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Bible Lexicons

Old Testament Hebrew Lexical DictionaryHebrew Lexicon

Strong's #06440 - פָּנֶה

Root Word (Etymology)
from (H6437)
Parts of Speech
masculine noun
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1) face

1a) face, faces

1b) presence, person

1c) face (of seraphim or cherubim)

1d) face (of animals)

1e) face, surface (of ground)

1f) as adverb of loc/temp

1f1) before and behind, toward, in front of, forward, formerly, from beforetime, before

1g) with preposition

1g1) in front of, before, to the front of, in the presence of, in the face of, at the face or front of, from the presence of, from before, from before the face of

Greek Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 3788 ‑ ὀφθαλμός (of‑thal‑mos');  4286 ‑ πρόθεσις (proth'‑es‑is);  4295 ‑ πρόκειμαι (prok'‑i‑mahee);  4376 ‑ προσφορά (pros‑for‑ah');  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  5222 ‑ ὑπάντησις (hoop‑an'‑tay‑sis);  5288 ‑ ὑποστέλλω (hoop‑os‑tel'‑lo);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  1715 ‑ ἔμπροσθεν (em'‑pros‑then);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  4386 ‑ πρότερον (prot'‑er‑on);  2082 ‑ ἐσώτερος (es‑o'‑ter‑os);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  4383 ‑ πρόσωπον (pros'‑o‑pon);  746 ‑ ἀρχή (ar‑khay');  991 ‑ βλέπω (blep'‑o);  1799 ‑ ἐνώπιον (en‑o'‑pee‑on);  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (2076)
Genesis 140
Exodus 123
Leviticus 105
Numbers 117
Deuteronomy 130
Joshua 90
Judges 45
Ruth 2
1 Samuel 97
2 Samuel 71
1 Kings 95
2 Kings 72
1 Chronicles 61
2 Chronicles 116
Ezra 10
Nehemiah 30
Esther 36
Job 69
Psalms 133
Proverbs 39
Ecclesiastes 21
Song of Solomon 2
Isaiah 87
Jeremiah 120
Lamentations 11
Ezekiel 152
Daniel 32
Hosea 9
Joel 8
Amos 7
Jonah 4
Micah 5
Nahum 5
Habakkuk 3
Zephaniah 3
Haggai 2
Zechariah 16
Malachi 8
NAS (1627)
Genesis 111
Exodus 103
Leviticus 94
Numbers 105
Deuteronomy 98
Joshua 65
Judges 30
Ruth 3
1 Samuel 77
2 Samuel 60
1 Kings 68
2 Kings 50
1 Chronicles 48
2 Chronicles 84
Ezra 9
Nehemiah 26
Esther 26
Job 48
Psalms 108
Proverbs 34
Ecclesiastes 13
Song of Solomon 3
Isaiah 57
Jeremiah 79
Lamentations 7
Ezekiel 139
Daniel 28
Hosea 7
Joel 7
Amos 5
Jonah 4
Micah 4
Nahum 4
Habakkuk 2
Zephaniah 2
Haggai 1
Zechariah 11
Malachi 7
CSB (1990)
Genesis 125
Exodus 122
Leviticus 104
Numbers 104
Deuteronomy 125
Joshua 89
Judges 44
Ruth 2
1 Samuel 94
2 Samuel 61
1 Kings 98
2 Kings 71
1 Chronicles 60
2 Chronicles 112
Ezra 10
Nehemiah 29
Esther 31
Job 65
Psalms 122
Proverbs 39
Ecclesiastes 21
Song of Solomon 1
Isaiah 84
Jeremiah 117
Lamentations 11
Ezekiel 147
Daniel 31
Hosea 9
Joel 8
Amos 7
Jonah 4
Micah 5
Nahum 5
Habakkuk 3
Zephaniah 3
Haggai 1
Zechariah 16
Malachi 10
BSB (2177)
Genesis 190
Exodus 128
Leviticus 107
Numbers 119
Deuteronomy 132
Joshua 91
Judges 46
Ruth 2
1 Samuel 98
2 Samuel 73
1 Kings 101
2 Kings 73
1 Chronicles 63
2 Chronicles 119
Ezra 10
Nehemiah 31
Esther 37
Job 70
Psalms 133
Proverbs 43
Ecclesiastes 21
Song of Solomon 2
Isaiah 89
Jeremiah 128
Lamentations 11
Ezekiel 155
Daniel 33
Hosea 9
Joel 8
Amos 7
Jonah 4
Micah 5
Nahum 5
Habakkuk 3
Zephaniah 3
Haggai 2
Zechariah 16
Malachi 10
ESV (1950)
Genesis 137
Exodus 160
Leviticus 103
Numbers 114
Deuteronomy 117
Joshua 83
Judges 45
Ruth 2
1 Samuel 94
2 Samuel 68
1 Kings 87
2 Kings 66
1 Chronicles 60
2 Chronicles 106
Ezra 9
Nehemiah 28
Esther 35
Job 60
Psalms 109
Proverbs 38
Ecclesiastes 15
Song of Solomon 32
Isaiah 58
Jeremiah 85
Lamentations 9
Ezekiel 136
Daniel 32
Hosea 9
Joel 1
Amos 7
Jonah 4
Micah 5
Nahum 3
Habakkuk 3
Zephaniah 3
Haggai 2
Zechariah 16
Malachi 9
WEB (2085)
Genesis 149
Exodus 121
Leviticus 103
Numbers 117
Deuteronomy 131
Joshua 91
Judges 46
Ruth 2
1 Samuel 96
2 Samuel 73
1 Kings 93
2 Kings 71
1 Chronicles 62
2 Chronicles 114
Ezra 10
Nehemiah 30
Esther 36
Job 68
Psalms 130
Proverbs 41
Ecclesiastes 20
Song of Solomon 2
Isaiah 89
Jeremiah 122
Lamentations 11
Ezekiel 154
Daniel 33
Hosea 9
Joel 8
Amos 7
Jonah 4
Micah 5
Nahum 5
Habakkuk 3
Zephaniah 3
Haggai 2
Zechariah 16
Malachi 8
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1382) np (פנ PN) AC: Turn CO: Face AB: ?: The turning of the face. (eng: fan; spin)

A) np (פנ PN) AC: ? CO: Corner AB: ?

Nm ) np (פנ PN) - I. Corner: II. Or:As a turning toward another direction. KJV (6): corner, lest, not, peradventure - Strongs: H6434 (פֵּן), H6435 (פֶּן)

B) nnp (פננ PNN) AC: Turn CO: ? AB: ?

bm ) ninp (פנינ PNYN) - Ruby: A gem that glistens when turned. [df: ynp] KJV (6): ruby - Strongs: H6443 (פָּנִי)

C) npa (אפנ APN) AC: Turn CO: Wheel AB: ?: A turning object.

Nm) npa (אפנ APN) - Turning: KJV (1): fitly - Strongs: H655 (אֹפֶן)

gm) npfa (אופנ AWPN) - Wheel: KJV (36): wheel - Strongs: H212 (אֹפָן)

H) enp (פנה PNH) AC: Turn CO: Face AB: ?: What turns back and forth.

V) enp (פנה PNH) - Turn: To turn the face or to turn directions. Also to turn something back or away. KJV (135): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hophal, Piel) turn, look, prepare, regard, respect, look - Strongs: H6437 (פָּנָה)

Nm) enp (פנה PNH) - Face: The face, also the presence of one through the sense of being in the face of. [Always written in the plural form, minp; Frequently used with the prefix "l ", meaning "to" or "for", meaning "to the face of" or "before"] KJV (2110): face, presence, because, sight, countenance, from, person, upon, of, against, open, for, toward - Strongs: H3942 (לִפְנַי), H6440 (פָּנֶה)

J) nfp (פונ PWN) AC: Turn CO: ? AB: ?

V) nfp (פונ PWN) - Turn: KJV (1): (vf: Paal) distracted - Strongs: H6323 (פּוּן)

M) nip (פינ PYN) AC: ? CO: Corner AB: ?: A point which makes a turn.

