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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #412 - אֵל
1104) le (הל HL) AC: Shine CO: Star AB: Distant: The pictograph e is a picture of a man with his arms raised looking at a great sight. The l is a shepherd staff representing the idea of "toward" as the staff is used to move a sheep toward a direction. Combined these letters mean "a looking toward something" such as the looking toward a light in the distance. The stars have always been used to guide the traveler or shepherd to find his home or destination.
Nm) le (הל HL) - I. These:Designating a group that is with the speaker. In the sense of looking toward a sight. [Hebrew and Aramaic; The short form " e " is used as a prefix meaning "look" and translated as "the".] [df: la hla]II. Toward:A moving to or toward something to be with it as the ox moves toward a destination. [df: la] KJV (69): these, those, this, thus, who, so, such, some, same, other, which, another, whom, they, them - Strongs: H411 (אֵל), H412 (אֵל), H413 (אֶל), H428 (אֵלֶּה), H429 (אֵלֶּה)
V) lle (הלל HLL) - Shine: To shine through ones actions or words. KJV (165): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Pual, Piel, Participle) praise, glory, boast, mad, shine, foolish, commended, rage, celebrate - Strongs: H1984 (הָלַל)
gm) lefa (אוהל AWHL) - Tent: The shining light of the campfire next to the tent in the distance is a guide for those returning home late just as a star is used as a guide. KJV (345): tabernacle, tent, dwelling - Strongs: H168 (אֹהֶל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
(1) prop. part. of the verb אוּל, אִיל No. 2, strong, mighty, a mighty one, a hero (comp.note), comp. אֵיל No. 1. In sing. Ezekiel 31:11, אֵל גּוֹיִם “the mighty one of the nations,” used of Nebuchadnezzar. LXX. ἄρχων ἐθνῶν. (Many copies have איל נוים, for instance, those of Babylon.) Isaiah 9:5, אֵל גִּבּוֹר “mighty hero” [prop. mighty God, see No. 3], of the Messiah; ibid. 10:21, of God. [The same person is clearly meant in both places, even “God with us.”] Nearly connected with this is the phrase in plur. Ezekiel 32:21, אֵלֵי נִבּוֹרִים (23 copies אילי) prop. “the strong among the mighty,” i.e. the mightiest heroes; comp. Lehrg. p. 678. Job 41:17, אֵלִים, where many MSS. and editions ·אֵילִים
(2) might, strength [“compare אֲבִיאֵל”], prop. that which is strong. So in the phrase יֵשׁ לִאֵל יָדִי “it is in the power of my hand.” Genesis 31:29, יֵשׁ לְאֵל יָדִי לַעֲשׂוֹת עִמָּבֶם רָעָה; Proverbs 3:27; Micah 2:1 and negatively, Deuteronomy 28:32, אֵיז לְאֵל יָדֶךָ “there is nothing in the power of thy hand,” i.e. thou canst avail nothing; Nehemiah 5:5. Lamed in this phrase marks state or condition. The nature of this phrase has been but little understood by those who would here render אֵל by God, and give the whole phrase: “my hand is for God;” comparing Job 12:6; Habakkuk 1:11 and Virg. Æn. x. 773, Dextra mihi Deus, etc. These passages are indeed connected amongst themselves, but have nothing to do with the one before us. See under אֱלוֹהַּ.
(3) God. More accurately to illustrate the usage of the synonymous Hebrew names of God, as אֱלֹהִים, אֵל, יְהֹוָה, יָהּ, I make the following remarks on the use of this word.
(a) In prose it is scarcely ever applied to God κατʼ ἐξοχὴν, without some adjunct or attribute, אֵל עֶלְיוֹן, אֵל שַׁדַּי, אֵל קַנָּא, אֵל תַי; or without some cognomen, אֵל אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל Genesis 33:20 הָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ Genesis 46:3 יְהֹוָה אֵל אֱלֹהִים Joshua 22:22; Psalms 50:1, which is rightly rendered “Jehovah, God of gods.” Comp. Daniel 11:36, אֵל אֵלִים; or without the addition of a genitive of place or person, “whose tutelar deity God is” [This is heathenish; rather, whose God, God really is], אֵל בֵּית־אֵל Genesis 31:13.
