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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #2778 - חָרַף
1) to reproach, taunt, blaspheme, defy, jeopardise, rail, upbraid
1a) (Qal) to reproach
1b) (Piel) to reproach, defy, taunt
2) (Qal) to winter, spend harvest time, remain in harvest time
3) (Niphal) to acquire, be betrothed
V) prh (ההרפ HhRP) - I. Taunt:To pierce another with sharp words of reproach, scorn or taunting (see Psalm 42:10) . II. Betrothal:A nose ring is put in the piercing of the nose as a sign of betrothal (see Genesis 24:47) . KJV (41): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Piel) reproach, defy, betroth, blaspheme, jeopardise - Strongs: H2778 (חָרַף)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Imperfect לֹאיֶֿחֱרַף לְבָבִי מִיָּמָ֑י Job 27:6; Participle suffix חֹרְפִי Psalm 119:42; Proverbs 27:11; חוֺרְפֶיךָ Psalm 69:10.
Piel. Perfect חֵרֵף Judges 5:18 6t.; חֵרַפְתָּ Isaiah 37:23 4t. etc. + 10t. perfect; Imperfect יְחָרֵף 2 Samuel 21:21; 1 Chronicles 20:7; יְחָ֫רֶף Psalm 74:10 2t. suffix; Infinitive לְחָרֵף Isaiah 37:4 5t.; בְּחָֽרְפָם 2 Samuel 23:9 (but see below); Participle מְחָרֵף Psalm 44:17; — reproach, — properly say sharp things against, — taunt, with accusative Judges 8:15; 1 Samuel 17:10,25,26,36,45; 2 Samuel 21:21 1 Chronicles 20:7; God, by injustice to the poor Proverbs 14:31; Proverbs 17:5; Yahweh, by idolatry Isaiah 65:7; Yahweh as the God of Israel 2 Kings 19:4,16,22,23 = Isaiah 37:4; Isaiah 37:17; Isaiah 37:23; Isaiah 37:24 2 Chronicles 32:17 (with לְ); with בְּ, Philistines 2 Samuel 23:9 ᵑ0 (but read בְּפַס דַּמִּים at Pas-dammîm, proper name, of a location, as 1 Chronicles 11:12 We Dr); reproach, Nehemiah 6:13 + Nehemiah 42:11; Nehemiah 44:17; Nehemiah 55:13; Nehemiah 57:4; Nehemiah 74:10; Nehemiah 74:18; Nehemiah 79:12; Nehemiah 89:52 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 102:9; Zephaniah 2:8,10; in poetry and figurative, despise, scorn, נפשׁ למוּת׳ח Judges 5:18.
III. [חָרַף] verb denominative remain in harvest-time (so Arabic ; English to winter) — only
Qal Imperfect 3 feminine singular כָּלבֶּֿהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו תֶּחֱרָ֑ף Isaiah 18:6 all the beasts of the earth shall spend the harvest-time upon it.
IV. [חָרַף] verb acquire (compare Arabic turn a thing from its proper way or manner, but also gain, acquire [subsistence] for one's family) — only
Niph`al Participle f. שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ a maidservant acquired for a man (namely as his concubine) Leviticus 19:26 (H; compare Late Hebrew חֲרוּפָה of woman designated for a man).
חָרַף fut יֶחֱרַף (Job 27:6).
(1) to gather, to pluck off. (Arab. خرف. With this accord the Lat. carpo, and (with a prefixed sibilant) German fcarp, fcharf. The primary syllable רף has also in other roots the signification of plucking (rapiendi), as גָּרַף, זָרַף, טָרַף, see רָפָא ). Hence חֹרֶף, خريف the time when fruits are plucked, autumn, and from this
(2) denom. to pass the autumn (and winter), to winter, χειμάζω. Isaiah 18:6, וְבָל־בֶּהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ עָלָיו תֶּחֱרַף “and all the beasts of the field shall winter upon it,” as rightly rendered by Chald., Jerome, Luth. Opp. to קוּץ to pass the summer (from קַיִץ). The Arabic verb خرف has also many significations derived from خريف and denominative of it.
(3) figuratively, to carp at, to scorn, to reproach. Psalms 69:10, 119:42 Proverbs 27:11; Job 27:6, לֹא־יֶחֱרַף לְבָבִי מִיָמַי “my heart (my conscience) shall not reproach me as to any day of my life;” i.e. I do not repent of any day.
(1) i.e. Kal No. 3, to reproach, to scorn, 1 Samuel 17:26, 36 1 Samuel 17:36; 2 Kings 19:23; Psalms 42:11, 102:9, etc.; followed by לְ 2 Chronicles 32:17 בְּ 2 Samuel 23:9. חֶרֶף חֶרְפָּה Psalms 79:12, 89:52.
(2) followed by נֶפֶשׁ to scorn life, to count one’s life as of little worth, i.e. to expose one’s life to very great danger, especially in battle, παραβάλλεσθαι. Judges 5:18, זְבֻלוֹן עַס חֵרֵף נַפְשׁוֹ לָמוּת “Zebulun, the people despised their life (and cast it away) unto death.” The Arabs make a similar use of the verbs اهان, بذل, عرض see my Comment on Isaiah 53:12. [It is not to be thought that Isaiah 53:12, speaks of merely exposing one’s life to danger; it speaks of Him who laid down his life that he might take it again.]
Niphal, pass. of Piel No. 2, to be betrothed, speaking of a woman; prop. abandoned, i.e. given up, or delivered to a husband. Levit. 19:20, “a maidservant נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ who is betrothed to a husband.” So in the Talmud חֲרוּפָה is i.q. אֲרוּסָה espoused. There is a similar use made of the Arabic verbs بذل, رخص properly to esteem lightly, and then to deliver a wife to a husband; see Schultensii Opp. Min., p. 145, seq.
The derived nouns follow, with the exception of חָרִיף.