Nf1) enip (פינה PYNH) - Corner: KJV (28): corner, chief, tower, bulwark, stay - Strongs: H6438 (פִּנָּה)

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2024
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Brown-Driver-Briggs Expanded Definition
 [מָּנֶה], plural מָּנִים2123

noun masculine Proverbs 25:23 and (Ezekiel = Proverbs 21:21 = edge; on 2 Samuel 10:9 see below) feminine face, also faces (as turned toward one); — plural absolute מָּנִים Genesis 32:31 +; construct מְּנֵי 2 Samuel 14:32 +; suffix 1 singular מָּנַי Genesis 43:3 +; 3 masculine singular מָּנָיו Genesis 4:5 +, מָּנֵי֑מוֺ Psalm 11:7 (Kö ll 1:446); 2 masculine pluralמְּנֵיכֶם Genesis 40:7 +, etc.; — usually with verb plural, Genesis 4:5,6; Exodus 33:14 +; with verb singular Lamentations 4:16 (through influence of intervening ׳י, Ges§ 146a), Proverbs 15:14 (but read מִּי, as Qr, see מֶּה); —

I:1. face, faces ( Jeremiah 30:6; Ezekiel 27:35 +, compare Ezekiel 1:6; Ezekiel 10:14,21etc.):

a. literally, of man Genesis 43:31; 2 Samuel 19:5; 1 Kings 19:13; Leviticus 13:14; Daniel 8:18; Daniel 10:9,15 +; ׳עוֺר פ Exodus 35:29,30,35; pale (from alarm) Isaiah 29:22; Jeremiah 30:6, flushed Isaiah 13:8; Ezekiel 21:3, compare Nahum 2:11; Joel 2:6; tearful Isaiah 25:8; Job 16:16; sad, רעים׳פ Genesis 40:7, compare Nehemiah 2:2,3, also ׳רֹעַ פ Ecclesiastes 7:8i.e. sadness; ׳יֵּיטִב פ Proverbs 15:13 maketh glad the face; נָָֽפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ, Genesis 4:5,6 why is the face fallen (in displeasure), compare 1 Samuel 1:18 (reading נָָֽפְלָה, נָָֽפְ לוּ, or הִמִּילָה); covered with shame Ezekiel 7:18, whence figurative of confusion, discomfiture Jeremiah 51:51; Psalm 69:8; Psalm 83:17, etc.

b. of ׳י Exodus 33:20, compare Exodus 33:23.

c.מָּנִים אֶלמָּֿנִים face to face, of seeing (God) Genesis 32:31, compare Judges 6:22, knowing Deuteronomy 34:10, judging Ezekiel 20:35, speaking Exodus 33:11, and so ׳בְּפ׳פ Deuteronomy 5:4; נִתְרֶאֶה פָנִים 2 Kings 14:8 see each other (in the) face = meet each other in battle, compare 2 Kings 14:11 2 Chronicles 25:17,21.

d. of relations with׳׃י ׳הֵרִים פ Ezra 9:6, in worship (see also נשׂא); in spiritual sense Jeremiah 2:27; Jeremiah 32:33 (מָּנָה אֵלַי עֹרֶףוְלֹא פָנִים); ׳לִדְרוֺשׁ י׳נָתַן פ 2 Chronicles 20:3; ׳נָתַן אֶתפֿאֶלאֲֿדֹנָי Daniel 9:3; הַבָּנִים קְשֵׁי פָנִים Ezekiel 2:4.

e. of ׳י himself, לֹא יָסִיר מָּנִיםִ מִכֶּם 2 Chronicles 30:9; בְּעֹשֵׂי׳מְּנֵי י רָ֑ע Psalm 34:17; גַּעֲרַת מָּנֶיךָ Psalm 80:17. — See further below

7. 2. a. = presence, person, of ׳י Exodus 33:14,15, בְּפָנָיו Deuteronomy 4:37, מַלְאַךְ מָּנָיו Isaiah 63:9; לֶחֶם הַמָּנִים, see לֶחֶם; of ׳י s angry presence Lamentations 4:16; Psalm 21:10; of Absalom 2 Samuel 17:11; in weakened sense, nearly = suffix (compare נפשׁ 4 a), Proverbs 7:15.

b. with ראה technically, see one's face, i.e. appear before one, in one's presence: before a man Genesis 32:21 (+ 3other uses of ׳פ), (God, with יראה pointed as

Niph`al, see II:2); especially as privilege, = have access to, man of rank Genesis 43:3,5; Genesis 44:23,26, king Exodus 10:28 (twice in verse) compare Exodus 10:29 (all J), 2 Samuel 14:24 (twice in verse); 2 Samuel 14:28,32; compare 2 Samuel 3:13 (twice in verse); רֹאֵי פְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ 2 Kings 25:19 = Jeremiah 52:25; Esther 1:14; implying favour of person seen, man Genesis 33:10 (J), God Genesis 33:10, compare Job 33:26 (Hiph`il), and, with חזה, Psalm 11:7; Psalm 17:15.

3 face of seraphim Isaiah 6:2, cherubim Exodus 25:20 (twice in verse) = Exodus 37:9 (twice in verse), Ezekiel 1:8,11; 2 Chronicles 3:13 +.

4 face of animals, מְּנֵי הַצּאֹן Genesis 30:40; ׳אַרְיֵה וּפ׳פ נֶשֶׁר׳שׁוֺר ופ Ezekiel 1:10 (in descr. of cherubim), compare Ezekiel 10:14; אַרְיֵה׳פ also 1 Chronicles 12:8 (figurative), כְֿפִיר׳פ Ezekiel 41:19; ׳מִּתְחֵי פ Job 41:6 of crocodile.

5 face (= surface) of ground (הָאֲדָמָה) Genesis 2:6; Genesis 4:14; Genesis 7:4; Psalm 104:30 +, so הָאָרֶץ׳פ Genesis 1:29; Genesis 7:3; Genesis 8:9; Genesis 11:4,8,9; Genesis 19:28; Isaiah 24:1, תֵבֵל׳פ Isaiah 14:21; Isaiah 27:6; of a field Proverbs 24:31; תְהוֺם׳פ Genesis 1:2 (twice in verse); Job 38:30, הַמַּיִם׳פ Genesis 7:18; רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם׳פ Genesis 1:20; כִֿסֵּה׳פ Job 26:9i.e. of God's throne (but Bu reads כֶּסֶה fullmoon); הַלּוֺט׳פ Job 25:7 see [ לוּט; לְבוּשׁוֺ׳פ Job 41:5 the expanse of his [the crocodile's] coat; front (especially Ezek.), of house Ezekiel 41:14; Ezekiel 47:1, הַקֹּדֶשׁ׳פ Ezekiel 41:21; of gate Ezekiel 40:6,20,22; Ezekiel 42:15; Ezekiel 43:4; of chamber Ezekiel 40:44 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 40:45,46; of pot (סִיר) Jeremiah 1:13; הַמִּלְחָמָה׳פ 2 Samuel 10:9 battle-front = 1 Chronicles 19:10 (verb agrees with ׳הַמּ in Gender, Ges§ 146a); = van of locust-army Joel 2:20 (opposed to סֹפוֺ); front, i.e. edge, of sword Ezekiel 21:21, of axe Ecclesiastes 10:10; = condition, state of a thing, as denoted by its appearance; of flock Proverbs 27:23; הַדָּבָר׳פ 2 Samuel 14:20 the appearance (situation, attitude) of the affair.

6 as

adverb of location מִמָּנִים וּמֵאָחוֺר 2 Samuel 10:9 before and behind = ׳וְֿ׳פ 1 Chronicles 19:10, also Ezekiel 2:10; 2 Chronicles 13:14; מְּנֵי toward Song of Solomon 7:5, also in front (to the East?) of 2 Chronicles 20:16 (see לִפְנֵי

d below); לְפָנִים forward Jeremiah 7:24 (opposed to לְאחוֺר); מִלִּפְנִים 1 Kings 6:29 see מְּנִימָה;

adverb temporalלְפָנִים formerly Deuteronomy 2:12,20; Joshua 11:10; Judges 1:10,11,13 12t.; מִלְּפָנִים Isaiah 41:26 from beforetime ("" מֵראֹשׁ).

7 for other phrases see:אוֺר

verb Hiph`il 5; אוֺר n. 10; בּוֺשׁ

Hiph`il; בקשׁ Pi`el 3; בּשֶׁת

1; [הַכָּרָה]; הָדַר

2; זָעַם

Niph`al; זָעַף

1; הָבַשׁ 1 a; I. חָרָה I חָוַר; חָזַק Pi`el 5; II. חלה; IV. חמר; חָפָה; טָחַן; יָעַד

Hoph`al; יְשׁוּעָה

3; כּוּן Hiph`il 3; כִּמֶּר

1; כָּסָה Pi`el 1,2; מָאוֺר; מְגַמָּה p. 169; I. מוּל; מַשּׂא; [נָבַט] Hiph`il 3; נֶגֶד 1,2 c; נֹכַח; נָכַר

Hiph`il; נָפַל 3 b, and Hiph`il 5; נָשָׂא 1 b (3); נָתַן 2 b; סָבַב Hiph`il 1 a; סָתַר Hiph`il 2; I. עֵבֶר

2; עַז, עָזַז

Hiph`il; עָמַד Hiph`il 6 a; II. עֻמָּה; [צָרַב]; [קָדַם]

Pi`el; שִׂים; שׁוּב

Hiph`il; שִׁית; II.שָׁנָה

Pi`el; תֹּפֶת.

II.מְּנֵי with prepositions: —

1 אֶלמְּֿנֵי:

a. to the presence of, Exodus 23:17 pregnantly יֵרָאֶה ֗֗֗ אֶלמְּֿנֵיהָאָדוֺן shall appear (coming) to the presence of (= before) ׳י ("" Exodus 34:23 ׳אֶתמְּֿנֵי הָא); with יָצָא = to confront 2 Chronicles 19:2.

b. to the front of, after a verb of motion, Leviticus 6:7 הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׳הַקְרֵב אֹתָהּ ֗֗֗ אֶלמְּֿנֵ, Leviticus 9:5; Leviticus 16:2; Numbers 17:8; Numbers 20:10.

c. towards or on the front of (אֶל = עַל), Ezekiel 41:4,12,15,25; Ezekiel 42:2,3,7,10,13; Ezekiel 45:7; Ezekiel 48:21.

d. on to the surface of, Leviticus 14:53 וְשִׁלַּח ֗֗֗ אֶלמְּֿנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה, Ezekiel 16:5.

