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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #756 - ἄρχομαι
- to be the first to do (anything), to begin
- to be chief, leader, ruler
- to begin, make a beginning
Middle voice of G757
1. to begin.
2. to rule (v. DCG, ii, 538b.): c. gen., Mark 10:42, Romans 15:12. Mid., to begin: seq. ἀπό , Matthew 16:21; Matthew 20:8, Luke 14:18; Luke 23:5; Luke 24:27; Luke 24:47, John 8:9, Acts 1:22; Acts 8:35; Acts 10:37, 1 Peter 4:17; c. inf., an Aramaic pleonasm, Mark 1:45; Mark 2:23; Mark 5:17, Luke 3:8, al. (v. M, Proverbs 14:1-35 f.; Dalman, Words, 27; MM, s.v.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the participle in a quasi-adverbial position (see Proleg..3 p. 240) cf. P Ryl II. 156.18 (i/A.D.) λιβὸς [δὲ ] ὧ ̣ν κεκλήρων [ται λιβὸς ἐπ᾽ ἀπηλιώ ]τ ̣ην ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ τῆς λιβικῆς γωνίας τοῦ πύργο [υ, ib, 157.7 (A.D. 135) ἧς ἐστὶν σχοινισμὸς [ . . . . . . . . ἀ ]ρχομένου ̣ νότου ε [ἰ ]ς β [ο ]ρρᾶ, ";its measurements are . . . beginning from south to north"; etc., Syll 537.5 (iv B.C.) σκευοθήκην οἰκοδομῆσαι. . ἀρξάμενον ἀπὸ τοῦ προπυλαίου. P Tebt II. 526 (ii/A.D.) ἀπηλ (ιώτου) ἐχόμ (εναι) ἀρχόμ (εναι) ἀπὸ βορρᾶ Πανκράτης (ἄρουραι) [ . ] Πρῖσκος (ἄρουραι) β ̄ (cited in Moulton, Einleitung p. 287). In reply to a suggestion from one of us that the frequent abbreviation of this participle might have occasioned some of the grammatical confusion found in NT passages (Proleg. 182, 240), Dr A. S. Hunt wrote (Sept. 1909) that ἀρχόμενος was ";commonly abbreviated αρ c in land-survey lists, from Ptolemaic times downwards . . . So it was a stereotyped phrase which might have influenced Luke 24:47; at any rate it is an ingenious suggestion.";
The ordinary use of ἄρχομαι ";begin"; hardly needs illustrating. In P Giss I. 15.5 (ii/A.D.) τῆς ἄλλης ἀρχόμεθα we see it c. gen.; so P Tebt II. 417.8 (iii/A.D.) πλὴν ἀρξόμεθ [α ] τοῦ ἔργου. The familiar NT use in a quasi-auxiliary sense, by its significant absence from Paul and presence in such abundance in those books where OT language is imitated or Aramaic originals translated, seems to belong to the alien elements in NT Greek : see Proleg. p. 14 f. It does not however follow that Luke used it, as Mark seems to do, with no more force than the Middle English gan : we may refer to a note by Archdeacon Allen in a forthcoming work on the Gospel of Mark.
The act. ἄρχω ";rule"; only occurs twice in NT, and is too common in Greek to need quotations. It takes dat. in Syll 319.7 (ii/B.C.) οἷς [ἂν ὁ δῆμος ὁ Μηθυμναίων ] ἄρχῃ, perhaps under Latin influence (cf. impero c. dat.) : the recurrent δόλωι πονηρῶι ";dolo malo"; is suggestive in this regard. For the very common use = ";hold office"; may be cited P Oxy III. 471.145 (ii/A.D.) ἄρξας δὲ καὶ τὴν τ [ῶν ἐκεῖ ] ἀρχιδικαστῶν ἀρ [χὴν ἔτη δέ ]κα.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13