(b) This word is much more frequent in poetic language, where it stands very often without any adjunct, sometimes with the art. הָאֵל Psalms 18:31, 33 Psalms 18:33, 48 Psalms 18:48, 68:21 Job 8:3.
(c) It takes the suffix of the first person, אֵלִי “my God!” Psalms 18:3, 22:2, 11 Psalms 22:11. It never occurs with other suffixes, and for “thy God,” “his God,” are used אֱלֹהֶיךָ, ·אֱלֹהָיו
(d) It is a general name of gods, and it is used of idols also, both without adjunct, Isaiah 44:10, 15 Isaiah 44:15 and with an epithet, as אֵל אַחֵר “another god,” Exodus 34:14 אֵל זָר “a strange god,” Psalms 81:10.
Whatever are most excellent, surpassing in their kind, are said to be of God; as it was customary for men anciently to refer whatever is excellent to the gods themselves [to God himself]; hence אַרְזֵי אֵל Psalms 80:11, “cedars of God,” i.e. the highest, planted as it were by God (compare עֲצֵי יְהֹוָה Psalms 104:16, גַּן יְהֹוָה Genesis 13:10); הַרְרֵי אֵל “mountains of God,” Psalms 36:7. Compare ἃλς δῖα, δῖα Λακεδαίυμων.
(1) heroes, mighty ones, see sing. No. 1.
(2) gods, in a wider sense; used of Jehovah and the gods of the nations, Exodus 15:11. Comp. Exodus 18:11; Daniel 11:36, אֵל אֵלִים “the God of gods,” i.e. the supreme God. בְּנֵי אֵלִים Psalms 29:1, 89:7, “sons of gods,” by an idiom of the Hebrew and Syriac syntax, poet. for “sons of Gods,” i.e. angels.
Note. Following most etymologists, I have above derived אֵל from the root אוּל; but to give my opinion more exactly, it appears rather to be a primitive word, the etymology being however adapted to the root אוּל; so that to Hebrews this word would present the notion of strength and power. However this may be, it should be observed that in the Phœnicio-Shemitic languages
(1) from the form אֵל (Arabic إِيلُ, إِلُ & إِلُّ), as from a stock, are formed several other derivative words, as אָלָה to invoke God, especially in swearing; אָלַהּ, أَلَهَ to worship God; and אֶלוֹהַּ, אֱלָהּ, إِلاهُ God (compare ܐܰܒܰܗ to be a father, ܐܒܗ̈ܬܐ fathers, from ܐܰܒ).
(2) besides אֵל, which follows the analogy of verbs עו֞, two other forms are of frequent occurrence, according to the analogy of verbs לה֞, which are used in pr.n. אֶל, אֱלִי, compare אֶלְיָקִים, אֶלְיָשִׁיב, אֱלִימֶלֶךְ, etc. [“Among the Phœnicians Ἢλ, Ἴλος, was used κατʼ ἐξοχήν of Saturn; see Monum. Phœnic. p. 406.”]
II. אֵל pron. pl. i.q. אֵלֶּה these, only found in the Pentateuch and 1 Chronicles 20:8. Cognate is the form of the article הַל, أَلْ.
