the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #4434 - πτωχός
- reduced to beggary, begging, asking alms
- destitute of wealth, influence, position, honour
- lowly, afflicted, destitute of the Christian virtues and eternal riches
- helpless, powerless to accomplish an end
- poor, needy
- lacking in anything
- as respects their spirit
- destitute of wealth of learning and intellectual culture which the schools afford (men of this class most readily give themselves up to Christ's teaching and proved them selves fitted to lay hold of the heavenly treasure)
- as respects their spirit
πτωχός, ή, όν, also ός, όν A. Ag. 1274, S. OC 444, 751: — beggar, Od. 14.400, 18.1, Hdt. 3.14, etc.; πρὸς γὰρ Διός εἰσιν ἅπαντες ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε Od. 6.208, cf. 17.475; πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει Hes. Op. 26; π. ἀνὴρ ἀλαλήμενος ἐλθών Od. 21.327; π. καὶ ἀλήμονες ἄνδρες 19.74; πτωχοὺς ἀλᾶσθαι E. Med. 515; πτωχοῦ βίος ζῆν ἐστιν μηδὲν ἔχοντα, τοῦ δὲ πένητος ζῆν φειδόμενον Ar. Pl. 552: prov., πτωχοῦ πήρη οὐ πίμπλαται Call. Fr. 360: πτωχή beggar-woman, Ath. 10.453a (so πτωχός (fem.), S. OC 444 ); χήρα πτωχή Mark 12:42 .
2. metaph., οἱ π. τῷ πνεύματι Ev.Matthew 5:3, cf. Ev.Luke 6:20 .
II as Adj., beggarly, πτωχῷ διαίτῃ S. OC 751; π. στοιχεῖα Ep.Galatians 4:9 : c. gen., beggared of, poor in, [ πηγὴ] π. νυμφῶν AP 9.258 ( Antiphan. ).
2. Comp. πτωχότερος Timocl. 6.10; prov., π. κίγκλου 'as poor as a church mouse', Men. 221; irreg. πτωχίστερος Ar. Ach. 425: Sup. πτωχότατος AP 10.50 ( Pall. ).
3. Adv. -χῶς poorly, scantily, ἠροτρία π. μέν, ἀλλ' ἀναγκαίως Babr. 55.2 .
πτωχός, πτωχή, πτωχόν (πτώσσω, to be thoroughly frightened, to cower down or hide oneself for fear; hence, πτωχός properly, one who slinks and crouches), often involving the idea of roving about in wretchedness (see πένης, at the end; "but it always had a bad sense till it was ennobled in the Gospels; see Matthew 5:3; Luke 6:20, cf. 2 Corinthians 8:9" (Liddell and Scott, under I.)); hence,
1. in classical Greek from Homer down, reduced to beggary, begging, mendicant, asking alms: Luke 14:13, 21; Luke 16:20, 22.
2. poor, needy (opposed to πλούσιος): Matthew 19:21; Matthew 26:9, 11; Mark 10:21; Mark 12:42, 43; Mark 14:5, 7; Luke 18:22; Luke 19:8; Luke 21:3; John 12:5, 6, 8; John 13:29; Romans 15:26; 2 Corinthians 6:10; Galatians 2:10; James 2:2, 3, 6; Revelation 13:16; in a broader sense, destitute of wealth, influence, position, honors; lowly, afflicted: Matthew 11:5; Luke 4:18 (from Isaiah 61:1);
3. universally, lacking in anything, with a dative of the respect: τῷ πνεύματι, as respects their spirit, i. e. destitute of the wealth of learning and intellectual culture which the schools afford (men of this class most readily gave themselves up to Christ's teaching and proved themselves fitted to lay hold of the heavenly treasure, Matthew 11:25; John 9:39; 1 Corinthians 1:26, 27; (others make the idea more inward and ethical: 'conscious of their spiritual need')), Matthew 5:3; compare with this the Epistle of Barnabas 19 [ET], see ἔσῃ ἁπλοῦς τῇ καρδία καί πλούσιος τῷ πνεύματι, abounding in Christian graces and the riches of the divine kingdom. (The Sept. for עָנִי, דַּל, רָשׁ, אֶבְיון, etc.)
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πτωχός , -ή , -όν
(< πτώσσω , to crouch, cower),
[in LXX for H6041, H1800, רָשׁ , etc.;]
of one who crouches and cowers, hence,
1. as subst., a beggar: Luke 14:13; Luke 14:21; Luke 16:20; Luke 16:22.
2. As adj.,
(a) prop., beggarly: metaph., στοιχεῖα , Galatians 4:9 (v. Lft., in l);
(b) in broader sense (opp. to πλούσιος ), poor: Matthew 11:5; Matthew 19:21; Matthew 26:9; Matthew 26:11, Mark 10:21; Mark 12:42-43; Mark 14:5; Mark 14:7, Luke 4:18; Luke 7:22; Luke 18:22; Luke 19:8; Luke 21:3, John 12:5-6; John 12:8; John 13:29, Romans 15:26, 2 Corinthians 6:10, Galatians 2:10, James 2:2-3; James 2:6, Revelation 13:16; Papyri τ . κόσμῳ , James 2:5; metaph., Luke 6:20, Revelation 3:17; Papyri τ . πνεύματι , Matthew 5:3.†
SYN.: πένης G3993, q.v.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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