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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #06440 - פָּנֶה
1a) face, faces
1b) presence, person
1c) face (of seraphim or cherubim)
1d) face (of animals)
1e) face, surface (of ground)
1f) as adverb of loc/temp
1f1) before and behind, toward, in front of, forward, formerly, from beforetime, before
1g) with preposition
1g1) in front of, before, to the front of, in the presence of, in the face of, at the face or front of, from the presence of, from before, from before the face of
V) enp (פנה PNH) - Turn: To turn the face or to turn directions. Also to turn something back or away. KJV (135): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hophal, Piel) turn, look, prepare, regard, respect, look - Strongs: H6437 (פָּנָה)
Nm) enp (פנה PNH) - Face: The face, also the presence of one through the sense of being in the face of. [Always written in the plural form, minp; Frequently used with the prefix "l ", meaning "to" or "for", meaning "to the face of" or "before"] KJV (2110): face, presence, because, sight, countenance, from, person, upon, of, against, open, for, toward - Strongs: H3942 (לִפְנַי), H6440 (פָּנֶה)
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
פָּנֶה not used in sing. (though another form of it, פְּנִי, פְּנוּ appears in the pr.n. פְּנִיאֵל, פְּנוּאֵל), pl. פָּנִים constr. פְּנֵי m. (but f. Ezekiel 21:21).
(1) the face (prop. the part turned towards any one, see Ezekiel 21:3, from the root פָּנָה, compare Arab. وَجْةُ face, from وجه V. to turn oneself in any direction; for the use of the pl. compare Gr. τὰ πρόσωπα in Homer), Genesis 38:15, 50:1 Exodus 3:6, and frequently. Constr. with a pl. verb and adj. Job 38:30; Daniel 1:10 in the fem. Ezekiel 21:21 more rarely sing. Lamentations 4:16; Proverbs 15:14. Also used for the pl., as אַרְבָּעָה פָּנִים Ezekiel 1:6, 10:21 41:18 לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים bread of the face (see לֶחֶם ), and שֻׁלְחַן הַפָּנִים the table on which these loaves were set, Numbers 4:7.
Specially these phrases are to be noticed
(a) פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים Genesis 32:31; Deuteronomy 34:10, and פָּנִים בְּפָנִים Deuteronomy 5:4, used of the face.
(b) to say and do any thing עַל פְּנֵי פ׳ to any one’s face, i.e. freely, frankly, and even often impudently and insolently, in contempt of him, ihm zum Troß und Hohn (compare the French dire dans la barbe, as in Latin, laudare in os, Ter.), Job 1:11, עַל פָּנֶיךָ יְבָֽרְכֶךָ “he will curse thee to thy face;” Job 21:31; Isaiah 65:3, “who provoke me עַל פָּנַי to my face,” i.e. in contempt and scorn of me. In the same sense there is said אֶל פָּנִים Job 2:5, 13:15 Deuteronomy 7:10. אֶל פָּנָיו יְשַׁלֶּם לוֹ “(God) will recompense to him to his face” (to an enemy), i.e. firmly and without delay. (Vulg. statim. In the other member לֹא יְאַחֵר.) Here belongs the expression עָנָה בְּפָנָיו to answer in his face, i.e to refute him firmly, freely, openly; Job 16:8, כַּחְשִׁי בְּפָנַי יַעֲנֶה “my leanness answers in my face,” i.e. testifies strongly against me; Hosea 5:5, 7:10.
(c) שׂוּם פָּנִים אֶל to direct one’s face or looks towards any one, Ezekiel 6:2 followed by עַל 1 Kings 2:15. But
(d) שׂוּם פָּנָיו followed by an acc. to turn one’s face in any direction, i.e. to direct one’s course thither, to go, Genesis 31:21 followed by a gerund, to intend, to propose to oneself to do any thing; but, however, used specially of going, Jeremiah 42:15, 17 Jeremiah 42:17, 44:12 2 Kings 12:18; Daniel 11:17. The same is נָתַן פָּנָיו לְ 2 Chronicles 20:3; Daniel 9:3; 2 Chronicles 32:2, וּפָנָיו לַמִּלְחָמָה “and (set) his face upon war.” In the New Test. see Luke 9:53. (In Syriac in the same sense ܙܰܦܰܘ̈ܗܝ ܣܳܡ to set one’s face, ܣܡܳ ܚܝܳܪܶܗ to set one’s sight; Pers. روى آوردن rui awerden; see my observations on Luke loc. cit., in Rosenmüller, Repert. i. p. 135.)-In two other phrases פָּנִים is used of an angry countenance (compare Psalms 21:10, 34:17 80:17 of a sad countenance, 1 Samuel 1:18; Job 9:27).
