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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #5398 - φοβερός

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G5401)
Parts of Speech
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  1. inspiring fear, terrible, formidable
  2. affected with fear, timid
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 366 ‑ אָיֹם (aw‑yome');  1763 ‑ דְּחַל (deh‑khal');  3372 ‑ יָרֵא (yaw‑ray');  4172 ‑ מֹרָא (mo‑raw', mo‑raw', mo‑raw');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (3)
Hebrews 3
NAS (4)
Hebrews 4
HCS (3)
Hebrews 3
BSB (3)
Hebrews 3
ESV (3)
Hebrews 3
WEB (3)
Hebrews 3
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

φοβερός, ά, όν,


fearful, whether Act. or Pass.:

I Act., causing fear, terrible, χρηστήρια φ. Hdt. 7.139, cf. A. Pr. 127 (anap.), Th. 78 (lyr.), etc.; ὅμιλος πλήθει -ώτατος formidable only from numbers, Th. 2.98 (but τὰ τῷ πλήθει φ. things which are fearful to the multitude, Isoc. 1.7, cf. Pl. Phd. 67e): c. inf., φ. ἰδεῖν, φ. προσιδέσθαι, fearful to behold, A. Pers. 27 (anap.), 48 (anap.); φ. εἰσιδεῖν E. Ph. 127 (lyr.); φ. προσπολεμῆσαι D. 2.22; φ. Πολυδεύκεα πὺξ ἐρεθίζειν Theoc. 22.2.

2. regarded with fear, esp. with respect to consequences, οὔτε ὅρκος φ. Th. 3.83; ἵππος φ. μὴ ἀνήκεστόν τι ποιήσῃ a horse that makes one fear he will do some mischief, X. Hier. 6.15; σεμνότερος εἶναι καὶ φοβερώτερος δοκεῖ And. 4.18; φοβεροὶ ἦσαν μὴ ποιήσειαν X. An. 5.7.2; τοῖς πολεμίοις φοβερώτεροι Id. Eq.Mag. 4.11, cf. Ages. 11.10 (Sup.): τριήρης φοβερὸν πολεμίοις Id. Oec. 8.8; τὸ πρὸ τῶν λυπηρῶν [προσδόκημα] φ. Pl. Phlb. 32c; φοβερώτατον ἐρημία X. An. 2.5.9; τὸ φ. terror, danger, Id. Lac. 9.1; τῶν φοβερῶν ὄντων τῇ πόλει γενέσθαι the things which were dreaded as like ly to happen.., Id. HG 1.4.17; φοβερόν [ἐστι] μὴ.. there is reason to dread that.., Id. Hier. 1.12, cf. Cyr. 7.5.22; ἀγγέλλεσθαι ἐπὶ τὸ φοβερώτατον to be fearfully exaggerated, D.H. 1.57.

3. Rhet., of style, impressive, awe-inspiring, τὸ κάλλος τὸ Θουκυδίδου φ. Id. Pomp. 3; τὸ φ. Id. Lys. 13; Ὅμηρος παίζων -ώτερος Demetr. Eloc. 130.

II Pass., afraid, timid, ἐκτέταμαι φοβερὰν φρένα S. OT 153 (lyr.), cf. Alc. 97, Pherecr. 245; ὄμμα E. IA 620: opp. θαρσαλέος, Th. 2.3, X. Cyr. 3.3 19 (Comp.); φ. τὴν ψυχήν Id. Oec. 7.25; σκοπεῖν εἰ φοβεροί (sc. οἱ πῶλοι) Pl. R. 413d; φ. ποιεῖν τινα Id. Lg. 647c; φ. εἰς τὸ τολμᾶν ib. 649d.

2. caused by fear, troubled, panic, ἀναχώρησις Th. 4.128; φοβερὰ ὄσσοις ὁμίχλα προσῇξε A. Pr. 144 (lyr.); φ. φροντίδες anxious thoughts, Pl. Thg. 127b.

III Adv. -ρῶς threateningly, in a terrifying manner, Lys. 24.15, cf. LXX 3 Maccabees 5:45, etc.: Comp., -ώτερον φθέγγεσθαι X. Smp. 1.10: Sup., -ώτατα ἰδεῖν Id. Cyr. 8.3.5.

2. timidly, -ώτατα ἔχειν Id. Eq.Mag. 8.20.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

φοβερός, φοβερά, φοβερόν (φοβέω), from Aeschylus down, (fearful i. e.):

1. (actively) inspiring fear, terrible, formidable; the Sept. for נורָא.