III. אֵל only const. אֶל (almost always followed by Makkeph), more rarely and poet. in pl. const. אֱלֵי Job 3:22, 5:26 15:22 29:19 (comp. Arab. إِلَى), with suff. pl. אֵלַי, אֵלֶיךָ, אֵלָיו, אֵלֶינוּ, אֲלֵיבֶם, אֲלֵיהֶם and אֲלֵהֶם, once אֵלֵיהֶם Ezekiel 31:14, poet. אֵלֵימוֹ Psalms 2:5 prop. a noun indicative of motion, direction to any place. It is by the usage of the language
(A) Prep., signifying in general, to tend to anything, to verge to or towards any place, whether it be reached and even entered or not, whether it be by motion or turning and direction of the body or of the mind, turning to anything in thought; Lat. ad, versus, adversus, in; Germ. zu, gen, mach (etwas) hin; Gr. πρός, εἰς, to, into, towards. (As to its difference from לְ, which is shortened from this word, see below, under that part.) Specially then it is used
(1) of motion to a place; to, towards. It is joined to verbs of going (הָלַךְ, בּוֹא, שׁוּב Genesis 8:9 יָרַד 2 Kings 1:15 עָלָה Deuteronomy 17:8 רוּץ Genesis 24:29 קָרַב Exodus 14:20), of putting, placing, and casting, 1 Samuel 6:11; Leviticus 1:16; Joshua 5:14 also of giving, Exodus 25:16, 21 Exodus 25:21 of selling, Joel 4:8 and the like (where, in German as in Latin, a dative is used. In French and English the particle à, to). Sometimes the construction is pregnant, as זָנָה אֶל to commit whoredom, (by going) unto, Numbers 25:1; Ezekiel 16:29 דָּרַשׁ אֶלֹ to seek an oracle (by turning) to any one, Isaiah 8:19. Opp. is מִן, as מִן־הַקָּצֶה אֶל־הַקָּצֶה “from end to end,” Exodus 26:28 מִפֶּה אֶל־פֶּה Ezra 9:11. Used of time, מִיוֹם אֶל־יוֹם Numbers 30:15; 1 Chronicles 9:25.
(2) used of turning or direction to anything.
(a) of the body, as after a verb of turning, Isaiah 38:2 looking, Genesis 4:4, Exodus 3:6 speaking to, Exodus 19:9 commanding, Numbers 36:13.
(b) of the mind, as after a verb of desiring, Lamentations 4:17 of expecting, Hosea 12:7 being accustomed, Jeremiah 10:2.
(3) when either the motion or turning is hostile; adversus, contra (as εἰς, πρός, more often ἐπί), against. Genesis 4:8, וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל הֶבֶל אָחִיו “and Cain rose up against Abel his brother;” Isaiah 3:8, לְשׁוֹנָם וּמַעַלְלֵיהֶם אֶל יי׳ “their tongue and their deeds were against Jehovah;” Isaiah 2:4; Joshua 10:6; Judges 12:3, 20:30. Whence after a verb of fighting, Hosea 12:5. Especially here belongs the phrase, הִנְנִי אֲלֵיכֶם “behold, I am against you” (Targ. “behold, I send mine anger against you”); Ezekiel 13:8, 21:8 34:10 Jeremiah 50:31, 51:25 Nah. 2:14 which is also rarely used in a good sense, Ezekiel 36:9. And so the part. אֶל is also in other places used in a good sense for erga, towards, 2 Chronicles 16:9, לְבָבָם שָׁלֵם אֵלָיו “their heart was perfect towards him;” 2 Samuel 3:8. Compare Exodus 14:5. It is used
(4) when one reaches a terminus or mark; usque ad, even to, i.q. עַד. Jeremiah 51:9, “her judgment has reached אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם.” אֶל־פִּיהוִּ “even to his mouth,” Job 40:23 Metaph. Hosea 9:1, “rejoice not, O Israel, אֶל־גִּיל even to exultation;” Job 3:22. (To these examples it will not be amiss to add the remark of the Arabian grammarians, that ااى includes an object which is of the same kind, and excludes what is of a different kind, see Cent. reg. page 44, 45.) Here also belongs
(a) its use in denoting measure, as אֶל־אַמָּה Genesis 6:16, “even to the length of a cubit,” bis zur Länge einer Elle, eine Elle lang (not as it is generally explained, to the standard of a cubit), comp. Gr. εἰς ἐνιαυτόν, bis zur Vollendung eines Iahres, ein Iahr lang, εἰς τρίτην ἡμέραν, Bast, ep. crit. page 12, 13; Schaef. ell. page 108.