(e) שׂוּם פָּנִים בְּ to look on any one with an angry countenance, Levit. 20:5 with the addition of the words לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה Jeremiah 21:10 compare לְרָעָה Jeremiah 44:11 (opp. to שׂוּם עַיִן עַלּ under the word עַיִן No. 1, letter e).
(f) נָתַן פָּנִים בְּ to pour out one’s anger against any one, Leviticus 20:3, Leviticus 20:6, 26:17 Ezekiel 14:8.-Other phrases, as חִלָּה פָנִים, הֵשִׁיב פָּנִים see under those words.
(2) person, personal presence, presence, Gr. πρόσωπον. Exodus 33:14, פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ “my person shall go,” i.e. I myself, I in person (ich in Herfon) will go. 2 Samuel 17:11; Lamentations 4:16. As to the phrase נָשָׂא פָנִים and הִכִּיר פָּנִים see under those words.-Sometimes without any emphasis פָּנַי my person is I. Ps. 42:12 43:5 compare טָחַן פְּנֵי עֲנִיִּים to oppress the persons of the afflicted; i.e. the afflicted, Isaiah 3:15.-Figuratively applied to inanimate things it is
(3) the face, the surface of a thing, e.g. of the earth, Genesis 2:6; Isaiah 14:21 of a field, Isaiah 28:25 of the water, Job 38:30, etc. Less clear is the passage, Job 41:5, מִי גִלָּה פְּנֵי לְבוּשׁוֹ “who shall uncover the face of his garment” (the crocodile’s), i.e. his garment itself, that is, his surface or upper part which covers the rest (compare עַל No. 1, a). So also פְּנֵי לוֹט of a veil itself as a covering, Isai. 25:7.-Comp. אֶלּ פְּנֵי No. 2, עַל פְּנֵי Nos. 1, 2. Hence it is
(a) the external appearance, state, condition, of a thing. Proverbs 27:23, “look well to the condition of thy flock,” bekümmere dich darum, wie deine Heerde ausfieht.
(b) way and manner, as in the Rabbinic. Compare وَجْهُ face, manner. See below לִפְנֵי No. 3.
(4) the forepart, front of a thing (Arab. وَجْهُ id.). Jeremiah 1:13, וּפָנָיו מִפְּנֵי צָפוֹנָה “and the front thereof (of the pot) looked towards the north;” used of the front of an army (Gr. πρόσωπον), Joel 2:20. Adv. פָּנִים in front (opp. to אָחוֹר) Ezekiel 2:10 לְפָנִים forwards (vorwärts), Jeremiah 7:24 used of time, before, of old; Deuteronomy 2:10, 12 Joshua 11:10, 14:15 מִלְּפָנִים anciently, Isai. 41:26 מִפָּנִים in front, 2 Samuel 10:9. Compare לִפְנֵי No. 2.-The front part of a sword is its edge. Ezekiel 21:21, אָנָה פָּנַיִךְ מֻעָדוֹת “whither is thy edge (that of a sword) directed?” Ecclesiastes 10:10.-Also פָּנִים is used for the wall of a house opposite the door, Hom. τὰ ἐνώπια, whence with ה parag. פְּנִימָה which see.
With prepositions it often becomes in nature a particle:
(A) אֶל פְּנֵי
(1) (a) into the presence of any one, 2 Chronicles 19:2 before, Leviticus 9:5; Numbers 17:8, after a verb of motion.
(b) in the presence of, Exodus 23:17.
(2) upon the surface of a thing, e.g. אֶל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה Leviticus 14:53; Ezekiel 16:5.-See another meaning of this, above, No. 1, letter b.
(B) אֶת פְּנֵי pr. by the face, i.e. in the presence of any one, before any one, e.g. אֶת־פְּנֵי הַפֶּלֶךְ Esther 1:10 אֶת פֶּנֵי יְיָ before God, Genesis 19:13 sometimes for, at the holy tabernacle, in the phrase, נִרְאָה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְיָ [to appear before Jehovah], to appear in the sanctuary, Exodus 34:23, 24 Exodus 34:24; Deuteronomy 31:11; 1 Samuel 1:22 (for which there is also used נ׳ אֶל פְּנֵי יְיָ Exodus 23:17 and poet. נ׳ פְּנֵי יְיָ Isaiah 1:12; Psalms 42:3 in which latter phrase פְּנֵי should be taken for an acc. of place); before, e.g. אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר before the city, Genesis 33:18, אֶת־פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת before the vail, Leviticus 4:6. After verbs of motion, into the presence of any one, 1 Samuel 22:4.-מֵאֵת פְּנֵי from before (the presence of) any one, Genesis 27:30 from before, from the front, 2 Kings 16:14.