2אֶתמְּֿנֵי close by (II. אֵת) the face or front of: hence

a. the presence of, 1 Samuel 2:11 עֵלִי׳אֶתפֿ 1 Kings 12:6 who stood שְׁלֹמֹה׳אֶתפֿ (compare לִפְנֵי 1 Kings 10:8), Esther 1:10; Proverbs 17:24; pregnantly (nisi וַיַּנִּחֵם leg., ᵑ6ᵑ7 We Dr and others) 1 Samuel 22:4. Specifically ׳אֶתמְּֿנֵי י Genesis 19:13 ( 1 Samuel 2:17), 1 Samuel 2:27; 1 Samuel 2:18; and with נִרְאָה of the appearance of all males at the three annual חַגִּים, Exodus 34:23 הָאָדֹן׳יֵרָאֶה כָּלזְֿכוּרְךָ אֶתפֿ, Exodus 34:24; Deuteronomy 16:16 (compare Dr), Deuteronomy 31:11; 1 Samuel 1:22 ("" ׳י׳אלפֿ Exodus 23:17); so מָּנַי alone Exodus 23:15 = Exodus 34:20 (לֹא יֵרָאוּ פָנַי רֵיקָם), Isaiah 1:22, פָנֶיךָ Psalm 42:3 (according to many, Ges Thes Di Exodus 23:15 Che Isaiah 1:12, critical note, the verb in all these passages was originally

Qal, afterwards pointed as

Niph`al to avoid the expression see the face of ׳י); אֶתמָּֿנֶיךָ in thy presence Psalm 16:10; Psalm 21:7; Psalm 140:14.

b. in front of, Genesis 33:18. הָעִיר׳וַיִּחַן אֶתפֿ, Leviticus 4:6 פָרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ׳אֶתפֿ ׳לִפְנֵי י Leviticus 4:17. — מֵאֵת מְּנֵי from before, see II. אֵת 4a. 3.בִּפְנֵי: (a) in the face of, mostly in particular phrases, with hostile import: thus, with יָרַק to spit Numbers 12:14; Deuteronomy 25:9; התיצב to make a stand Deuteronomy 7:24; Deuteronomy 11:25, and עמד Joshua 10:8, לֹא יַעֲמֹד אִישׁ בְּפָנֶיךָ Joshua 21:42; Joshua 23:9; עָנָה to answer (give evidence) against, Hosea 5:5 וענה גאון ישׂראל בפניו, Hosea 7:10; Job 16:8; וְנָקֹטוּבִּפְנֵיהֶם = feel loathing against their own selves, Ezekiel 6:9, so Ezekiel 20:43; Ezekiel 36:31. (b) in front of, Ezekiel 42:12.

4 לִפְנֵי, properly at the face or front of, the most General word for in the presence of, before: as Genesis 18:22 עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי אַבְרָהָם, Exodus 4:21; Exodus 11:10; 2 Samuel 2:14; Proverbs 17:18 + often; after a verb of motion, Genesis 47:2 וַיַּצִּיגֵם׳לפני פ and set them before Pharaoh, Genesis 27:20 ׳כִּי הִקְרָה ילפני literally made (it) to meet before me (compare Genesis 24:12), Exodus 29:10; Proverbs 18:16 etc. In particular,

a. With the implication of ( a) under the eye or oversight of, Deuteronomy 25:2; 1 Samuel 3:1. ( b) under the eye and regard of, Genesis 17:18 לוּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל יִחְיֶה לְפָנֶיךָ, Hosea 6:2; Isaiah 53:2; Psalm 61:8; compare Jeremiah 30:20; Jeremiah 31:36; Isaiah 66:22; Psalm 102:29: also 1 Samuel 2:28; 2 Samuel 19:14. ( c) figurative for in (or into) the full (mental) view of, Genesis 6:13 קֵץ כָּלבָּֿשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי is come in before me, Lamentations 1:22 תָּבאֹ כָלרָֿעָתָם לְפָנֶיךָ, Jonah 1:2 עָֽלְתָה לְפָנַי (compare אֶל Genesis 18:21; Exodus 2:23), Isaiah 65:6 כְּתוּבָה לְפָנָ֑י, Jeremiah 2:22 נִכְתָּךְ לְפָנָי (compare נֶגְדִּי Isaiah 47:12). ( d) openly before, 1 Samuel 12:2 הִתְהַלֵךְ לִפְנֵי, and with collateral idea of deserving (and receiving) regard 1 Samuel 2:35, especially ׳לפני י Genesis 17:1 and elsewhere. ( e) in presence of the moon or sun, Psalm 72:5; Psalm 72:17, i.e. as long as they endure. ( f) free before, at the disposal of, Genesis 13:9 הֲלֹא כָלהָֿאָרֶץ לְפָנֶיךָ (compare Genesis 20:15; Genesis 34:10; Genesis 47:6; Jeremiah 40:4; 2 Chronicles 14:6), 2 Chronicles 24:51; Song of Solomon 8:12. ( g) in the sight (estimation) of, Genesis 7:1 thee have I seen to be just before me, Genesis 10:9 a mighty hunter before ׳י, Deuteronomy 24:4 ׳י׳תּוֺעֵבָה ל, Deuteronomy 24:13 ׳י׳צְדָקָה ל, 1 Samuel 20:1b, אָרוּר׳י ׳ל Joshua 6:26; 1 Samuel 26:19, ׳י׳לְרָצוֺן ל acceptable before ׳י, Leviticus 1:3 +, Psalm 19:15; 2 Kings 5:1 a great man לִפְנֵיאֲדֹנָיו, Proverbs 14:12; Psalm 143:2; ׳וַיִּיטַב ל (late synonym of earlier בְּעֵנֵי) Nehemiah 2:5,6; Esther 5:14; ׳טוֺב ל Ecclesiastes 2:26; Ecclesiastes 7:26; compare also נָתַן לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי, see רַחֲמִים. ( h) ׳לִפְנֵי י, specifically of acts done with a solemn sense of ׳י's presence, often, but not always, at a sanctuary: Genesis 27:7 that I may eat and bless thee before ׳י, before I die, Exodus 18:12 to eat bread before God, Deuteronomy 1:45 ye wept before ׳י, Deuteronomy 6:25; Deuteronomy 12:7 (to eat, so Deuteronomy 12:18; Deuteronomy 14:23,26; Deuteronomy 15:20), Deuteronomy 15:12 (rejoice, so Deuteronomy 15:18; Deuteronomy 27:7; Isaiah 9:2), Joshua 18:6; Joshua 24:1; Judges 11:11; Judges 20:23,26; Judges 21:2; 1 Samuel 7:6; 1 Samuel 10:19; 1 Samuel 11:15; 1 Samuel 12:7; 1 Samuel 15:33; 1 Samuel 23:18; 2 Samuel 5:3; 2 Samuel 7:18; 2 Samuel 21:9; and constantly in P, as Exodus 16:9,33,34; Leviticus 1:5,11; Leviticus 3:1,7 etc.; of residents in Jerusalem Isaiah 23:18. So in ׳י׳הָלַךְ ל 1 Kings 2:4 and elsewhere.

b. In other phrases: — ( a) עָמַד לִפְנֵי to stand before, i.e. wait upon, be in attendance on, Deuteronomy 1:38 and elsewhere (see עָמַד

1 e). Simil.הָיָה לִפְנֵי 1 Samuel 19:7 (compare 1 Samuel 29:8), 2 Kings 5:2; ׳עָבַד ל 2 Samuel 16:19. ( b) הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה לִפְנֵי to bow down before Genesis 23:12; Deuteronomy 26:10; 2 Kings 18:22 and elsewhere (see below שָׁחָה; also נָפַל 3 b): so with הִתְמַּלֵּל to pray 1 Samuel 1:12 +; compare הלך פָני 1 Kings 12:30; 1 Chronicles 21:30. ( c) to be smitten (נִגַּף) before a foe; see נָגַף Niph`al [contrast נוּס מִמְּנֵי: below 6a]. So with נָפַל 1 Samuel 14:13; נָתַן (in helplessness or flight), especially in Deuteronomy , as Deuteronomy 1:8,21; Deuteronomy 7:2 (twice in verse); Deuteronomy 7:23; Joshua 10:12; Joshua 11:6 + (Dr DT lxxxii): compare Judges 4:15; 2 Samuel 5:20; Isaiah 45:1; Jeremiah 1:17. ( d) עָמַד לִפְנֵי to stand (make a stand) before (not quite so strong as בִּפְנֵי׳ע, above

