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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #931 - βάσανος
- a touchstone, which is a black siliceous stone used to test the purity of gold or silver by the colour of the streak produced on it by rubbing it with either metal
- the rack or instrument of torture by which one is forced to divulge the truth
- torture, torment, acute pains
- of the pains of a disease
- of those in hell after death
I touchstone, on which pure gold leaves a yellow streak, ἐς βάσανον δ' ἐλθὼν παρατρίβομαι ὥστε μολύβδῳ χρυσός Thgn. 417; χρυσὸν τριβόμενον βασάνῳ Id. 450, cf. 1105; παρατρίβεσθαι πρὸς τὰς β. Arist. Col. 793b1, cf. HA 597b2: metaph., β. τοῦ ἀρώματος (sc. τοῦ κινναμώμου) τὴν αἶγα εἶναι Philostr. VA 3.4.
II the use of this as a test, χρυσὸς ἐν β. πρέπει Pi. P. 10.67: generally, test, trial of genuineness, οὐκ ἔστιν μείζων β. χρόνου [ Simon. ] 175.1; δόμεν τι βασάνῳ ἐς ἔλεγχον Pi. N. 8.20; σοφὸς ὤφθη βασάνῳ θ' ἁδύπολις S. OT 510 (lyr.), cf. 494; βάσανον λαμβάνειν περί τινος Pl. Lg. 648b; εἰς β. εἶ χερῶν wilt come to a trial of strength, S. OC 835; πλοῦτος β. ἀνθρώπου τρόπων Antiph. 232.5; [ νόσου] ἔσχ' ἐπὶ σοὶ βάσανον had experienced it in you, i. e. you had had it first, IG 14.1320; βάσανον ὑποκείσονται will be subjected to a test, of candidates, POxy. 58.25 (iii A. D.).
1. inquiry by torture, ἐς πᾶσαν β. ἀπικνέεσθαι Hdt. 8.110; εἰς β. αἰτεῖν Herod. 2.88; ἐξετάσαι διὰ βασάνων SIG 780.12 (Astypalaea, Aug.); esp. at Athens, used to extort evidence from slaves, εἰς β. δέχεσθαι Antipho 1.12; εἰς β. παραδοῦναι Isaiah 8:17; ἐκ βασάνων εἰπεῖν ib. 12: in pl., confession upon torture, D. 53.24, Hyp. Fr. 5, Arist. Rh. 1355b37.
2. agony of battle, ἡ κατὰ τὸ ἔργον β. S.E. M. 6.24; tortures of disease, Matthew 4:24; cf. ἐπάγρυπνος β. Vett.Val. 211.28; also ψυχικαί Id. 182.19; torments of hell, Luke 16:23.
3. trespass-offering, LXX 1 Samuel 6:17. — Oriental word.
βάσανος , -ου , ὁ
(of Oriental origin),
1. prop., touchstone, a dark stone used in testing metals.
2. examination by torture.
3. torment, torture: Matthew 4:24, Luke 16:23; Luke 16:28.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The original sense of ";touchstone,"; ";test,"; appears in P Oxy I. 58.25 (A.D. 288), where provision is made that only such persons are appointed to certain offices as are in a position to stand the test—οἳ καὶ βασάνοις ὑποκείσονται . In P Leid Wvii. 26 ff. (ii/iii A.D.) λέγε · Κλῦτι μοι , ὁ χρηστὸς ἐν βαζάνοις , βοήθησον ἐν ἀνάγκαις , ἐλεήμων ἐν ὥραις βιαίος (i.e. -αις ), πολοὶ (i.e. -ὺ ) δυνάμενος ἐν κόσμῳ , ὁ κτίσας τὴν ἀναγκὴ (καὶ ) τιμωρίαν , καὶ τὴν βάσανον , Leemans renders exploratio. For the derived sense, reference may be made to the fragment of a legal code of iii/B.C., P Lille I. 29i. 22, where the judges are empowered to employ ";torture"; in the case of slaves giving evidence, should it be found necessary—τῶν δὲ δούλων τῶν μαρτυρησάντων , οἱ δικασταὶ τὴν βάσανον ἐκ τῶν σωμάτων ποείσθωσαν , παρόντων τῶν ἀντιδίκων , ἐὰμ μὴ ἐκ τῶν τιθέντων δικαιωμάτων δύνωνται κρίνειν . So in a rescript of Augustus, Syll 356.12 (B.C. 6) ἐξετάσαι προστάξας . . . διὰ βασάνων = quaerere tormentis, of slaves after the murder of their master. See also the new uncanonical Gospel, P Oxy V. 840.6 κόλασιν ὑπομένουσιν καὶ πολ [λ ]ὴν βάσανον , where the editors strangely remark that this use of β ., as relating to punishment in the next world, is not found in NT : but cf. Luke 16:23; Luke 16:28. Vettius Valens, p. 182.19, has the phrase ψυχικὰς βασάνους : cf. p. 201.32 ἐπὶ βασάνῳ καὶ ζημίᾳ καὶ κινδύνῳ , and p. 211.28 ὀδυνηρὰν ἐπάγρυπνον βάσανον .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Third Week after Epiphany