾰ in thesi; but in trisyll. forms with stem ἀνέρ- always ᾱ; so also Trag. in lyr., S. Tr. 1011, OT 869. But in Trag. senarians ᾰ always.] (ἀ- in nom. by analogy; cf. Skt. nar- from I.- E. ner-, nṛ- from nṛ-, Gk. ἀνδρ- from ṇr-): — man, opp. woman (ἄνθρωπος being man as opp. to beast), Il. 17.435, Od. 21.323; τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἄπαις without male children, Pl. Lg. 877e; in Hom. mostly of princes, leaders, etc., but also of free men; ἀ δήμου one of the people, Il. 2.198, cf. Od. 17.352; with a qualifying word to indicate rank, ἀ. βουληφόρος Il. 2.61; ἀ. βασιλεύς Od. 24.253; ἡγήτορες ἄ. Il. 11.687.
II man, opp. god, πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε ib. 1.544, al.; Διὸς ἄγγελοι ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν ib. 334, cf. 403, Hdt. 5.63, etc.: most common in pl., yet sts. in sg., e.g. Il. 18.432: — freq. with a Noun added, βροτοί, θνητοὶ ἄ., Od. 5.197, 10.306; ἄ. ἡμίθεοι Il. 12.23; ἄ. ἥρωες ib. 5.746: — also of men, opp. monsters, Od. 21.303: — of men in societies and cities, οὔτε παρ' ἀνδράσιν οὔτ' ἐν ναυσὶ κοίλαις Pi. O. 6.10; and so prob., ἄλλοτε μέν τ' ἐπὶ Κύνθου ἐβήσαο.., ἄλλοτε δ' ἂν νήσους τε καὶ ἀνέρας.. h.Ap. 142.
III man, opp.
1. youth, unless the context determines the meaning, as in οὔ πως ἔστι νεωτέρῳ ἀνδρὶ μάχεσθαι ἄνδρα γέροντα Od. 18.53; but ἀ. alone always means a man in the prime of life, esp. warrior, ἀ. ἕλεν ἄνδρα Il. 15.328; so ἀ. ἀντ' ἀνδρὸς ἐλύθησαν Th. 2.103; the several ages are given as παῖς, μειράκιον, ἀ., πρεσβύτης X. Smp. 4.17; εἰς ἄνδρας ἐγγράφεσθαι, συντελεῖν, D. 19.230, Isoc. 12.212; εἰς ἄνδρας ἀναβῆναι BMus.Inscr. 898; in Inscrr. relating to contests, opp. παῖδες, IG 22.1138.10, etc. man emphatically, man indeed, ἀνέρες ἄστε, φίλοι Il. 5.529; freq. in Hdt., πολλοὶ μὲν ἄνθρωποι, ὀλίγοι δὲ ἄνδρες 7.210; πρόσθεν οὐκ ἀ. ὅδ' ἦν; S. Aj. 77; ἄνδρα γίγνεσθαί σε χρή E. El. 693; ἀ. γεγένησαι δι' ἐμέ Ar. Eq. 1255; ὃ μαθὼν ἀ. ἔσει Id. Nu. 823; ἄνδρας ἡγοῦνται μόνους τοὺς πλεῖστα δυναμένους καταφαγεῖν Id. Ach. 77; εἰ ἄνδρες εἶεν οἱ στρατηγοί Th. 4.27; οὐκέτι ἀ. ἀλλὰ σκευοφόρος X. Cyr. 4.2.25; τὸν Αυκομήδην.. μόνον ἄνδρα ἡγοῦντο Id. HG 7.1.24; οὐκ ἐν ἀνδράσι not like a man, E. Alc. 723, cf. 732; ἀνδρὸς τὰ προσπίπτοντα γενναίως φέρειν 'tis the part of a man.., Men. 771, etc. husband, Il. 19.291, Od. 24.196, Hdt. 1.146, etc.; εἰς ἀνδρὸς ὥραν ἡκούσης τῆς κόρης Pl. Criti. 113d; so ἐξοικιεῖν εἰς ἀνδρὸς [οἶκον] θυγατέρα Luc. Lex. 11: — also of a paramour, opp. πόσις, S. Tr. 551, cf. E. Hipp. 491, Theoc. 15.131; ἀ. ἁπασῶν τῶν γυναικῶν ἐστι νῦν Pherecr. 155; αἰγῶν ἄνερ Theoc. 8.49.