(C) בִּפְנֵי i.q. לִפְנֵי before, in front of, but chiefly in the writers of later age, Ezekiel 42:12 mostly in the phrase עָמַד בִּפְנֵי to stand before any one, to resist him, Deuteron. 7:24 11:25 Joshua 10:8, 21:44 23:9 Esther 9:2.-The proper force of a substantive is to be retained in the words, Ezekiel 6:9, נָקֹטּוּ בִּפְנֵיהֶם they manifest loathing in their countenances; compare Ezekiel 20:43, 36:31.
(D) לִפְנֵי with suff. לְפָנַי, לְפָנֶיךָ, לְפָנָיו, לִפְנֵיכֶם, לִפְנֵיהֶם
(1) in the presence of any one, under his eyes, he being present and looking on; before any one. Numbers 8:22, “the Levites went in to minister … לִפִנֵי אַהֲרוֹן וְלִפְנֵי בָנָיו before Aaron and his sons;” i.e. under their oversight; 2 Kings 4:38; Zechariah 3:8. לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ in the presence of the sun, i.e. so long as the sun (which poets compare to the eye, see עַפְעַפַּיִם, שָׁזַף ) shall shine on and illuminate the earth, Psalms 72:17 comp. לִפְנֵי יָרֵחַ verse Psalms 72:5(but Job 8:16 לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ is while the sun is shining). Often figuratively, i.q. בְּעֵינֵי in the eyes of any one; i.q. in his judgment. חֶסֶד וְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי favour and tender love with any one, Daniel 1:9; 1 Kings 8:50; Psalms 106:46 יָטַב לִפְנֵי i.q. יָטַב בְּעֵינֵי see יָטַב. גָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנָיו having great influence with his lord, 2 Kings 5:1 comp. Proverbs 4:3, 14:12 specially is the phrase to be noticed לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה
(a) prop. in the presence of Jehovah, under his eyes, Genesis 27:7 before the holy tabernacle, Exodus 34:34; Leviticus 9:5, 23:40 Judges 21:2 in the temple and its porches, Isaiah 23:18.
(b) figuratively, in the judgment of Jehovah (comp. עִם No. 2, c); e.g. אָרוּר לִפְנֵי יְיָ Joshua 6:26 but commonly in a good sense with the approbation of Jehovah (since we only put those things which please us before our eyes; comp. רָאָה בְ); hence רָצוֹן לִפְנֵי יְיָ favour with Jehovah, Exodus 28:38 הִתְהַלֵּךְ לִפְנֵי יְיָ to lead a life approved of Jehovah (see הִתְהַלֵּךְ ). Genesis 10:9, “a mighty hunter לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה such as was pleasing to the Lord” [?]. Ps. 19:15, “let the meditation of my heart לְפָנֶיךָ be pleasing to thee.” The things in which Jehovah is pleased are decreed by him. Hence, Genesis 6:13, “an end of the whole earth בָּא לְפָנַי is decreed by me.” Farther, its use is to be noticed in these expressions
(aa) עָמַד לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ to stand before the king, waiting his commands; i.e. to minister to him (see עָמַד ); compare עָבַד לִפְנֵי 2 Samuel 16:19.
(bb) to worship before a deity (see הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה ). 1 Kings 12:30, “to worship one (of the calves).”
(cc) to be put to flight before an enemy (see נָגַף Niph.); hence used after verbs of dispersing, disturbing, Judges 4:15; 1 Samuel 14:13, 20:1 2 Samuel 5:20; Jeremiah 1:17, 49:37 (comp. below מִפְּנֵי).
(dd) נָתַן לִפְנֵי פְ׳ to put before another, e.g. food, 2 Kings 4:43 hence to propose to any one for choice, Deuteronomy 11:26 to impose a law to be observed, Deuteronomy 4:8; 1 Kings 9:6 Jerem. 26:4 44:10 Ezekiel 23:24 also to give into any one’s power (i.q. בְּיַד פּ׳), Joshua 10:12; Deuteronomy 2:33, 36 Judges 11:9; 1 Kings 8:46; Isaiah 41:2. So also without a verb of giving, Genesis 24:51, “behold, let Rebecca לְפָנֶיךָ be given to thee;” Genesis 34:10, “the land is before you,” let it be free for you and your flocks; 2 Chronicles 14:6.