3), Exodus 9:11; Judges 2:14; 2 Kings 10:4; Jeremiah 49:19; Psalm 76:8; Psalm 147:17; Nahum 1:6; so with הִתְיַצֵּב Deuteronomy 9:2; Joshua 1:5; Job 41:2, קוּם Joshua 7:12,13. ( e) in hostile sense (rare), יָצָא לִפְנֵי go forth to face 1 Chronicles 14:8; 2 Chronicles 14:9. ( f) לִפְנֵי (נָתַן) שִׂים, of food, to set or place before, Genesis 18:8; Genesis 24:33 +. ( g) נָתַן לִפְנֵי to set before, i.e. propound for acceptance or choice, usually of laws (especially Deuteronomy , Jeremiah), Deuteronomy 4:8; Deuteronomy 11:26,32; Deuteronomy 30:1,15,19; 1 Kings 9:6 (D2), Jeremiah 9:12; Jeremiah 21:8; Jeremiah 26:4; Jeremiah 44:10; Daniel 9:10, compare Ezekiel 23:24 (place at disposal of): so with שִׂים Exodus 19:7; Exodus 21:1.

c. With reference to position: ( a) in front of, before, especially with verbs of motion (with which נֶגֶד is hardly used), Genesis 32:21 בַּמִּנְחָה הַהֹלֶכֶת לְפָנָ֔י that goeth before me, Genesis 33:14 the cattle אֲשֶׁר לְפָנַי, Exodus 17:5; Exodus 23:20 etc.; in the description of a march or procession, Exodus 13:21,22; Numbers 10:33; Isaiah 52:12; Isaiah 58:8 +; 2 Samuel 3:31 and wail before Abner (before his bier); of flocks before a shepherd Genesis 32:18; of captives or booty driven before a conqueror 1 Samuel 30:20 (read וַיִּנְהֲגוּ לְפָנָיו We Dr), Isaiah 8:4; Isaiah 40:10 = Isaiah 62:11 וּפְעֻלָּתוֺ לְפָנָיו his recompence (i.e. his newly-recovered people, regarded as his prize of war) before him, Amos 9:4; Lamentations 1:5,6 ( b) of a leader, etc. = at the head of, Deuteronomy 10:11; Judges 9:39; 1 Samuel 8:20; Micah 1:13 and elsewhere; compare בא ויצא לפני (העם) Numbers 27:17; 1 Samuel 18:13,16; 2 Chronicles 1:10; Ecclesiastes 4:16 before whom (at whose head) he was. ( c) denoting superiority, before, above, Genesis 48:20 וַיָּשֶׂם אתאֿפריםלפני מנשׁה, Job 34:19.

d. Of places (not very common): Exodus 14:2 before Pi-hahiroth . . ., before Baal-zephon, Numbers 33:7b, Genesis 23:17 מַמְרֵא׳אשׁר ל (usually ׳על פני מ: see

7a d), 1 Chronicles 19:7; Nehemiah 8:1,3; before the temple, veil, altar, etc., Exodus 16:34 + הָעֵדֻת׳ל, Exodus 30:6 + הַמָּרֹכֶת׳ל, Exodus 40:5,6; Numbers 3:38; Numbers 7:10 and elsewhere (all P), 1 Kings 6:21; 1 Kings 7:49 +.

e. Of time, before: Amos 1:1: לפני הָָֽ רעַשׁ before the earthquake, Genesis 29:26; Genesis 30:30 לְפָנַי before me (i.e. before I came to thee), Exodus 10:14 לפניו לא היה כן before it there was not the like, Numbers 13:22; 1 Kings 16:25,30 מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר לְפָנָיו, Isaiah 43:10; Isaiah 48:7; Proverbs 8:25; Job 15:7 etc. Sq. infinitive, Genesis 13:10 ׳לִפְנֵי שַׁחֵת י before ׳י s destroying, etc., Genesis 27:7 לִפְנֵי מוֺתִי, Genesis 36:31; 1 Samuel 9:15 +. Once, in late Hebrew, לִפְנֵי מִזֶּה before this Nehemiah 13:4.

f. In the manner of, like (rare and dubious), 1 Samuel 1:16 אַלתִּֿתֵּן אֶתאֲֿמָֽתְךָ לִפְנֵי בַתבִּֿלִיַּעַל like a worthless woman, Job 3:24 like my food, Job 4:19 they are crushed like the moth (compare Lat pro).

5מִלִּפְנֵי73 from before: —

a. from the presence of (properly, from a position before a person or object: to be distinguished from מִמְּנֵי; see

6): ( a) Genesis 41:46 ׳ויצא יוסף מִלִּפְנֵי פ from before Pharaoh, Genesis 47:10; 2 Kings 5:27; 2 Kings 6:32 +; ׳י׳מל Genesis 4:6 Cain went forth from before ׳י, Jonah 1:3,10; specifically of the sanctuary, Leviticus 9:24 ׳ותצא אשׁ מלפני י (so Leviticus 10:2), קֶצֶף Numbers 17:11 (compare 2 Chronicles 19:2), with לָקַח etc. Leviticus 16:12; Numbers 17:24; Numbers 20:9,1Samuel 21:7 the shew-bread that was removed from before ׳י; from before a place 1 Kings 8:54; Ezra 10:6; 2 Chronicles 1:13, ( b) of taking, etc., from before a person, Genesis 23:4 to bury my dead from before me, Genesis 23:8; Exodus 36:3; Deuteronomy 17:18 ׳וכתב לו מִשְׁנֵה התורה הזאת מלהכהנים from (the copy) before the priests, Deuteronomy 28:31 גָּזוּכ מלפניך. ( c) with בקשׁ Esther 4:8 [compare מִןקֳדָם Daniel 2:18]; and to express the idea of proceeding from a person, Esther 1:19 [compare Daniel 2:15], Ecclesiastes 10:5; 1 Chronicles 29:12 הָעשֶׁר והכבוד מלפניך (compare

Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.All rights reserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Definition

פָּנֶה not used in sing. (though another form of it, פְּנִי, פְּנוּ appears in the pr.n. פְּנִיאֵל, פְּנוּאֵל), pl. פָּנִים constr. פְּנֵי m. (but f. Ezekiel 21:21).

(1) the face (prop. the part turned towards any one, see Ezekiel 21:3, from the root פָּנָה, compare Arab. وَجْةُ face, from وجه V. to turn oneself in any direction; for the use of the pl. compare Gr. τὰ πρόσωπα in Homer), Genesis 38:15, 50:1 Exodus 3:6, and frequently. Constr. with a pl. verb and adj. Job 38:30; Daniel 1:10 in the fem. Ezekiel 21:21 more rarely sing. Lamentations 4:16; Proverbs 15:14. Also used for the pl., as אַרְבָּעָה פָּנִים Ezekiel 1:6, 10:21 41:18 לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים bread of the face (see לֶחֶם ), and שֻׁלְחַן הַפָּנִים the table on which these loaves were set, Numbers 4:7.

Specially these phrases are to be noticed

(a) פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים Genesis 32:31; Deuteronomy 34:10, and פָּנִים בְּפָנִים Deuteronomy 5:4, used of the face.

(b) to say and do any thing עַל פְּנֵי פ׳ to any one’s face, i.e. freely, frankly, and even often impudently and insolently, in contempt of him, ihm zum Troß und Hohn (compare the French dire dans la barbe, as in Latin, laudare in os, Ter.), Job 1:11, עַל פָּנֶיךָ יְבָֽרְכֶךָ “he will curse thee to thy face;” Job 21:31; Isaiah 65:3, “who provoke me עַל פָּנַי to my face,” i.e. in contempt and scorn of me. In the same sense there is said אֶל פָּנִים Job 2:5, 13:15 Deuteronomy 7:10. אֶל פָּנָיו יְשַׁלֶּם לוֹ “(God) will recompense to him to his face” (to an enemy), i.e. firmly and without delay. (Vulg. statim. In the other member לֹא יְאַחֵר.) Here belongs the expression עָנָה בְּפָנָיו to answer in his face, i.e to refute him firmly, freely, openly; Job 16:8, כַּחְשִׁי בְּפָנַי יַעֲנֶה “my leanness answers in my face,” i.e. testifies strongly against me; Hosea 5:5, 7:10.

(c) שׂוּם פָּנִים אֶל to direct one’s face or looks towards any one, Ezekiel 6:2 followed by עַל 1 Kings 2:15. But

(d) שׂוּם פָּנָיו followed by an acc. to turn one’s face in any direction, i.e. to direct one’s course thither, to go, Genesis 31:21 followed by a gerund, to intend, to propose to oneself to do any thing; but, however, used specially of going, Jeremiah 42:15, 17 Jeremiah 42:17, 44:12 2 Kings 12:18; Daniel 11:17. The same is נָתַן פָּנָיו לְ 2 Chronicles 20:3; Daniel 9:3; 2 Chronicles 32:2, וּפָנָיו לַמִּלְחָמָה “and (set) his face upon war.” In the New Test. see Luke 9:53. (In Syriac in the same sense ܙܰܦܰܘ̈ܗܝ ܣܳܡ to set one’s face, ܣܡܳ ܚܝܳܪܶܗ to set one’s sight; Pers. روى آوردن rui awerden; see my observations on Luke loc. cit., in Rosenmüller, Repert. i. p. 135.)-In two other phrases פָּנִים is used of an angry countenance (compare Psalms 21:10, 34:17 80:17 of a sad countenance, 1 Samuel 1:18; Job 9:27).