(b) Compos. אֶל־מִן even out of. Job 5:5, וְאֶל מִצִּנּים יִקָּחֶנּוּ “and even out of thorns (i.e. thorn hedges enclosing fields) he taketh it.” Compare the similar use of the part. לְ Deuteronomy 24:5, and עד Judges 4:16. (In Arabic we might compare لَمِنْ Koran, xxvi. 41, prop. even out of. Indeed لَ seems to have arisen from this signification of the particle before us.)
(5) when the limit is entered into; in, εἰς, in (etwas) hinein; Engl. into, i.q. the more full, אֶל־תּוֹךְ. Deuteronomy 23:25, אֶל־בֶּלְיְךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן “thou shalt not put (grapes) into thy vessel.” בּוֹא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה “enter into the ark,” Genesis 6:18, 7:1 8:9. אֶל־הַבַּיִת “into the house,” Genesis 19:3; 2 Samuel 5:8. אֶל־הַיָם “(to cast) into the sea,” Jonah 1:5. אֶל־הָאָרֶץ “into the earth,” Deuteronomy 11:29. When used of a number or multitude, into which one enters, i.q. inter (with acc.), among; it may be expressed more explicitly, אֶל־בֵּין. Jeremiah 4:3, “sow not אֶל־קוֹצִים amongst thorns;” 1 Samuel 10:22, “behold, he had hid himself אֶל־הַבֵּלִים amongst the baggage.”
(6) as seen above (No.1), אֶל is a particle of giving; so also is it used in adding, superadding (comp. הוֹסִיף אֶל 1 Kings 10:7); hinzu, prœter, una cum, besides, together with (comp. Gr. ἐπὶ τοῖσι, besides these; and Arab. ااى for مع Koran iv. 2; Cent. reg. page 43). Leviticus 18:18, “nor shalt thou take a wife (אל־אֲחוֹתָהּ) unto her sister.” Lamentations 3:41, נִשָּׂא לְבָבֵנוּ אֶל־כַּפַּיִם אֶל־אֵל “let us lift up our hearts with our hands to God” (LXX. ἐπὶ χειρῶν; Arab. مع). After a verb of joining together, Daniel 11:23. More often in this sense use is made of the particle עַל. Metaphorically
(7) of regarding anything, having respect or regard to anything; hence
(a) as to, in respect to, Exodus 14:5 (compare Gr. εἰς μὲν ταῦτα); because of, propter. Ezekiel 44:7, אֶל־בָּל־תּוֹעֲבוֹתֵיכֶם “because of all your abominations.” (Comp. verse Ezekiel 44:6, where in the same context there is מִן; and verse 11 Ezekiel 44:11, where is בְּ.) 2 Samuel 21:1; 1 Kings 14:5, 21:22. So בָּכָה אֶל to weep on account of. 2 Samuel 1:24, שָׂהַק אֶל, הִנָּתֵם אֶל Judges 21:6.
(b) de, concerning, after verbs of speaking, narrating, telling, as אָמַר Genesis 20:2 דִּבֶּר Jeremiah 40:16 סִפֵּר Psalms 69:27 (inasmuch as the discourse relates to something); also of hearing, Ezekiel 19:4 שְׁמוּעָה אֶל a report concerning anything, 1 Samuel 4:19. (Compare in N. T. εἰς, Acts 2:25; Ephesians 5:32.) See also 1 Samuel 1:27, אֶל־הַנַּעַד הַוֶּה הִתְפַּלַּלְתִּי “concerning this child I prayed,” um diefen Knaben habe ich gebeten; where אֶל indicates the object or end of the discourse (den Zweck).
(8) Metaph. it is also as expressive of rule or standard; secundum, according to. אֶל פִּי “according to the command,” Joshua 15:13, 17:4. אֶל־נָכוֹן “according to the certainty,” für gewiß, 1 Samuel 26:4. אֶל־הנְּתִילוֹת “according to the pipes,” Psalms 5:1, 80:1. And so after the verbs of likeness, as דָּמָה, נִמְשַׁל, which see.