(2) before, in front of (compare פָּנִים No. 4).
(a) used of place; לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מִוֹעֵד before the tabernacle of the congregation, 1 Chronicles 6:17 hence eastward, Genesis 23:17, 25:18 Deuteronomy 32:49 also before, as taking the lead; chiefly used of a general or leader, who goes at the head of his army (see לִפְנֵי הָעָם יָצָא וּבָא under the word בּוֹא No. 1, let. ); used of a king it is before, at the head of his people (Ecclesiastes 4:16, “there was no end to all the people לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיהֶם to all over (before) whom he was”); also used of captives or booty which the conqueror, like a shepherd driving his sheep (Genesis 32:18), drives before him (Isaiah 8:4; Amos 9:4; Lamentations 1:5, ).
(b) used of time, e.g. לִפְנֵי הָרַעַשׁ before the earthquake, Amos 1:1; Genesis 13:10, 29:26 Proverbs 8:25; Zechariah 8:10. Genesis 30:30, לְפָנַי “before me,” i.e. before I had come to thee; Jerem. 28:8. לִפְנֵי מִוֶּה before now, Nehemiah 13:4. Followed by an inf. before that, Genesis 13:10; Deuteronomy 33:1; 1 Samuel 9:15.
(c) used of worth, superiority (like the Lat. ante, prœ). Job 34:19, “he does not regard the rich לִפְנֵי דָל before (more than) the poor.” After verbs of motion.
(d) to one’s front, with the idea of meeting; as קָרָה לִפְנֵי פ׳ to meet any one, Genesis 24:12 and more frequently with a hostile sense, against (ἀντί); prop. into the face, front part; as קוּם לִפְנֵי to rise against any one, Numbers 16:2 יָצָא לִפְנֵי to go out against, 1 Chronicles 14:8; 2 Chronicles 14:9 also לִפְנֵי עָמַד (see עָמַד ); קוּם לִפְנֵי Joshua 7:12, 13 Joshua 7:13הִתְיַצֵּכ לִפְנֵי to stand against any one, to resist.
(3) in the manner of, like (compare פָּנִים No. 3, letter b); Job 4:19, “they fall לִפְנֵי עָשׁ as before the moth;” Vulg. sicut a tinea; LXX. σητὸς τρόπον; compare Latin ad faciem, Plaut. Cist. i. 1, 73. So נָתַן לִפְנֵי to regard as for any one (compare נָתַן כְּ), 1 Samuel 1:16. From לִפְנֵי has arisen the adj. לִפְּנַי anterior, which see.
Note. Of doubtful authority are the significations
(α) for (compare נֶגֶד, and Germ. vor and für), in the phrase עָרַב לִפְנֵי to be surety for any one, Proverbs 17:18 (for the surety used to give his pledge before his friend).
(β) on account of (as מִלְּפְנֵי מִפְּנֵי), in סָפַד לִפְנֵי to lament on account of any one, 2 Samuel 3:31 (for mourners used in funerals to go foremost; see Geier, De Luctu Hebræorum, cap. v. § 15-19).
(E) מִלִּפְנֵי (from before).
(1) from the presence of any one, used of those who were before any thing, and who go away from that place, e.g. to go out מִלִּפְנֵי יְיָ Leviticus 9:24 מִלִּפְנֵי פַרְעֹה Genesis 41:46. Hence after verbs of fleeing (compare מִן No. 3, letter a), and of putting to flight, 1 Chronicles 19:18; 2 Chronicles 20:7 of fearing and of putting in fear, 1 Samuel 18:12; Psalms 97:5, 114:7 Ecclesiastes 8:13; Esther 7:6 and also those of asking aid (an idea connected with that of fleeing), 1 Samuel 8:18 of humbling oneself, 1 Kings 21:29; 2 Chronicles 33:12, 36:12.
(2) Used figuratively of the cause, on account of, i.q. מִפְּנֵי, מִן e.g. to rejoice on account of, 1 Chronicles 16:33.