(e) שׂוּם פָּנִים בְּ to look on any one with an angry countenance, Levit. 20:5 with the addition of the words לְרָעָה וְלֹא לְטוֹבָה Jeremiah 21:10 compare לְרָעָה Jeremiah 44:11 (opp. to שׂוּם עַיִן עַלּ under the word עַיִן No. 1, letter e).

(f) נָתַן פָּנִים בְּ to pour out one’s anger against any one, Leviticus 20:3, Leviticus 20:6, 26:17 Ezekiel 14:8.-Other phrases, as חִלָּה פָנִים, הֵשִׁיב פָּנִים see under those words.

(2) person, personal presence, presence, Gr. πρόσωπον. Exodus 33:14, פָּנַי יֵלֵכוּ “my person shall go,” i.e. I myself, I in person (ich in Herfon) will go. 2 Samuel 17:11; Lamentations 4:16. As to the phrase נָשָׂא פָנִים and הִכִּיר פָּנִים see under those words.-Sometimes without any emphasis פָּנַי my person is I. Ps. 42:12 43:5 compare טָחַן פְּנֵי עֲנִיִּים to oppress the persons of the afflicted; i.e. the afflicted, Isaiah 3:15.-Figuratively applied to inanimate things it is

(3) the face, the surface of a thing, e.g. of the earth, Genesis 2:6; Isaiah 14:21 of a field, Isaiah 28:25 of the water, Job 38:30, etc. Less clear is the passage, Job 41:5, מִי גִלָּה פְּנֵי לְבוּשׁוֹ “who shall uncover the face of his garment” (the crocodile’s), i.e. his garment itself, that is, his surface or upper part which covers the rest (compare עַל No. 1, a). So also פְּנֵי לוֹט of a veil itself as a covering, Isai. 25:7.-Comp. אֶלּ פְּנֵי No. 2, עַל פְּנֵי Nos. 1, 2. Hence it is

(a) the external appearance, state, condition, of a thing. Proverbs 27:23, “look well to the condition of thy flock,” bekümmere dich darum, wie deine Heerde ausfieht.

(b) way and manner, as in the Rabbinic. Compare وَجْهُ face, manner. See below לִפְנֵי No. 3.

(4) the forepart, front of a thing (Arab. وَجْهُ id.). Jeremiah 1:13, וּפָנָיו מִפְּנֵי צָפוֹנָה “and the front thereof (of the pot) looked towards the north;” used of the front of an army (Gr. πρόσωπον), Joel 2:20. Adv. פָּנִים in front (opp. to אָחוֹר) Ezekiel 2:10 לְפָנִים forwards (vorwärts), Jeremiah 7:24 used of time, before, of old; Deuteronomy 2:10, 12 Joshua 11:10, 14:15 מִלְּפָנִים anciently, Isai. 41:26 מִפָּנִים in front, 2 Samuel 10:9. Compare לִפְנֵי No. 2.-The front part of a sword is its edge. Ezekiel 21:21, אָנָה פָּנַיִךְ מֻעָדוֹת “whither is thy edge (that of a sword) directed?” Ecclesiastes 10:10.-Also פָּנִים is used for the wall of a house opposite the door, Hom. τὰ ἐνώπια, whence with ה parag. פְּנִימָה which see.

With prepositions it often becomes in nature a particle:

(A) אֶל פְּנֵי

(1) (a) into the presence of any one, 2 Chronicles 19:2 before, Leviticus 9:5; Numbers 17:8, after a verb of motion.

(b) in the presence of, Exodus 23:17.

(2) upon the surface of a thing, e.g. אֶל פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה Leviticus 14:53; Ezekiel 16:5.-See another meaning of this, above, No. 1, letter b.

(B) אֶת פְּנֵי pr. by the face, i.e. in the presence of any one, before any one, e.g. אֶת־פְּנֵי הַפֶּלֶךְ Esther 1:10 אֶת פֶּנֵי יְיָ before God, Genesis 19:13 sometimes for, at the holy tabernacle, in the phrase, נִרְאָה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְיָ [to appear before Jehovah], to appear in the sanctuary, Exodus 34:23, 24 Exodus 34:24; Deuteronomy 31:11; 1 Samuel 1:22 (for which there is also used נ׳ אֶל פְּנֵי יְיָ Exodus 23:17 and poet. נ׳ פְּנֵי יְיָ Isaiah 1:12; Psalms 42:3 in which latter phrase פְּנֵי should be taken for an acc. of place); before, e.g. אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר before the city, Genesis 33:18, אֶת־פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת before the vail, Leviticus 4:6. After verbs of motion, into the presence of any one, 1 Samuel 22:4.-מֵאֵת פְּנֵי from before (the presence of) any one, Genesis 27:30 from before, from the front, 2 Kings 16:14.

(C) בִּפְנֵי i.q. לִפְנֵי before, in front of, but chiefly in the writers of later age, Ezekiel 42:12 mostly in the phrase עָמַד בִּפְנֵי to stand before any one, to resist him, Deuteron. 7:24 11:25 Joshua 10:8, 21:44 23:9 Esther 9:2.-The proper force of a substantive is to be retained in the words, Ezekiel 6:9, נָקֹטּוּ בִּפְנֵיהֶם they manifest loathing in their countenances; compare Ezekiel 20:43, 36:31.

(D) לִפְנֵי with suff. לְפָנַי, לְפָנֶיךָ, לְפָנָיו, לִפְנֵיכֶם, לִפְנֵיהֶם

(1) in the presence of any one, under his eyes, he being present and looking on; before any one. Numbers 8:22, “the Levites went in to minister … לִפִנֵי אַהֲרוֹן וְלִפְנֵי בָנָיו before Aaron and his sons;” i.e. under their oversight; 2 Kings 4:38; Zechariah 3:8. לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ in the presence of the sun, i.e. so long as the sun (which poets compare to the eye, see עַפְעַפַּיִם, שָׁזַף ) shall shine on and illuminate the earth, Psalms 72:17 comp. לִפְנֵי יָרֵחַ verse Psalms 72:5(but Job 8:16 לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ is while the sun is shining). Often figuratively, i.q. בְּעֵינֵי in the eyes of any one; i.q. in his judgment. חֶסֶד וְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי favour and tender love with any one, Daniel 1:9; 1 Kings 8:50; Psalms 106:46 יָטַב לִפְנֵי i.q. יָטַב בְּעֵינֵי see יָטַב. גָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנָיו having great influence with his lord, 2 Kings 5:1 comp. Proverbs 4:3, 14:12 specially is the phrase to be noticed לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה

(a) prop. in the presence of Jehovah, under his eyes, Genesis 27:7 before the holy tabernacle, Exodus 34:34; Leviticus 9:5, 23:40 Judges 21:2 in the temple and its porches, Isaiah 23:18.

(b) figuratively, in the judgment of Jehovah (comp. עִם No. 2, c); e.g. אָרוּר לִפְנֵי יְיָ Joshua 6:26 but commonly in a good sense with the approbation of Jehovah (since we only put those things which please us before our eyes; comp. רָאָה בְ); hence רָצוֹן לִפְנֵי יְיָ favour with Jehovah, Exodus 28:38 הִתְהַלֵּךְ לִפְנֵי יְיָ to lead a life approved of Jehovah (see הִתְהַלֵּךְ ). Genesis 10:9, “a mighty hunter לִפְנֵי יְהֹוָה such as was pleasing to the Lord” [?]. Ps. 19:15, “let the meditation of my heart לְפָנֶיךָ be pleasing to thee.” The things in which Jehovah is pleased are decreed by him. Hence, Genesis 6:13, “an end of the whole earth בָּא לְפָנַי is decreed by me.” Farther, its use is to be noticed in these expressions

(aa) עָמַד לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ to stand before the king, waiting his commands; i.e. to minister to him (see עָמַד ); compare עָבַד לִפְנֵי 2 Samuel 16:19.

(bb) to worship before a deity (see הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה ). 1 Kings 12:30, “to worship one (of the calves).”

(cc) to be put to flight before an enemy (see נָגַף Niph.); hence used after verbs of dispersing, disturbing, Judges 4:15; 1 Samuel 14:13, 20:1 2 Samuel 5:20; Jeremiah 1:17, 49:37 (comp. below מִפְּנֵי).

(dd) נָתַן לִפְנֵי פְ׳ to put before another, e.g. food, 2 Kings 4:43 hence to propose to any one for choice, Deuteronomy 11:26 to impose a law to be observed, Deuteronomy 4:8; 1 Kings 9:6 Jerem. 26:4 44:10 Ezekiel 23:24 also to give into any one’s power (i.q. בְּיַד פּ׳), Joshua 10:12; Deuteronomy 2:33, 36 Judges 11:9; 1 Kings 8:46; Isaiah 41:2. So also without a verb of giving, Genesis 24:51, “behold, let Rebecca לְפָנֶיךָ be given to thee;” Genesis 34:10, “the land is before you,” let it be free for you and your flocks; 2 Chronicles 14:6.

(2) before, in front of (compare פָּנִים No. 4).

