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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #931 - βάσανος

Root Word (Etymology)
perhaps remotely from the same as (G939) (through the notion of going to the bottom)
Parts of Speech
masculine noun
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  1. a touchstone, which is a black siliceous stone used to test the purity of gold or silver by the colour of the streak produced on it by rubbing it with either metal
  2. the rack or instrument of torture by which one is forced to divulge the truth
  3. torture, torment, acute pains
    1. of the pains of a disease
    2. of those in hell after death
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 817 ‑ אָשָׁם (aw‑shawm');  3639 ‑ כְּלִמָּה (kel‑im‑maw');  4383 ‑ מִכְשֹׁל (mik‑shole', mik‑shole');  7269 ‑ רָגְזָה (rog‑zaw');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (3)
Matthew 1
Luke 2
NAS (3)
Matthew 1
Luke 2
CSB (3)
Matthew 1
Luke 2
BSB (3)
Matthew 1
Luke 2
ESV (3)
Matthew 1
Luke 2
WEB (3)
Matthew 1
Luke 2
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

βᾰσᾰν-ος, ἡ,

I touchstone, on which pure gold leaves a yellow streak, ἐς βάσανον δ' ἐλθὼν παρατρίβομαι ὥστε μολύβδῳ χρυσός Thgn. 417; χρυσὸν τριβόμενον βασάνῳ Id. 450, cf. 1105; παρατρίβεσθαι πρὸς τὰς β. Arist. Col. 793b1, cf. HA 597b2: metaph., β. τοῦ ἀρώματος (sc. τοῦ κινναμώμου) τὴν αἶγα εἶναι Philostr. VA 3.4.

II the use of this as a test, χρυσὸς ἐν β. πρέπει Pi. P. 10.67: generally, test, trial of genuineness, οὐκ ἔστιν μείζων β. χρόνου [ Simon. ] 175.1; δόμεν τι βασάνῳ ἐς ἔλεγχον Pi. N. 8.20; σοφὸς ὤφθη βασάνῳ θ' ἁδύπολις S. OT 510 (lyr.), cf. 494; βάσανον λαμβάνειν περί τινος Pl. Lg. 648b; εἰς β. εἶ χερῶν wilt come to a trial of strength, S. OC 835; πλοῦτος β. ἀνθρώπου τρόπων Antiph. 232.5; [ νόσου] ἔσχ' ἐπὶ σοὶ βάσανον had experienced it in you, i. e. you had had it first, IG 14.1320; βάσανον ὑποκείσονται will be subjected to a test, of candidates, POxy. 58.25 (iii A. D.).


1. inquiry by torture, ἐς πᾶσαν β. ἀπικνέεσθαι Hdt. 8.110; εἰς β. αἰτεῖν Herod. 2.88; ἐξετάσαι διὰ βασάνων SIG 780.12 (Astypalaea, Aug.); esp. at Athens, used to extort evidence from slaves, εἰς β. δέχεσθαι Antipho 1.12; εἰς β. παραδοῦναι Isaiah 8:17; ἐκ βασάνων εἰπεῖν ib. 12: in pl., confession upon torture, D. 53.24, Hyp. Fr. 5, Arist. Rh. 1355b37.

2. agony of battle, ἡ κατὰ τὸ ἔργον β. S.E. M. 6.24; tortures of disease, Matthew 4:24; cf. ἐπάγρυπνος β. Vett.Val. 211.28; also ψυχικαί Id. 182.19; torments of hell, Luke 16:23.

3. trespass-offering, LXX 1 Samuel 6:17. — Oriental word.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

βάσανος, βασάνου, (Curtius, p. 439);

a. the touchstone (called also basanite, Latinlapis Lydius), by which gold and other metals are tested.

b. the rack or instrument of torture by which one is forced to divulge the truth.

c. torture, torment, acute pains: used of the pains of disease, Matthew 4:24; of the torments of the wicked after death, ἐν βασάνοις ὑπάρχειν, Luke 16:23 (Wis. 3:1; 4 Macc. 13:14); hence, τόπος τῆς βασάνου is used of Gehenna, Luke 16:28. (In Greek writings from (Theognis), Pindar down.)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

βάσανος , -ου ,

(of Oriental origin),

[in LXX chiefly for H817, H3639, and freq. in 4 Mac;]

1. prop., touchstone, a dark stone used in testing metals.

2. examination by torture.

3. torment, torture: Matthew 4:24, Luke 16:23; Luke 16:28.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

The original sense of ";touchstone,"; ";test,"; appears in P Oxy I. 58.25 (A.D. 288), where provision is made that only such persons are appointed to certain offices as are in a position to stand the test—οἳ καὶ βασάνοις ὑποκείσονται . In P Leid Wvii. 26 ff. (ii/iii A.D.) λέγε · Κλῦτι μοι , ὁ χρηστὸς ἐν βαζάνοις , βοήθησον ἐν ἀνάγκαις , ἐλεήμων ἐν ὥραις βιαίος (i.e. -αις ), πολοὶ (i.e. - ) δυνάμενος ἐν κόσμῳ , ὁ κτίσας τὴν ἀναγκὴ (καὶ ) τιμωρίαν , καὶ τὴν βάσανον , Leemans renders exploratio. For the derived sense, reference may be made to the fragment of a legal code of iii/B.C., P Lille I. 29i. 22, where the judges are empowered to employ ";torture"; in the case of slaves giving evidence, should it be found necessary—τῶν δὲ δούλων τῶν μαρτυρησάντων , οἱ δικασταὶ τὴν βάσανον ἐκ τῶν σωμάτων ποείσθωσαν , παρόντων τῶν ἀντιδίκων , ἐὰμ μὴ ἐκ τῶν τιθέντων δικαιωμάτων δύνωνται κρίνειν . So in a rescript of Augustus, Syll 356.12 (B.C. 6) ἐξετάσαι προστάξας . . . διὰ βασάνων = quaerere tormentis, of slaves after the murder of their master. See also the new uncanonical Gospel, P Oxy V. 840.6 κόλασιν ὑπομένουσιν καὶ πολ [λ ]ὴν βάσανον , where the editors strangely remark that this use of β ., as relating to punishment in the next world, is not found in NT : but cf. Luke 16:23; Luke 16:28. Vettius Valens, p. 182.19, has the phrase ψυχικὰς βασάνους : cf. p. 201.32 ἐπὶ βασάνῳ καὶ ζημίᾳ καὶ κινδύνῳ , and p. 211.28 ὀδυνηρὰν ἐπάγρυπνον βάσανον .



The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
βασανοις βασάνοις βάσανον βάσανόν βάσανος βασανου βασάνου basanois basánois basanou basánou
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