(1) from the face, presence, front, of a pers. or thing, vor (etwas) weg; Exodus 14:19, “and the column went away מִפְּנֵהֶם from before them (vor ihnen weg), and stood behind them.” Hence it is frequently used after verbs of going away, Hosea 11:2 of fleeing (compare מִן No. 3, letter a, from which it differs in that מִפְּנֵי is mostly put before persons, מִן before things, see חָתַת Niphal), Genesis 7:7, 16:8 Isaiah 20:6 compare Psalms 61:4 of asking aid, Isaiah 19:20, 26:17 of fearing (see יָרֵא, חָתַת Niphal); of reverencing, humbling oneself, 2 Kings 22:19; Leviticus 19:32 of hiding oneself, Job 23:17, and other verbs which resemble these in meaning. So the sense of fleeing and fearing is involved in the following, Judges 9:21, “he dwelt there after he had fled מִפְּנֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ אָחִיו from the presence of Abimelech his brother.” Well rendered in the Vulg. ob metum A. fratris sui, 1 Chronicles 12:1 (on which passage, see עָצַר in Kal). Isaiah 17:9, “desolate houses (see עֲזוּבָה ) אֲשֶׁר … עָֽזְבוּ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל which those deserted (who fled) from the Israelites,” i.e. the aborigines of Palestine (see note on this passage in Germ. Trans., ed. 2).
(2) Used of the author and efficient cause from which anything proceeds, i.q. מִן No. 2, letter c. Genesis 6:13, “the earth is full of violence מִפְּנֵיהֶם (which proceeds) from them.” (LXX. well render it ἀπʼ αὐτῶν.) Exodus 8:20; Judges 6:6; Jeremiah 15:17; Ezekiel 14:15. Used of a more remote cause, on account of. Isaiah 10:27, “the yoke shall be broken מִפְּנֵי שָׁמֶ֑ן on account of the fatness (of the bull)”[?]. Deuteronomy 28:20; Hosea 10:15; Jeremiah 9:6. Where the reason is given on account of which anything is not done, Lat. prœ, Job 37:19; 1 Kings 8:11. Followed by אֲשֶׁר it becomes a conj. because that, because, Exodus 19:18; Jeremiah 44:23.
I wonder that Winer (page 779) should also have added the following significations, before, in the presence of, citing Levit. 19:32 (where קוּם מִפְּנֵי to rise up to any one, is used as a mark of modesty and reverence to old age (see above, No. 1); and even towards (as though it were אֶל פְּנֵי), Jeremiah 1:13 (as to which passage see under the word פָּנִים No. 4 ).
(G) עַל פְּנֵי has various significations, according to the different senses of the noun and of the particle.
(1) From the signification of face and front (No. 1, 4), it is
(a) to the face, before the face of any one, in the presence of, i.q. לִפְנֵי No. 1 (see עַל No. 3, ), Genesis 32:22; Leviticus 10:3; Psalms 9:20; 2 Kings 13:14 having any one present and looking on, Numbers 3:4.- Job 6:28, עַל פְּנֵיכֶם אִם אֲכַזֵּב “before your eyes (it will be) (i.e. it will be manifest), whether I lie?” מֵעַלּ פְּנֵי=מִלִּפְנֵי Genesis 23:3.
(b) in front of a thing, before, 2 Chronicles 3:17. Psalms 18:43, “as dust before the wind,” driven by the wind. Here also belong the following: 1 Kings 6:3, “the length of it (the vestibule) עַל פְּנֵי רֹחַב הַבַּיִת before the breadth of the temple” (vor der Breite des Tempels hin). 2 Chronicles 3:8 and Genesis 1:20, “and let fowl fly … עַל פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם in front of (or before) the firmament of heaven.” Also, eastward, Genesis 16:12, 23:19 25:18 Joshua 18:14; 1 Kings 17:3, 1 Kings 17:5; Zechariah 14:4 before, used of time, Genesis 11:28 of worth (prœ), Deuteronomy 21:16.
(c) to or towards the face or front of anything (compare עַל No. 4); hence towards, Genesis 18:16, 19:28 and against, Psalms 21:13; Nahum 2:2.
(2) From the signification of surface, עַל פְּנֵי is
(a) on the surface, e.g. of the earth, Genesis 1:29, 6:1 the waters, Genesis 1:2 of a valley, Ezekiel 37:2 whence מֵעַל פְּנֵי used of those who are removed from the surface, 1 Samuel 20:15; Amos 9:8.
(b) upon, along upon the surface, e.g. of the earth, Amos 5:8 of a field, Leviticus 14:7; Ezekiel 32:4.
(c) out upon, or over the surface (über die Oberfläche hin), Genesis 11:8; Leviticus 16:14, 15 Leviticus 16:15; Isaiah 18:2.-Used figuratively
(d) in the sense of superadding, like עַל (No. 1, letter b, a), above, besides, ἐπί. Exodus 20:3, “thou shalt have no other gods עַל פָּנַי upon me,” i.e. besides me. Well given by the LXX. πλὴν ἐμοῦ. Chald. בַּר מִנִּי. Job 16:14.
the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25