(a) used of place; לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מִוֹעֵד before the tabernacle of the congregation, 1 Chronicles 6:17 hence eastward, Genesis 23:17, 25:18 Deuteronomy 32:49 also before, as taking the lead; chiefly used of a general or leader, who goes at the head of his army (see לִפְנֵי הָעָם יָצָא וּבָא under the word בּוֹא No. 1, let. ); used of a king it is before, at the head of his people (Ecclesiastes 4:16, “there was no end to all the people לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵיהֶם to all over (before) whom he was”); also used of captives or booty which the conqueror, like a shepherd driving his sheep (Genesis 32:18), drives before him (Isaiah 8:4; Amos 9:4; Lamentations 1:5, ).

(b) used of time, e.g. לִפְנֵי הָרַעַשׁ before the earthquake, Amos 1:1; Genesis 13:10, 29:26 Proverbs 8:25; Zechariah 8:10. Genesis 30:30, לְפָנַי “before me,” i.e. before I had come to thee; Jerem. 28:8. לִפְנֵי מִוֶּה before now, Nehemiah 13:4. Followed by an inf. before that, Genesis 13:10; Deuteronomy 33:1; 1 Samuel 9:15.

(c) used of worth, superiority (like the Lat. ante, prœ). Job 34:19, “he does not regard the rich לִפְנֵי דָל before (more than) the poor.” After verbs of motion.

(d) to one’s front, with the idea of meeting; as קָרָה לִפְנֵי פ׳ to meet any one, Genesis 24:12 and more frequently with a hostile sense, against (ἀντί); prop. into the face, front part; as קוּם לִפְנֵי to rise against any one, Numbers 16:2 יָצָא לִפְנֵי to go out against, 1 Chronicles 14:8; 2 Chronicles 14:9 also לִפְנֵי עָמַד (see עָמַד ); קוּם לִפְנֵי Joshua 7:12, 13 Joshua 7:13הִתְיַצֵּכ לִפְנֵי to stand against any one, to resist.

(3) in the manner of, like (compare פָּנִים No. 3, letter b); Job 4:19, “they fall לִפְנֵי עָשׁ as before the moth;” Vulg. sicut a tinea; LXX. σητὸς τρόπον; compare Latin ad faciem, Plaut. Cist. i. 1, 73. So נָתַן לִפְנֵי to regard as for any one (compare נָתַן כְּ), 1 Samuel 1:16. From לִפְנֵי has arisen the adj. לִפְּנַי anterior, which see.

Note. Of doubtful authority are the significations

(α) for (compare נֶגֶד, and Germ. vor and für), in the phrase עָרַב לִפְנֵי to be surety for any one, Proverbs 17:18 (for the surety used to give his pledge before his friend).

(β) on account of (as מִלְּפְנֵי מִפְּנֵי), in סָפַד לִפְנֵי to lament on account of any one, 2 Samuel 3:31 (for mourners used in funerals to go foremost; see Geier, De Luctu Hebræorum, cap. v. § 15-19).

(E) מִלִּפְנֵי (from before).

(1) from the presence of any one, used of those who were before any thing, and who go away from that place, e.g. to go out מִלִּפְנֵי יְיָ Leviticus 9:24 מִלִּפְנֵי פַרְעֹה Genesis 41:46. Hence after verbs of fleeing (compare מִן No. 3, letter a), and of putting to flight, 1 Chronicles 19:18; 2 Chronicles 20:7 of fearing and of putting in fear, 1 Samuel 18:12; Psalms 97:5, 114:7 Ecclesiastes 8:13; Esther 7:6 and also those of asking aid (an idea connected with that of fleeing), 1 Samuel 8:18 of humbling oneself, 1 Kings 21:29; 2 Chronicles 33:12, 36:12.

(2) Used figuratively of the cause, on account of, i.q. מִפְּנֵי, מִן e.g. to rejoice on account of, 1 Chronicles 16:33.

(F) מִפְּנֵי.

(1) from the face, presence, front, of a pers. or thing, vor (etwas) weg; Exodus 14:19, “and the column went away מִפְּנֵהֶם from before them (vor ihnen weg), and stood behind them.” Hence it is frequently used after verbs of going away, Hosea 11:2 of fleeing (compare מִן No. 3, letter a, from which it differs in that מִפְּנֵי is mostly put before persons, מִן before things, see חָתַת Niphal), Genesis 7:7, 16:8 Isaiah 20:6 compare Psalms 61:4 of asking aid, Isaiah 19:20, 26:17 of fearing (see יָרֵא, חָתַת Niphal); of reverencing, humbling oneself, 2 Kings 22:19; Leviticus 19:32 of hiding oneself, Job 23:17, and other verbs which resemble these in meaning. So the sense of fleeing and fearing is involved in the following, Judges 9:21, “he dwelt there after he had fled מִפְּנֵי אֲבִימֶלֶךְ אָחִיו from the presence of Abimelech his brother.” Well rendered in the Vulg. ob metum A. fratris sui, 1 Chronicles 12:1 (on which passage, see עָצַר in Kal). Isaiah 17:9, “desolate houses (see עֲזוּבָה ) אֲשֶׁרעָֽזְבוּ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל which those deserted (who fled) from the Israelites,” i.e. the aborigines of Palestine (see note on this passage in Germ. Trans., ed. 2).

(2) Used of the author and efficient cause from which anything proceeds, i.q. מִן No. 2, letter c. Genesis 6:13, “the earth is full of violence מִפְּנֵיהֶם (which proceeds) from them.” (LXX. well render it ἀπʼ αὐτῶν.) Exodus 8:20; Judges 6:6; Jeremiah 15:17; Ezekiel 14:15. Used of a more remote cause, on account of. Isaiah 10:27, “the yoke shall be broken מִפְּנֵי שָׁמֶ֑ן on account of the fatness (of the bull)”[?]. Deuteronomy 28:20; Hosea 10:15; Jeremiah 9:6. Where the reason is given on account of which anything is not done, Lat. prœ, Job 37:19; 1 Kings 8:11. Followed by אֲשֶׁר it becomes a conj. because that, because, Exodus 19:18; Jeremiah 44:23.

I wonder that Winer (page 779) should also have added the following significations, before, in the presence of, citing Levit. 19:32 (where קוּם מִפְּנֵי to rise up to any one, is used as a mark of modesty and reverence to old age (see above, No. 1); and even towards (as though it were אֶל פְּנֵי), Jeremiah 1:13 (as to which passage see under the word פָּנִים No. 4 ).

(G) עַל פְּנֵי has various significations, according to the different senses of the noun and of the particle.

(1) From the signification of face and front (No. 1, 4), it is

(a) to the face, before the face of any one, in the presence of, i.q. לִפְנֵי No. 1 (see עַל No. 3, ), Genesis 32:22; Leviticus 10:3; Psalms 9:20; 2 Kings 13:14 having any one present and looking on, Numbers 3:4.- Job 6:28, עַל פְּנֵיכֶם אִם אֲכַזֵּב “before your eyes (it will be) (i.e. it will be manifest), whether I lie?” מֵעַלּ פְּנֵי=מִלִּפְנֵי Genesis 23:3.

(b) in front of a thing, before, 2 Chronicles 3:17. Psalms 18:43, “as dust before the wind,” driven by the wind. Here also belong the following: 1 Kings 6:3, “the length of it (the vestibule) עַל פְּנֵי רֹחַב הַבַּיִת before the breadth of the temple” (vor der Breite des Tempels hin). 2 Chronicles 3:8 and Genesis 1:20, “and let fowl fly … עַל פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם in front of (or before) the firmament of heaven.” Also, eastward, Genesis 16:12, 23:19 25:18 Joshua 18:14; 1 Kings 17:3, 1 Kings 17:5; Zechariah 14:4 before, used of time, Genesis 11:28 of worth (prœ), Deuteronomy 21:16.

(c) to or towards the face or front of anything (compare עַל No. 4); hence towards, Genesis 18:16, 19:28 and against, Psalms 21:13; Nahum 2:2.

(2) From the signification of surface, עַל פְּנֵי is

(a) on the surface, e.g. of the earth, Genesis 1:29, 6:1 the waters, Genesis 1:2 of a valley, Ezekiel 37:2 whence מֵעַל פְּנֵי used of those who are removed from the surface, 1 Samuel 20:15; Amos 9:8.

(b) upon, along upon the surface, e.g. of the earth, Amos 5:8 of a field, Leviticus 14:7; Ezekiel 32:4.

(c) out upon, or over the surface (über die Oberfläche hin), Genesis 11:8; Leviticus 16:14, 15 Leviticus 16:15; Isaiah 18:2.-Used figuratively

(d) in the sense of superadding, like עַל (No. 1, letter b, a), above, besides, ἐπί. Exodus 20:3, “thou shalt have no other gods עַל פָּנַי upon me,” i.e. besides me. Well given by the LXX. πλὴν ἐμοῦ. Chald. בַּר מִנִּי. Job 16:14.