1 joined with titles, professions, etc., ἰητρὸς ἀ. Il. 11.514; ἀ. μάντις, ἀ. στρατηγός, Hdt. 6.83, 92 (dub.); ἀ. νομεύς S. OT 1118; ἄνδρες λοχῖται, λῃσταί, ἀσπιστῆρες, ib. 751, 842, Aj. 565; esp. in disparagement, κλῶπες ἄ. E. Rh. 645; ἀ. δημότης S. Ant. 690; with names of nations, as Φοίνικες ἄ. Hdt. 4.42; ἀ. Θρῇξ E. Hec. 19,al.; esp. in addresses, ἄ. ἔφοροι Hdt. 9.9; ἄ. πολῖται S. OT 513; ἄ. δικασταί D. 21.1, etc.; ὦ ἄνδρες gentlemen of the jury, Antipho 1.1, Lys. 1.1, etc.; ὦ ἄ. Ἀθηναῖοι Id. 6.8, etc.: hence in Comedy, ἄ. ἰχθύες Archipp. 29; ἄ. θεοί Luc. JTr. 15; ὦ ἄ. κύνες Ath. 4.160b.
2. ὁ ἀνήρ, by crasis Att. ἁνήρ, Ion. ὡνήρ, is freq. used emphatically for αὐτός, ἐκεῖνος Ar. V. 269, prob. in Pl. Sph. 216b, etc.: sts. so in oblique cases without the Art., S. Tr. 55, 109, 293, etc.; but not in Prose.
3. ἀ. ὅδε, ὅδ' ἀ., in Trag., = ἐγώ, S. Aj. 78, E. Alc. 690, etc.
4. πᾶς ἀ. every man, every one, freq. in Pl. Lg. 736c, al., cf. E. Or. 1523.
5. a man, any man, εἶτ' ἄνδρα τῶν αὑτοῦ τι χρὴ προϊέναι; Ar. Nu. 1214; οὐ πρέπει νοῦν ἔχοντι ἀνδρί Pl. Phd. 114d, etc.; οὐ παντὸς ἀνδρὸς.. ἐσθ' ὁ πλοῦς 'tis not every one that can go, Nicol.Com. 1.26.
6. ὦ δαιμόνι' ἀνδρῶν Eup. 316; and often with a Sup., ὦ φίλτατ' ἀνδρῶν Phryn.Com. 80, etc.
7. κατ' ἄνδρα viritim, Isoc. 12.180, POxy. 1047 iii 11, BGU 145.5, etc.; so τοὺς κατ' ἄνδρα individuals, opp. κοινῇ τὴν πόλιν, D.Chr. 32.6.
8. In LXX, ἀνήρ = ἕκαστος, δότε μοι ἀνὴρ ἐνώτιον Judges 8:24; ἀ. τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ προσκολληθήσεται 'each to his fellow', of leviathan's scales, Job 41:8; also ἀ. εἷς 2 Kings 6:2; with negs., ἀ. μὴ ἐπισκεπήτω ib. 10.19; ἀνὴρ ἀνήρ any one, Leviticus 15:2.
9. ἄνδρας γράφειν· τὸ ἐν διδασκάλου τὰ παιδία ὀνόματα γράφειν, Hsch. male animal, Arist. HA 637b15.
ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁ, a man, Latinvir. The meanings of this word in the N. T. differ in no respect from classic usage; for it is employed
1. with a reference to sex, and so to distinguish a man from a woman; either a. as a male: Acts 8:12; Acts 17:12; 1 Timothy 2:12; or b. as a husband: Matthew 1:16; Mark 10:2; John 4:16ff; Romans 7:2ff; 1 Corinthians 7:2ff; Galatians 4:27; 1 Timothy 3:2, 12; Titus 1:6, etc.; a betrothed or future husband: Matthew 1:19; Revelation 21:2, etc.
2. with a reference to age, and to distinguish an adult man from a boy: Matthew 14:21; Matthew 15:38 (where ἄνδρες, γυναῖκες and παιδία are discriminated): with the added notion also of intelligence and virtue: 1 Corinthians 13:11 (opposed to νήπιος); Ephesians 4:13; James 3:2 (in the last two passages τέλειος ἀνήρ).
