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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #833 - αὐλή
- among the Greeks in Homer's time, an uncovered space around the house, enclosed by a wall, in which the stables stood, hence among the Orientals that roofless enclosure by a wall, in the open country in which the flocks were herded at night, a sheepfold
- the uncovered courtyard of the house. In the O.T. particularly of the courts of the tabernacle and of the temple in Jerusalem. The dwellings of the higher classes usually had two, one exterior, between the door and the street; the other interior, surrounded by the buildings of the dwelling itself. The latter is mentioned Mat. 26:69.
- the house itself, a palace
1. open court before the house, courtyard, Il. 4.433, 11.774, SIG 1044.17 (Halic., iv/iii B. C.), etc.
2. steading for cattle, αὐλῆς ὑπεράλμενον Il. 5.138, cf. Od. 14.5.
II later, court or quadrangle, round which the house was built, Hdt. 3.77, Ar. V. 131, Pl. Prt. 311a, etc.
III generally, court, hall, Ζηνὸς αὐ. Od. 4.74, cf. Il. 6.247; τὴν Διὸς αὐλήν A. Pr. 122 (lyr.); αὐ. νεκύων E. Alc. 260 (lyr.); court of a temple, ἱεροῦ IG 22.1299.28 (Eleusis, iii B. C.), cf. ib.1126.35, LXX Psalms 84:3(83).3; any dwelling, abode, chamber, S. Ant. 946 (lyr.), etc.; of a cave, Id. Ph. 153 (lyr.); ἀγρόνομοι αὐλαί homes of dwellers in the wild, Id. Ant. 786 (lyr.); later, country-house, D.H. 6.50. ἡ αὐλή the Court, αὐλὰς θεραπεύειν Men. 897, Diph. 97, Com.Adesp. 145, cf. Plb. 5.26.9; οἱ περὶ τὴν αὐλήν the courtiers, ib. 36.1, cf. OGI 735.4 (ii B. C.), Inscr.Mus.Alex. 31; at Rome, Arr. Epict. 1.10.3; ἡ βασίλειος αὐ. Hdn. 3.11.7. (Wrongly expld. as τόπος διαπνεόμενος (cf. αὐλός) by Ath. 5.189b.)
αὐλή , -ῆς , ἡ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H2691;]
1. in Hom., an open courtyard before a house, hence, an enclosure in the open, a sheepfold: John 10:1; John 10:16
2. the court, courtyard, round which a house is built: Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:58; Matthew 26:69, Mark 14:54; Mark 14:66; Mark 15:16 Luke 11:21; Luke 22:55, John 18:15; τ . ναοῦ ,, Revelation 11:2. a dwelling, a palace (so, acc to Grimm-Th., s.v.): Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:58, Mark 14:54; Mark 15:16, Luke 11:21, John 18:15 (but v. MM, s.v.; cf. also DB, ii, 25, 287).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
A Cairo papyrus (iii/B.C.), Chrest. I. 224 b. .11, has ἀπογεγράμμεθα τὴν [ὑ ]πάρχουσα (l.-αν ) ἡμῖν οἰκίαν [κ ]αὶ αὐλὴν καὶ ἄλλο [ο ]ἴκημα . P Lond 45.15 (B.C. 160–59) (= I. p. 36) has a complaint against marauders who had not only sacked a house, but had appropriated to their own uses τὴν προσοῦσαν αὐλὴν καὶ τὸν τῆς οἰκίας τόπον ψιλόν . These will serve as good specimens of the normal use in the papyri, where the word is extremely common, denoting the ";court"; attached to a house : cf. BGU I. 275.6 f. (A.D. 215) αὐλῇ προσκυρούσῃ οἰκίᾳ μου . It could be used for ";lumber"; : see the ostracon from Syene, Archiv v. p. 179, no. 34.5 τὸ ξύλον το ̣̣ [μυρί ]κινον τὸ ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ . Note that οἶκος could include both : P Fay 31.16 (c. A.D. 129) πέμπτον μέρος ὅλνς τῆς οἰκίας καὶ αὐλῆς καὶ τοῦ ὅλου οἴκου ";the fifth part of the whole house and court and of the whole tenement."; So far as we have observed, there is nothing in the Κοινή to support the contention that in the NT αὐλή ever means the house itself : see Meyer on Matthew 26:3. The plural is used of ";guest-chambers,"; as in the interesting P Tebt I. 33.8 (B.C. 112) (= Selections, p. 28) where, amongst the preparations for a Roman visitor, we read—φρόντισον ὡς ἐπὶ τῶν καθηκόντων τόπων αἵ τε αὐλαὶ κατασκ ̣ευα ̣σ ̣[θ ]η ̣σ ̣[ο ]ν ̣ται .
Like the Latin aula and our own court, the word readily comes to denote a Royal entourage, e.g. P Par 49.17 (B.C. 164–58) (= Witkowski .2, p. 70) δόξαντα ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ αὐλῇ εἶναι , ";since he has a brother at Court";; OGIS 735.4 (ii/B.C.) τῶν περὶ αὐλὴν δια [δόχων ], referring to certain officials attached to the court of Ptolemy Philometor; Vettius, p. 89.15, ἐν βασιλικαῖς αὐλαῖς : so also Preisigke 1568 (B.C. 146–17) πρῶτοι φίλοι καὶ χιλίαρχοι καὶ ἄλλοι οἱ περὶ αὐλήν . When, therefore, Suidas defined αὐλή as ἡ τοῦ βασιλέως οἰκία , he was not far out, though αὐλή seemingly cannot mean an ordinary house. BGU IV. 1098.1 (c. B.C. 17) τῷ δεῖν ]ι τῶι ἐπὶ τοῦ ἐν τῆι αὐλῆι κριτηρίου presents a court sitting in the αὐλή , as against Mark 14:66, where the αὐλή is clearly outside the room where the Sanhedrists were in session. Syll 192.28 (B.C. 290–87) ἐν τῆι αὐλεῖ τοῦ ἱεροῦ (al.) illustrates Psa. 83꞉11 [MT Psalms 84:2]; Psa. 83꞉10 [MT Psalms 84:11] : cf. also ib. 734.34 (Cos), where it is forbidden ἀποθήκηι χρᾶσθαι τ [ῆι αὐλ ]ῆι τῆι ἐν τῶι ἱερῶι μηδ᾽ ἐν τῶι περιπάτω [ι , ἂ ]μ μὴ πόλεμος ἦι . In MGr = ";court.";
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the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25