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List of Word Forms
בְּפָנִ֗ים בְּפָנֶ֔יהָ בְּפָנֶ֔יךָ בְּפָנֶֽיךָ׃ בְּפָנַ֥י בְּפָנָ֑יו בְּפָנָ֛יו בִּפְנֵי֙ בִּפְנֵיהֶ֔ם בִּפְנֵיהֶם֙ בִּפְנֵיכֶ֑ם בִּפְנֵיכֶ֔ם בפני בפניה בפניהם בפניו בפניך בפניך׃ בפניכם בפנים הֲפָנָ֥יו הַפָּנִ֔ים הַפָּנִ֖ים הַפָּנִ֗ים הַפָּנִ֣ים הַפָּנִֽים׃ הַפָּנִים֙ הפניו הפנים הפנים׃ וְלִפְנֵ֖י וְלִפְנֵ֣י וְלִפְנֵ֣י ׀ וְלִפְנֵ֤י וְלִפְנֵ֥י וְלִפְנֵ֨י וְלִפְנֵי֙ וְלִפְנֵי־ וְלִפְנֵיהֶ֞ם וְלִפְנֵיהֶ֥ם וּ֝לְפָנָ֗יו וּ֝מִפָּנַ֗י וּ֝פְנֵיהֶ֗ם וּלְפָנֶ֔יךָ וּלְפָנֶ֖יךָ וּמִלְּפָנִ֖ים וּמִלִּפְנֵ֖י וּמִפְּנֵ֖י וּמִפְּנֵ֥י וּמִפְּנֵי֙ וּמִפְּנֵיהֶ֣ם וּמִפָּנֶ֖יךָ וּפְנֵ֣י וּפְנֵ֤י וּפְנֵ֥י וּפְנֵ֨י וּפְנֵֽי־ וּפְנֵי־ וּפְנֵיהֶ֕ם וּפְנֵיהֶ֖ם וּפְנֵיהֶ֣ם וּפְנֵיהֶ֥ם וּפְנֵיהֶם֙ וּפִ֥י וּפָנִ֥ים וּפָנֶ֥יהָ וּפָנֶ֥יךָ וּפָנַ֖י וּפָנַ֥י וּפָנָ֕יו וּפָנָ֖יו וּפָנָ֞יו ולפני ולפני־ ולפניהם ולפניו ולפניך ומלפני ומלפנים ומפני ומפניהם ומפניך ופי ופני ופני־ ופניה ופניהם ופניו ופניך ופנים כְּמִפְּנֵי־ כמפני־ לְ֝פָנֶ֗יךָ לְ֝פָנַ֗י לְ֝פָנָ֗יו לְ֠פָנָיו לְ֭פָנִים לְ֭פָנֶיךָ לְ֭פָנָיו לְפָנִ֔ים לְפָנִ֖ים לְפָנִ֗ים לְפָנִ֟ים לְפָנִ֣ים לְפָנִ֣ים ׀ לְפָנִ֨ים לְפָנִֽים׃ לְפָנִים֒ לְפָנִים֙ לְפָנֵ֑ינוּ לְפָנֵ֔ינוּ לְפָנֵ֖ינוּ לְפָנֵ֗ינוּ לְפָנֵֽינוּ׃ לְפָנֶ֑יהָ לְפָנֶ֑יךָ לְפָנֶ֔יהָ לְפָנֶ֔יךָ לְפָנֶ֖יךָ לְפָנֶ֗יךָ לְפָנֶ֙יךָ֙ לְפָנֶ֛יךָ לְפָנֶ֜יךָ לְפָנֶ֡יךָ לְפָנֶ֣יךָ לְפָנֶ֤יךָ לְפָנֶ֥יךָ לְפָנֶ֨יךָ לְפָנֶֽיךָ׃ לְפָנֶיךָ֒ לְפָנֶיךָ֮ לְפָנַ֔י לְפָנַ֖י לְפָנַ֗י לְפָנַ֛י לְפָנַ֜י לְפָנַ֣י לְפָנַ֥י לְפָנַ֨י ׀ לְפָנַי֒ לְפָנַי֙ לְפָנַי֮ לְפָנָ֑י לְפָנָ֑יו לְפָנָ֔י לְפָנָ֔יו לְפָנָ֖יו לְפָנָ֗יו לְפָנָ֛יו לְפָנָ֜יו לְפָנָ֣יו לְפָנָ֤יו לְפָנָ֤יו ׀ לְפָנָ֥יו לְפָנָֽי׃ לְפָנָֽיו׃ לְפָנָיו֒ לְפָנָיו֙ לִ֝פְנֵ֛י לִ֠פְנֵי לִֽפְֽנֵי־ לִֽפְנֵֽי־ לִֽפְנֵי־ לִפְנֵ֕י לִפְנֵ֖י לִפְנֵ֗י לִפְנֵ֛י לִפְנֵ֣י לִפְנֵ֣י ׀ לִפְנֵ֤י לִפְנֵ֤י ׀ לִפְנֵ֥י לִפְנֵ֧י לִפְנֵ֨י לִפְנֵֽי־ לִפְנֵי֙ לִפְנֵי֩ לִפְנֵי֮ לִפְנֵי־ לִפְנֵיהֶ֑ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֔ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֖ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֗ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֛ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֜ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֣ם לִפְנֵיהֶ֨ם לִפְנֵיהֶֽם׃ לִפְנֵיהֶם֒ לִפְנֵיהֶם֙ לִפְנֵיכֶ֑ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֔ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֖ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֗ם לִפְנֵיכֶ֜ם לִפְנֵיכֶֽם׃ לִפְנֵיכֶם֙ לִפְנָֽי׃ לַפָּנִ֑ים לפני לפני־ לפני׃ לפניה לפניהם לפניהם׃ לפניו לפניו׃ לפניך לפניך׃ לפניכם לפניכם׃ לפנים לפנים׃ לפנינו לפנינו׃ מִ֝לִּפְנֵ֗י מִ֝פְּנֵ֗י מִ֝פָּנֶ֗יךָ מִ֝פָּנָ֗יו מִ֠פְּנֵי מִ֠פְּנֵיכֶם מִ֭לְּפָנֶיךָ מִלְּפָנֵֽנוּ׃ מִלְּפָנֶ֑יךָ מִלְּפָנֶ֔יךָ מִלְּפָנֶ֖יךָ מִלְּפָנֶ֣יךָ מִלְּפָנֶֽיךָ׃ מִלְּפָנֶיךָ֮ מִלְּפָנַ֔י מִלְּפָנַ֖י מִלְּפָנַ֣י מִלְּפָנַי֙ מִלְּפָנָ֑י מִלְּפָנָ֔יו מִלְּפָנָ֖יו מִלְּפָנָ֗יו מִלְּפָנָֽי׃ מִלְּפָנָֽיו׃ מִלְּפָנָיו֙ מִלִּפְנִ֖ים מִלִּפְנֵ֖י מִלִּפְנֵ֛י מִלִּפְנֵ֣י מִלִּפְנֵ֤י מִלִּפְנֵ֥י מִלִּפְנֵ֨י מִלִּפְנֵי֙ מִלִּפְנֵי֩ מִלִּפְנֵיכֶ֑ם מִפְּנֵ֕י מִפְּנֵ֖י מִפְּנֵ֗י מִפְּנֵ֛י מִפְּנֵ֞י מִפְּנֵ֣י מִפְּנֵ֣י ׀ מִפְּנֵ֤י מִפְּנֵ֤י ׀ מִפְּנֵ֥י מִפְּנֵ֧י מִפְּנֵ֨י מִפְּנֵ֪י מִפְּנֵֽי־ מִפְּנֵי֙ מִפְּנֵי֩ מִפְּנֵי־ מִפְּנֵיהֶ֑ם מִפְּנֵיהֶ֔ם מִפְּנֵיהֶ֨ם ׀ מִפְּנֵיהֶֽם׃ מִפְּנֵיהֶם֒ מִפְּנֵיכֶ֑ם מִפְּנֵיכֶ֔ם מִפְּנֵיכֶ֖ם מִפְּנֵיכֶֽם׃ מִפְּנֵיכֶם֒ מִפָּנִ֖ים מִפָּנֵ֑ינוּ מִפָּנֵ֖ינוּ מִפָּנֵֽינוּ׃ מִפָּנֶ֑יךָ מִפָּנֶ֔יה מִפָּנֶ֔יךָ מִפָּנֶ֖יךָ מִפָּנֶ֗יךָ מִפָּנֶ֛יךָ מִפָּנֶ֡יךָ מִפָּנֶ֥יךָ מִפָּנֶֽיהָ׃ מִפָּנֶֽיךָ׃ מִפָּנַ֔י מִפָּנַ֖י מִפָּנַ֗י מִפָּנַ֡י מִפָּנַ֥י מִפָּנַי֙ מִפָּנָ֑י מִפָּנָ֑יו מִפָּנָ֔יו מִפָּנָ֖יו מִפָּנָ֛יו מִפָּנָ֣יו מִפָּנָֽיו׃ מִפָּנָיו֙ מלפני מלפני׃ מלפניו מלפניו׃ מלפניך מלפניך׃ מלפניכם מלפנים מלפננו׃ מפני מפני־ מפניה מפניה׃ מפניהם מפניהם׃ מפניו מפניו׃ מפניך מפניך׃ מפניכם מפניכם׃ מפנים מפנינו מפנינו׃ פְּ֝נֵיהֶ֗ם פְּ֝נֵיכֶ֗ם פְּ֠נֵי פְּנֵ֖י פְּנֵ֛י פְּנֵ֣י פְּנֵ֣י ׀ פְּנֵ֤י פְּנֵ֥י פְּנֵ֧י פְּנֵ֨י פְּנֵֽי־ פְּנֵי֙ פְּנֵי־ פְּנֵיהֶ֑ם