3. universally, any male person, a man; so where τίς might have been used: Luke 8:41; Luke 9:38; Acts 6:11; Acts 10:5, etc. where ἀνήρ and τίς are united: Luke 8:27; Acts 5:1; Acts 10:1. or ἀνήρ and ὅς he who, etc.: Romans 4:8; James 1:12. where mention is made of something usually done by men, not by women: Luke 22:63; Acts 5:36. where angels or other heavenly beings are said to have borne the forms of men: Luke 9:30; Luke 24:4; Acts 10:30. where it is so connected with an adjective as to give the adjective the force of a substantive: ἀνήρ ἁμαρτωλός a sinner, Luke 5:8; λεπροί ἄνδρες, Luke 17:12; or is joined to appellatives: ἀνήρ φονεύς, Acts 3:14; ἀνήρ προφήτης, Luke 24:19 (נָבִיא אִישׁ, Judges 6:8; (cf. Winers Grammar, 30; § 59, 1; Buttmann, 82 (72); other references under the word ἄνθρωπος, 4 a. at the end)) or to gentile names: ἄνδρες Νινευῖται, Matthew 12:41; ἀνήρ Ἰουδαῖος, Acts 22:3; ἀνήρ Αἰθίοψ, Acts 8:27; ἄνδρες Κύπριοι, Acts 11:20; especially in addresses of honor and respect (Winers Grammar, § 65, 5 d.; Buttmann, 82 (72)), Acts 1:11; Acts 2:14; Acts 13:16; Acts 17:22, etc.; even ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, Acts 1:16; (Acts 2:29, 37; Acts 7:2); 13:(15),26, etc.
4. when persons of either sex are included, but named after the more important: Matthew 14:35; Acts 4:4; (Meyer seems inclined (see his commentary on Acts, the passage cited) to dispute even these examples; but others would refer several other instances (especially Luke 11:31; James 1:20) to the same entry).
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ἀνήρ , ἀνδρός , ὁ ,
a man, Lat. vir.
1. As opp. to a woman, Acts 8:12, 1 Timothy 2:12; as a husband, Matthew 1:16, John 4:16, Romans 7:2, Titus 1:6.
2. As opp. to a boy or infant, 1 Corinthians 13:11, Ephesians 4:13, James 3:2
3. In appos. with a noun or adj., as ἀ . ἁμαρτωλός , Luke 5:8; ἀ . προφήτης , Luke 24:19; freq. in terms of address, as ἀ . ἀδελφοί , Acts 1:16; and esp. with gentilic names, as ἀ .Ἰουδαῖος , Acts 22:3; ἀ . Ἐφέσιοι , Acts 19:35.
4. In general, a man, a male person: τις , Luke 8:41, Acts 6:11.
SYN.: ἄνθρωπος G444, q.v. (cf. MM, VGT, s.v.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The special differentia of ἀνήρ : ἄνθρωπος survives in MGr (ἄντρας, ἄθρωπος), where even the old gen. sing. (ἀντρός) may still be found beside the ";regular"; τοῦ ἄντρα (Thumb Handbook, p. 48). Naturally there is nothing particular to record in the uses of this everyday word, which has in NT and Hellenistic generally much the same range as in class. Gk. Thus, taking the index to BGU IV., we can illustrate many of the uses noted for the NT in Grimm from documents of the Augustan period. So (1) husband by the perpetual phrase μετὰ κυρίου τοῦ ἀνδρός after the name of a woman, as 1126.4 (where ἀνδρός is written over an erased ὁμομητρίου ἀδελφοῦ), or in a marriage contract as 1098.33 τηρεῖν τὰ πρὸς τὸ ̣ν ̣ ἄνδρ ̣α ̣ καὶ τὸν κοινὸν βίον δίκαια, while the document will also use ἀνήρ for irregular relations in the pledge μηδ᾽ ἄλλωι ἀνδρὶ συνεῖναι ̣. Then under Grimm’s (3) we have 1189.11 οἱ σημαινόμενοι ἄνδρες ";the persons named,"; 1061.7 where Patellis and ἄλλοι, ἄνδρες ι ̄ε ̅ committed a burglary; the common phrase (τὸ) κατ᾽ ἄνδρα, ";viritim,"; in 1047 iii. 11 (A.D. 131); and (from A.D. 196) 1022.7 ἄνδρες κράτιστοι in address (cf. II. 646.20—A.D. 193—ὦ ἄνδρ ]ες Ἀλεξανδρεῖς) accounts for another use. Ἀνήρ in distinction from νήπιος or παιδίον alone remains : of this less common use we do not happen to notice an example, but literature supplies them in plenty. We might add as an instance of technical use ἀνδρῶν καὶ ἱππέω [ν ], P Flor II. 278iv. 29 (iii/A.D.).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.