(9) when prefixed to prepositions which denote rest in a place, it gives them the signification of motion or direction to or towards a place, as מִחוּץ לְ without (außerhalb, draußen vor), out of doors; אֶל מִחוּץ לְ to without, forth without (hinaus vor), Leviticus 4:12 compare foris and foras; בֵּין between; אֶל בֵּין in between (zwifchen hinein), Ezekiel 10:2, 31:10. Comp. אֶל אַתֲרֵי, אֶל־מִבֵּית, אֶל מִנֶּנֶב לְ Joshua 15:3 אֶל נֹבַת, אֶל־תַּחַת.
(B) More rarely, and by a kind of negligence of speech (although used in a good many most certain examples), it is used of remaining at, or in a place, to which one tends (comp. לְ let. B), as the Gr. εἰς, ἐς for ἐν, ἐς δόμους μένειν, Soph. Aj. 80; οἴκαδε μένειν (see Passow Lex. No. 6; Bernhardy Synt. Ling. Gr. page 215, 216); Germ. zu Haufe, zu Leipzig, zu ber Zeit, and in some parts, bis Montag (for Monday itself), (as vice versâ part. מִן used of quiet tarrying at a place. See No. 3). Winer, who has used in this argument more skill than learning (Lex. page 60), may see whether all these are void of sense; he could hardly deny that these idioms of languages really exist. One thing is true, that the signification of motion is not wholly lost in this class of significations, namely, that which had preceded. Specially then it is
(1) ad for apud, at, by, near; Germ. an. אֶל־הַשֻּׁלְתָן יָשַׁב “to sit at the table,” zu Tifche, fißen, 1 Kings 13:20 (comp. ἐς θρόνους ἔζοντο, Od. iv. 51). Jeremiah 41:12, וַיִּמְצְאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מַיִם רַבִּים “and they found him at the great waters, which were near Gibeon.” 1 Samuel 17:3, “the Philistines stood אֶל־הָהָר מִוֶּה by a mountain (am Berge) on this side.” In the same sense there might be said מִן־הָהָר, see מִן No. 3. אֶל־נִּבְעָה am Hügel, “at the hill,” Joshua 5:3. Ezekiel 7:18, אֶל־בָּל־פָּנִים בּוֹשָׁה a uf allen Gefichtern Schaamröthe, “blushing shall be on all faces,” a little after בְּבָל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם. (We must not refer to this, Genesis 24:11, וַיַּבְרֵךְ הַגְּמַלִּים … אֶל־בְּאֵר מַיִם where Winer inaccurately renders, “he gave to drink at the well of water;” it should be rendered, “he made to kneel down at”-er ließ fie hinknieen an das Waffer.)
(2) in, among, as in Sophocles, ἐς δόμους μένειν. Deuteronomy 16:6 כִּי אִם־אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם … שָׁם תִּזְבַּת אֶת־הַפֶּסַח “but in that place which Jehovah thy God chooseth, there shalt thou sacrifice the passover” (Sam. cod. במקום). 1 Kings 8:30, וְאַתָּה תִּשְׁמַע אֶל־מְקוֹם שִׁבְתְּךָ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם “and hear thou in the place of thy habitation in heaven.” (Here, by a slight change, it might be, “let our prayers go up into heaven;” but as the words now are, אֶל actually follows a verb of rest.) Genesis 6:6, וַיּחְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ “and he was grieved in his heart,” er empfand Schmerz in feinem Herzen (not as taken by Winer, es fchmerzte ihn in die Seele hinein, for הִחְעַצֵּב as being intransitive, does not admit the idea of entering into the mind). Here belongs
(3) אֶל as sometimes put before particles, implying rest in a place, without change of sense (different from above, A, 9). 1 Samuel 21:5, אֵין לֶחֶם חֹל אֶל־תַּתַח יָדִי “there is no common bread under my hand” (prop. a solecism, as the expression of the people of Berlin, unter meine Hand); also אֶלּ־מוּלּ for מוּלּ, which see.
Note. It is a mistake to attribute to this particle some other significations which are altogether foreign to its true sense, as with, in Numbers 25:1; Joshua 11:18 (see however above, A 6); through, in Jeremiah 33:4, etc.
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