פְּנֵיהֶ֔ם פְּנֵיהֶ֖ם פְּנֵיהֶ֜ם פְּנֵיהֶֽם׃ פְּנֵיהֶם֙ פְּנֵיהֶם֮ פְּנֵיכֶ֔ם פְּנֵיכֶ֖ם פְּנֵיכֶ֜ם פְּנֵיכֶ֥ם פְּנֵיכֶֽם׃ פְּנֵיכֶם֙ פְנֵ֥י פְנֵֽי־ פְנֵי־ פְנֵיהֶ֑ם פְנֵיהֶ֛ם פְנֵיהֶ֜ם פְנֵיהֶ֣ם פְנֵיהֶם֙ פְנֵיכֶֽם׃ פָ֝נִ֗ים פָ֝נֶ֗יהָ פָ֝נָ֗יו פָ֠נַי פָ֭נֶיךָ פָ֭נָיו פָּ֝נֶ֗יךָ פָּ֝נַ֗י פָּ֝נָ֗יו פָּ֠נָיו פָּ֫נֶ֥יךָ פָּ֭נִים פָּ֭נֶיךָ פָּ֭נָיו פָּנִ֑ים פָּנִ֔ים פָּנִ֖ים פָּנִ֜ים פָּנִ֣ים פָּנִ֣ים ׀ פָּנִ֥ים פָּנִֽים׃ פָּנִים֙ פָּנֵ֑ינוּ פָּנֶ֑יךָ פָּנֶ֔יהָ פָּנֶ֔יךָ פָּנֶ֖יךָ פָּנֶ֗יךָ פָּנֶ֙יהָ֙ פָּנֶ֙יךָ֙ פָּנֶ֛יךָ פָּנֶ֣יךָ פָּנֶ֥יךָ פָּנֶ֨יךָ פָּנֶ֨יךָ ׀ פָּנֶ֬יךָ פָּנֶֽיהָ׃ פָּנֶֽיךָ׃ פָּנֶיךָ֮ פָּנַ֔י פָּנַ֖י פָּנַ֖יִךְ פָּנַ֗י פָּנַ֛י פָּנַ֜י פָּנַ֣י פָּנַ֥י פָּנַ֥יִךְ פָּנַי֙ פָּנָ֑י פָּנָ֑יִךְ פָּנָ֑יו פָּנָ֔יו פָּנָ֖יו פָּנָ֗יו פָּנָ֛יו פָּנָ֣יו פָּנָ֤יו פָּנָ֥יו פָּנָ֨יו פָּנָֽ֗יַ פָּנָֽ֗יַ׃ פָּנָֽיִךְ׃ פָּנָֽי׃ פָּנָֽיו׃ פָּנָיו֙ פָּנָיו֮ פָנִ֑ים פָנִ֔ים פָנִ֖ים פָנִ֛ים פָנִ֜ים פָנִ֣ים פָנִֽים׃ פָנִים֙ פָנֵֽימוֹ׃ פָנֶ֑יךָ פָנֶ֔יהָ פָנֶ֔יךָ פָנֶ֖יךָ פָנֶ֗יךָ פָנֶ֙יךָ֙ פָנֶ֣יךָ פָנֶ֥יךָ פָנֶֽיךָ׃ פָנַ֔י פָנַ֖י פָנַ֗י פָנַ֛י פָנַ֜י פָנַ֣י פָנַ֤י פָנַ֥י פָנַי֙ פָנָ֑י פָנָ֔יו פָנָ֖יו פָנָ֗יו פָנָ֜יו פָנָ֣יו פָנָֽי׃ פָנָיו֙ פני פני־ פני׃ פניה פניה׃ פניהם פניהם׃ פניו פניו׃ פניך פניך׃ פניכם פניכם׃ פנים פנים׃ פנימו׃ פנינו bə·p̄ā·nāw bə·p̄ā·nay bə·p̄ā·ne·hā bə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā bə·p̄ā·nîm befaNai befaNav befaNeicha befaNeiha befaNim bəp̄ānāw bəp̄ānay bəp̄ānehā bəp̄āneḵā bəp̄ānîm bifNei bifneiChem bifneiHem bip̄·nê bip̄·nê·hem bip̄·nê·ḵem bip̄nê bip̄nêhem bip̄nêḵem faNai faNav faNeicha faNeiha faNeimov faNim fenei feneiChem feneiHem hă·p̄ā·nāw hafaNav hap·pā·nîm hăp̄ānāw happaNim happānîm kə·mip·pə·nê- kəmippənê- kemippenei lap·pā·nîm lappaNim lappānîm lə·p̄ā·nāw lə·p̄ā·nay lə·p̄ā·nāy lə·p̄ā·ne·hā lə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā lə·p̄ā·nê·nū lə·p̄ā·nîm lefaNai lefaNav lefaNeicha lefaNeiha lefaNeinu lefaNim ləp̄ānāw ləp̄ānay ləp̄ānāy ləp̄ānehā ləp̄āneḵā ləp̄ānênū ləp̄ānîm lifaNeicha lifNai lifNei lifneiChem lifneiHem lifneiShe lip̄·nāy lip̄·nê lip̄·nê- lip̄·nê·hem lip̄·nê·ḵem lip̄nāy lip̄nê lip̄nê- lip̄nêhem lip̄nêḵem mil·lə·p̄ā·nāw mil·lə·p̄ā·nay mil·lə·p̄ā·nāy mil·lə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā mil·lə·p̄ā·nê·nū mil·lip̄·nê mil·lip̄·nê·ḵem mil·lip̄·nîm millefaNai millefaNav millefaNeicha millefaNenu milləp̄ānāw milləp̄ānay milləp̄ānāy milləp̄āneḵā milləp̄ānênū millifNei millifneiChem millifNim millip̄nê millip̄nêḵem millip̄nîm mip·pā·nāw mip·pā·nay mip·pā·nāy mip·pā·ne·hā mip·pā·ne·ḵā mip·pā·nê·nū mip·pā·neh mip·pā·nîm mip·pə·nê mip·pə·nê- mip·pə·nê·hem mip·pə·nê·ḵem mippaNai mippaNav mippānāw mippānay mippānāy mippāneh mippānehā mippaNeicha mippaNeih mippaNeiha mippaNeinu mippāneḵā mippānênū mippaNim mippānîm mippənê mippənê- mippənêhem mippeNei mippeneiChem mippeneiHem mippeneiSha mippənêḵem pā·nā·ya pā·na·yiḵ pā·nā·yiḵ pā·nāw p̄ā·nāw pā·nay pā·nāy p̄ā·nay p̄ā·nāy pā·ne·hā p̄ā·ne·hā pā·ne·ḵā p̄ā·ne·ḵā p̄ā·nê·mōw pā·nê·nū pā·nîm p̄ā·nîm paNai paNav pānāw p̄ānāw pānay pānāy p̄ānay p̄ānāy paNaya pānāya paNayich pānayiḵ pānāyiḵ pānehā p̄ānehā paNeicha paNeiha paNeinu pāneḵā p̄āneḵā p̄ānêmōw pānênū paNim pānîm p̄ānîm pə·nê p̄ə·nê pə·nê- p̄ə·nê- pə·nê·hem p̄ə·nê·hem pə·nê·ḵem p̄ə·nê·ḵem pənê p̄ənê pənê- p̄ənê- pənêhem p̄ənêhem peNei peneiChem peneiHem pənêḵem p̄ənêḵem ū·lə·p̄ā·nāw ū·lə·p̄ā·ne·ḵā ū·mil·lə·p̄ā·nîm ū·mil·lip̄·nê ū·mip·pā·nay ū·mip·pā·ne·ḵā ū·mip·pə·nê ū·mip·pə·nê·hem ū·p̄ā·nāw ū·p̄ā·nay ū·p̄ā·ne·hā ū·p̄ā·ne·ḵā ū·p̄ā·nîm ū·p̄ə·nê ū·p̄ə·nê- ū·p̄ə·nê·hem ū·p̄î ufaNai ufaNav ufaNeicha ufaNeiha ufaNim ufeNei ufeneiHem uFi ulefaNav ulefaNeicha ūləp̄ānāw ūləp̄āneḵā umillefaNim ūmilləp̄ānîm umillifNei ūmillip̄nê umippaNai ūmippānay umippaNeicha ūmippāneḵā ūmippənê ūmippənêhem umippeNei umippeneiHem ūp̄ānāw ūp̄ānay ūp̄ānehā ūp̄āneḵā ūp̄ānîm ūp̄ənê ūp̄ənê- ūp̄ənêhem ūp̄î velifNei velifneiHem wə·lip̄·nê wə·lip̄·nê- wə·lip̄·nê·hem wəlip̄nê wəlip̄nê- wəlip̄nêhem
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