2. (passively) affected with fear, timid; in the N. T., only in the former (active) sense: Hebrews 10:27, 31; Hebrews 12:21.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

φοβερός , - , -όν

(<φοβέω ),

[in LXX chiefly for H3372, also for H1763, H366;]

fearful, whether act, or pass.;

1. act., = δεινός , causing fear, terrible (LXX): Hebrews 10:27; Hebrews 10:31; Hebrews 12:21

2. Pass., = δειλός , feeling fear, timid (cl. in both senses).†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

χειρόγραφον, properly ";written with the hand,"; ";a signature,"; is very common in the sense of ";a written agreement,"; or more technically ";a certificate of debt,"; ";a bond."; Exx. of the word are P Oxy IV. 745.2 (c. A.D. ὑπὲρ ὧν καὶ ἔθου χειρόγραφον, ";for which you drew me up a bond,"; in connexion with a purchase of wine, ib. II. 269ii. 7 (A.D. 57) ἐὰν δύνῃ ἐρωτηθεὶς ὄχλησον Διόσκορον καὶ ἔκπραξον αὐτὸν τὸ χειρόγραφον, ";if you can, please worry Dioscorus and exact from him his bond"; (Edd.), BGU I. 300.12 (A.D. 148) τ [ ] χειρόγραφον τοῦτο δισσὸν γραφὲν ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ κύρι [ο ]ν ἔστω, ";let this bond written by me in duplicate be valid,"; P Oxy VIII. 1132.16 (c. A.D. 162) τὸ δὲ κεφάλαιον δανεισθέν σοι ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ κατὰ χειρόγραφ [ον, ";the capital sum lent to you by me in accordance with a note of hand,"; and ib. IV. 719.30 (A.D. 193) βου [λόμενος οὖν ] ἐν δημοσίῳ γενέσθαι τὸ αὐθεντικὸν χειρόγραφον, ";being therefore desirous that the authentic bond should be publicly registered"; (Edd.).

For Col. 2:14, the only occurrence of the word in the NT, we may cite BGU III. 717.24 (A.D. 149) χειρόγρα [φον ] . . . χωρὶς ἀλίφατος καὶ ἐπιγραφῆς, ";a decree neither washed out nor written over"; (cf. Milligan Documents p. 16, Here and There, p. 5).

Exx of original χειρόγραφα are BGUI. 179 (time ofAnton. Pius) and 272 (A.D. 138–9), both crossed out and cancelled : cf. P Flor I. 61.65 (A.D. 85) (= Chrest. II. p. 89), where in connexion with a trial the governor of Egypt ἐκ [ ]λευσε τὸ χειρ [ ]γραφον χιασθῆναι, ";Save orders that the bond be crossed out"; : see further Deissmann BS, p. 247, and LAE2, p. 334.

It may be well to add a few instances of the corr. subst. and verb. Thus for χειρογραφία, cf. P Oxy III. 477.17 (A.D. 132–3) μ [ο ]υ χειρογραφι ̣α ̣[ν μεθ᾽ ὅρκ ]ου ἀληθῆ εἶναι τὰ προκείμε [να, ";my declaration on oath that the foregoing statements are true,"; and P Giss I. 45.6 (time of Hadrian) τὰς χειρογραφίας [προέ ]σθαι with the editor’s elaborate note in the introd. p. 60 f. And for χειρογραφέω, cf. P Petr III. 104.9 (B.C. 244–3) (= Chrest. I. p. 394) κε [χει ]ρογραφήκασι τὸν εἰθισμένον ὅρκον τοσούτου μεμισθῶσθαι, ";they have written under their bands the usual oath that it was let for this amount"; (Edd.), and P Oxy I. 37ii. 4 (A.D. 49) (= Selections, p. 51) ἐὰν χιρογραφήσηι. . ἐκεῖνο τὸ ἐνχειρισθὲν αὐτῆι σωμάτιον. . . τετελευτηκέναι, ";if she wiil make a written declaration that the foundling handed over to her is dead,"; report of a lawsuit. See also Mayser Gr. p. 461.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
φοβερα φοβερά φοβερὰ φοβεράν φοβεράς φοβερον φοβερόν φοβερὸν φοβερός φοβερού φοβερώ φοβερών φοβερώς phobera phoberà phoberon phoberòn
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